Rethinking Public-Private Partnerships
(Greve, Hodge - editors)

Book launch
Copenhagen
30 April 2013
Carsten Greve
Profes...
Overview: A PPP project

Source: OECD. 2008. Public-Private Partnerships. In Pursuit of Risk
Sharing and Value for Money. ...
1

HOW WAS THE BOOK MADE?
Selected papers from IRSPM conferences: Panel on PPP
(International Research Society for Public Management) + a few reques...
PPP panel at IRSPM in
Copenhagen back in ‘09

The editors
Publication process

2011:
Mail to authors:
all said yes

2012:
All chapters
submitted

2013:
Publication of
edited volume
Rethinking PPPs
The global
financial crisis
and PPPs

Assessing PPP
projects and
performances

Strategies for
turbulent ti...
PPPs: Varieties, forms & levels
A: Single project/activity
B: Type of delivery mechanism
C: Policy
D: Governance style/too...
2

WHY IS PPP STILL TOPICAL?
HM Treasury 2012 p. 16
The new “PF2” approach in the UK (report December 2012)
“A new approach to public private partnerships’ sets out the Gover...
Recent OECD policy guidelines for PPP (2012)
“Establish a clear,
legitimate and predictable
framework supported by
compete...
3

TURBULENT TIMES
The European PPP market:
Source: European Investment Bank – presentation to OECD conference 2013
Connoly & Wall – chapter 2 –
on the impact of the GFC on PPP from a UK perspective
Significant improvements are required i...
Connoly & Wall – chapter 2
on the impact of the GFC on PPP from a UK perspective
Since the change of government in 2010
is...
Hellowell & Vecchi chapter 3
on the price of equity capital in PPPs
Institutional investors in the UK will not
enter the p...
Eoin Reeves – chapter 4 on the Irish PPP experience
Clear challenges in terms of improving
transparency and the extent of
...
3

STRATEGIES FOR TURBULENT
TIMES
Innovation and dynamic processes in PPPs
Innovation and PPPs : Tamyko Ysa, Marc Esteve and
Francisco Longo - Spain
The non...
Anna Amirkhanyan & Sarah Pettijohn,
American University, Washington DC. – Chapter 6
“Furthermore, in the search for the
be...
Anna Amirkhanyan & Sarah Pettijohn,
American University, Washington DC – Chapter 6
“One promising direction for the future...
Rob Alexander, James Madison University, USA – Chapter 8
“”Awareness and management of the
broader actor network matters
p...
An improved PPP model? Can a theory-based approach help?
Beyond the Contract:
A theory-based
evaluation of PPP
performance...
12 composite partnership principles (Jeffares, Sullivan,
Bovaird) – Chapter 9
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Purpose is clear...
4

CONCLUDING REMARKS
RETHINKING PPP
Trends in PPPs
From bank finance
to mixed finance
and finance from
other sources

From Europe to
Asia and possibly
North A...
Further questions

Risk sharing:
Who takes
on the risks?

Financing:
Where is it
going to
come from?

Governance:
Have
gov...
Rethinking Public-Private Partnerships. Strategies for Turbulent Times.
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Rethinking Public-Private Partnerships. Strategies for Turbulent Times.

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Public-Private Partnerships have become popular with governments in a way to collaborate with the private sector. The global financial crisis challenged PPPs. The slides summarizes arguments from a 2013-book on Rethinking Public-Private Partnerships.

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Rethinking Public-Private Partnerships. Strategies for Turbulent Times.

  1. 1. Rethinking Public-Private Partnerships (Greve, Hodge - editors) Book launch Copenhagen 30 April 2013 Carsten Greve Professor, Ph.D. cg.dbp@cbs.dk With introduction by Susana Borrás, Head of Department, DBP and comments from Professor Grahame Thompson, DBP
  2. 2. Overview: A PPP project Source: OECD. 2008. Public-Private Partnerships. In Pursuit of Risk Sharing and Value for Money. Paris: OECD. p. 41.
  3. 3. 1 HOW WAS THE BOOK MADE?
  4. 4. Selected papers from IRSPM conferences: Panel on PPP (International Research Society for Public Management) + a few requested papers Copenhagen Bern Dublin Rome
  5. 5. PPP panel at IRSPM in Copenhagen back in ‘09 The editors
  6. 6. Publication process 2011: Mail to authors: all said yes 2012: All chapters submitted 2013: Publication of edited volume
  7. 7. Rethinking PPPs The global financial crisis and PPPs Assessing PPP projects and performances Strategies for turbulent times
  8. 8. PPPs: Varieties, forms & levels A: Single project/activity B: Type of delivery mechanism C: Policy D: Governance style/tool/symbol E: Cultural/historical tradition
  9. 9. 2 WHY IS PPP STILL TOPICAL?
  10. 10. HM Treasury 2012 p. 16
  11. 11. The new “PF2” approach in the UK (report December 2012) “A new approach to public private partnerships’ sets out the Government’s approach to involving private finance in the delivery of public infrastructure and services through a long-term contractual arrangement. PF2 will; • Strengthen significantly the partnership between the public and private sector by Government looking to act as a minority public equity co-investor in PF2 projects; • • • • Ensure that procurement is much faster and cheaper Improve the flexibility of services introducing periodic reviews of service provision. Transform the approach taken to transparency Improve the value for money of risk allocation in the contract Widen sources of debt and equity finance by; Deliver value for money by developing and consulting on guidance which will replace the existing Value for Money Assessment Guidance”
  12. 12. Recent OECD policy guidelines for PPP (2012) “Establish a clear, legitimate and predictable framework supported by competent and wellresourced authorities Ground the selection of PPPs in value for money Use the budgetary process transparently to minimize fiscal risks and ensure the integrity of the procurement process”
  13. 13. 3 TURBULENT TIMES
  14. 14. The European PPP market: Source: European Investment Bank – presentation to OECD conference 2013
  15. 15. Connoly & Wall – chapter 2 – on the impact of the GFC on PPP from a UK perspective Significant improvements are required in the economic circumstances, together with a greater availability of finance, before PPPs will become as substantial as they were prior to the GFC. Whilst large amounts of money are still being raised for PPPs, the totals remain considerably lower than they were before the crisis. A return to what may be termed as normal lending conditions may not be enough to resurrect PPPs as a major means of improving the UK’s infrastructure. There should be no presumption that continuing the use of private finance at current rates will achieve VFM (NAO, 2010)
  16. 16. Connoly & Wall – chapter 2 on the impact of the GFC on PPP from a UK perspective Since the change of government in 2010 is that there is a much greater emphasis on what is appealingly referred to as ‘efficiency savings’ on projects; The financial sector continues to have a dominant position in the UK economy and thus the role of private finance in infrastructure development is unlikely to disappear. A shift from bank lending to more marketbased solutions such as pension and wealth funds and investment from insurance companies.
  17. 17. Hellowell & Vecchi chapter 3 on the price of equity capital in PPPs Institutional investors in the UK will not enter the project finance market unless contracts are modified so as to reduce the risk borne by creditors. In future contracts, risk will need to be reallocated from debt-holders to one or both of the other main counterparties: the public authorities and/ or the equity investors.
  18. 18. Eoin Reeves – chapter 4 on the Irish PPP experience Clear challenges in terms of improving transparency and the extent of information concerning individual contracts that is released to the public and the timing of any such releases. When considering the need for confidentiality on commercial grounds however, policy makers must recognize that large amounts of public funds are committed to PPPs. The reach of PPP is extending more and more into sectors that are sensitive in terms of the nature of services involved (e.g. education, health, water and environmental services).
  19. 19. 3 STRATEGIES FOR TURBULENT TIMES
  20. 20. Innovation and dynamic processes in PPPs Innovation and PPPs : Tamyko Ysa, Marc Esteve and Francisco Longo - Spain The non-profit perspective on PPPs: Anna Amirkhanyan and Sarah Pettijohn - USA A Foucault perspective on PPP mega projects: Sophie Sturup - Australia Public management of PPP urban redevelopment projects in US cities: Rob Alexander - USA
  21. 21. Anna Amirkhanyan & Sarah Pettijohn, American University, Washington DC. – Chapter 6 “Furthermore, in the search for the best approaches to PPPs, we are likely to come to the usual “it depends” conclusion: different institutional contexts, contingencies, and service areas introduce complexities that need to be accounted for in the analysis and understood by the practitioners.”
  22. 22. Anna Amirkhanyan & Sarah Pettijohn, American University, Washington DC – Chapter 6 “One promising direction for the future research on PPPs may involve understanding their diversity and creating typologies that facilitate the future theory building efforts. Specifically, while much attention has been paid to various service delivery partnerships, some cross-sector partnerships may be focused on advocacy or regulation. Currently, a large number of nonprofit organizations are involved in advocacy and some form of “shared governance” .They pressure public agencies to satisfy urgent social needs or create collaborative alliances to address those needs”
  23. 23. Rob Alexander, James Madison University, USA – Chapter 8 “”Awareness and management of the broader actor network matters particularly if project success includes measures of satisfaction with project processes. Such measures become more relevant when researchers examine PPP projects in the broader social context of agency relationships over time. Under the appropriate organizational capacity and market stability conditions, public managers that employ trust-based network management strategies not only achieve desired project outcomes, they also generate positive relationships that extend into the next project, impacting overall perceptions of success.”
  24. 24. An improved PPP model? Can a theory-based approach help? Beyond the Contract: A theory-based evaluation of PPP performance(s): Jeffares, Sullivan & Bovaird – UK/Australia A theory of the dynamics of complexity and control in PPPs: Verhoest, Voets and Van Gestel - Belgium
  25. 25. 12 composite partnership principles (Jeffares, Sullivan, Bovaird) – Chapter 9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Purpose is clear, aligned and realistic Availability of appropriate financial and human resources Clarity of motivations, roles, capabilities and contributions Sufficient organisational processes and procedures that foster collaboration Alignment of partners and policies Commitment, ownership and responsibility of partners towards the partnership Partnership is participative and empowering Culture of collaboration trust and openness Presence (and awareness) of cultural transformation, synergy, efficiencies or exchange 10. Defines success monitors and reports its performance 11. Partnership is continually engaging with others, developing and learning 12. Clear attribution of benefits, risks and blame
  26. 26. 4 CONCLUDING REMARKS RETHINKING PPP
  27. 27. Trends in PPPs From bank finance to mixed finance and finance from other sources From Europe to Asia and possibly North America From primary deals to secondary market and M&A
  28. 28. Further questions Risk sharing: Who takes on the risks? Financing: Where is it going to come from? Governance: Have governments learned how to govern more efficiently? Policy: How do governments create a robust PPP policy framework?

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