Chapter 16 using language to stlye the speech[1]


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O’ Hair, Dan, Stewart, Rob, Rubenstein, Hannah, A Speaker’s Guidebook, Bedford St. Martin (2009)

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Chapter 16 using language to stlye the speech[1]

  1. 1. Chapter 16 <ul><li>Using Language to Style the Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Tonya Evans </li></ul>
  2. 2. Steps in the Speechmaking Process 10. Practice Delivering the Speech 9. Consider Presentation Aids 8. Outline the Speech 7. Separate Speech Into Major Parts 6. Gather Supporting Material 5. Develop Main Points 4. Compose Thesis Statement 3. Determine Speech Purpose 2. Analyze the Audience 1. Select a Topic
  3. 3. Language allows the audience to visualize an image or imagine a scene. Language allows the audience to visualize an image or imagine a scene.
  4. 4. 1. Strive for Simplicity <ul><li>Avoid using jargon of a specialized profession. </li></ul><ul><li>When choosing between two synonyms, choose the simpler word. </li></ul><ul><li>When using unfamiliar terms, define it as you’re speaking. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Aim for Conciseness <ul><li>I am very happy to be here </li></ul>I would like to tell you that I am very happy to be here VS
  6. 6. 3. Frequent Use of Repetition/Transitions <ul><li>Transition words and phrases help the audience follow your line of reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Enumeration is a type of signpost that numbers the points, steps, or subsequent ideas. </li></ul>1. FACT a. Supporting b. Supporting 2. FACT a. Supporting b. Supporting 3. FACT
  7. 7. REPETITION <ul><li>Repeating important ideas infuses your speech with rhythm. </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition aids in retention. Listeners retain information that they receive more than once. </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphora is when a speaker repeats a word or phrase at the beginning of successive sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeating same sounds, usually hard consonants, in words or syllables in the same sentence is called alliteration . </li></ul>
  8. 8. 4. Use Personal Pronouns <ul><li>Make specific reference to yourself and the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Use We, Us, I , and You </li></ul>
  9. 9. Choose Language that Encourages Shared Meaning
  10. 10. Use Culturally Sensitive/Unbiased Language <ul><li>Biased language : Speakers should avoid negative references to age, race, or religious beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Some speakers use sexist pronouns by using the “he” pronoun inappropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful in how you refer to persons with disabilities (PWD) ; </li></ul>
  11. 11. Choose Concrete Words <ul><li>Concrete language is specific, tangible, and definite. Listeners will try to think of a concrete word to replace abstract terms that speakers use. </li></ul><ul><li>Use colloquial expressions of your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Select words that are descriptive. </li></ul>Overused Abstractions: Old; thing; bad; big; a lot; long; short; new; good; late
  12. 12. Offer Vivid Imagery <ul><li>Select words that are colorful and concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to the senses </li></ul><ul><li>Use Figures of Speech (Table 16.1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogies, Metaphors, and Similes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understatement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperbole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onomatopoeia </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Metaphoric “Bad Check” <ul><li> </li></ul>
  14. 14. Language that Creates a Lasting Impression <ul><li>Use repetition for rhythm and reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Use alliteration for a poetic quality </li></ul><ul><li>Use parallelism to drive home your points </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 15. Other Figures of Speech <ul><li>Irony uses humor, satire, or sarcasm to suggest a meaning other than what is actually being suggested. </li></ul><ul><li>An understatement draws attention to an idea by minimizing its importance. A hyperbole makes an obvious exaggeration to make a point. </li></ul><ul><li>Making a vague or indirect reference to people, historical events, or concepts, known as an allusion . </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers often make use of three parallel elements or triads . </li></ul><ul><li>“… of the people, by the people, and for the people…” Abraham Lincoln </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bibliography <ul><li>O’ Hair, Dan, Stewart, Rob, Rubenstein, Hannah, A Speaker’s Guidebook , Bedford St. Martin (2009) </li></ul>