Opening and Conclusionsthe first word of your paper may be the most important. Youropening must engage your readers, introduce your topic andyour thesis or main idea, and provide an idea of what youintend to say.your conclusion is equally important because what it sayswill linger in the reader´s mind. Here you tie togethereverything you have covered into a tidy package. withoutstrong opening and conclusions. Your ideas can be lost.
Whenever you are ready to work on your opening and conclusions, consider the following strategies:• Engaging opening:• You want to catch the reader´s interest, but how much space can you afford to spend doing so? In an essay of two or three pages, one paragraph is the standard length for a opening in most college writing. In longer papers, you may want to use two paragraph, the first paragraph for an attention-grabbing quotation, anecdote, or fact and the second for commenting on it and introducing your thesis.
Several techniques can make opening more engagingGeneral to specific pattern: many opening paragraph in college papers start with a broad general statement, narrow the focus, and en by stating the thesis.e.g. Anxiety, stress and tension exist in us all. At worst, too much stress can cost us our lives. At the very least , it jeopardizes our health. The most effective way to control stress and live more comfortable lives is to use techniques for relaxation.
striking assertion: You may want to open with statement so improbable, eye-opening, or far-reaching that the reader will demand to see proof. After grabbing his reader´s attention, this writer directly state his thesis.e.g. John Milton was a failure. In writing paradise lost , his stated aim was to “justify the ways of God to men”. Inevitably. He fell short of accomplishing that and only wrote a monumental poem. Beethoven. Whose music was conceived to transcend fate. Was a failure, as was Socrates, whose ambition was to make people happy by making them reasonable and just. The inescapable conclusion seems to be that the surest. Noblest way to fail is to set one´s own standards titanically high.
• Anecdote :• Try telling a brief story about someone or something that introduces the topic and illustrates the thesis.• E.g. Once I met a woman who grew up in the small North Carolina town to which chang and eng, the original Siamese twins, retired after their circus careers. When I asked her how the town reacted to the twins marrying local girls and setting up adjacent household, she laughed and said: “honey, that was nothing compared to what happened before the twins got there. “ Get the good gossip on any little mountain town, scratch the surface and you´ll find a snake pit !
Stronger opening• Be direct• Sharpen your focus• Emphasize the main idea
Interesting detail, statitistic, or quotation: With this technique, you plunge your readers into an unfamiliar situation to pique their curiosity.e.g. “Mrs. Tolstoy is your basic L.O.L. in N.A.D; admitted for a soft rule-out M.I.,” the intern announces, I scribble that on my patient list. In other words, Mrs., Tolstoy is a little old lady in No Apparent Distress who is in the hospital to make sure she hasn´t had a heart attack ( rule out a myocardial infarction). And we think it´s unlikely that she has a heart attack( a soft rule-out ).If a had learned nothing else during my first three month of working in the hospital as a medical student. I learned endless jargon and abbreviations. Perry klass.
• Satisfying conclusion: An effective conclusion leaves satisfied with the discussion and gives them something to think about. In also remind readers of your main idea or thesis. You can develop a statement or restatement of the main idea in one of several ways.( if you have not yet explicitly stated your main idea, do so now)Reotherical question: a rhetorical question is asked only for effect, it is meant not to be answered but to persuade the reader to agree with you.
• Summary:• a concise summary of the important point in paper usually concludes with an assertion based on them.• Call to action:• In argument papers, you use your power of persuasion to make your case. the conclusion is one place to mobilize readers to action.
• Speculation : You might close your paper with some speculation about what the future will be if the action you propose is-or is not- taken. This can have a powerful impact on your readers.e.g. someday, perhaps, a democratic account the physiology of sex will be written, an account that will stress both the functional and organic aspect of reproduction. Ruth Herschberger,Adam´s Rib