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From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
From paragrah to composition
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From paragrah to composition

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  • 1. * FROM PARAGRAPH TO COMPOSITION Eliécer Díaz ELT Professor Universidad de Córdoba
  • 2. *Thus far in this course you have beenasked to practice certain skillswhich lead to the production ofwell-organized paragraphs, thebasic units of composition in English.
  • 3. *However, it is rare that you will beasked to write just one paragraph inisolation. Ordinarily, any writingtask will involve a series of relatedparagraphs on a given topic-that is, acomposition.
  • 4. *If you are able to compose a logical,coherent paragraph, it will not bedifficult for you to expand thatparagraph into a longer compositionin which you can more fully developyour topic.
  • 5. *How is this done? One possiblemethod has been illustrated for you.Study this example carefully, thenlook over the explanatory chart onnext slide.
  • 6. *Although African survivals in Americanculture have diminished over the past onehundred years, some are woven into thecultural pattern of America. The wordstote (to carry) and juke box have beentaken directly from African languages.One of the Negros greatest contributionsto American music, the spiritual, is ablend of primitive African music and thereligious fervor of Christianity. Foodssuch as okra, watermelon, and evencoffee have their roots in Africa. Theseeveryday elements are astonishingevidence of the African contribution toAmerican life.
  • 7. MODEL COMPOSITION 1 African survivals in American culture have diminishedmarkedly over the past one hundred years, but some arestill existent and are interwoven into the cultural pattern ofAmerica and the Western Hemisphere itself. These arereflected in the words we speak, the songs we sing, andthe foods we consume. A recent work on Negro speech in the United Statesreveals more than four thousand African words, names,and numbers, still spoken among Negroes on the Georgia-South Carolina offshore islands, known as the Gullahregion. These words reveal the identity, civilization, andrelative influence of the people from whom most ofAmericas twenty thousand Negroes descend. Forexample, the word tote, meaning "to carry," has beenfound in print within seventy years after the first settlementat Jamestown, Virginia; it has no known English origin. Ourlatest, juke box, comes from the word juke, a Senegaleseterm implying a wild time.
  • 8. Negro spirituals, too, are traceable to Africa, and theiridentical prototypes can be found in African music. Oncein America, these original patterns were fused with thespirit of Christianity, a religion which promised that in thenext world the adverse conditions of the slave would bereversed. The result was a body of song voicing all thecardinal virtues of Christianity-patience, forebearance,faith, and hope-though a necessarily modified form ofprimitive African music. The Negro took complete refuge inChristianity, and his spirituals were literally forged out ofsorrow in the heat of religious fervor; they brought hopeand comfort to a burdened people.
  • 9. Anthropologists attest that many of our most popularplants have their roots in Africa. Black-eyed peas traveledfrom Africa to North America in the holds of slave ships asfood for the pitiful cargo. Africa‘s greatest contribution tothe joy of eating is the watermelon, which is still found wildin the interior of Africa, where it originated. Our wordcoffee is derived from Kaffa, Ethiopia, its place of origin.Okura (okra) and kola nuts (the basis for cola drinks) wereboth brought to the new world by Africans. These astonishing survivals of African culture promptedthe late Professor Carter G. Woodson, one of the worldsmost eminent authorities on Negro culture and history, tostate, "All around me I can see Africa .... "
  • 10. *
  • 11. *
  • 12. One of the Negros greatest contributions to American music, the spiritual, is a blend of primitive African music and the religious fervor The words tote (to of Christianity. Foods such as okra, carry) and juke box watermelon, and even have been taken coffee have their roots directly from African in Africa. languages. Although African survivals in American These everydayculture have diminished elements are over the past one hundred years, some Paragraph astonishing evidence of the African contribution are woven into the to American life. cultural pattern of America.
  • 13. African survivals in American culture have diminished markedly over the past one hundred years, but some are still existent and are interwoven into the culturalpattern of America and the Western Hemisphere itself. These are reflected in the words we speak, the songs we sing, and the foods we consume. Although African survivals in American culture have diminished over the past one hundred years, some are woven into the cultural pattern of America.
  • 14. A recent work on Negro speech in the United States reveals more than fourthousand African words, names, and numbers, still spoken among Negroes on theGeorgia-South Carolina offshore islands, known as the Gullah region. These wordsreveal the identity, civilization, and relative influence of the people from whommost of Americas twenty thousand Negroes descend. For example, the word tote,meaning "to carry," has been found in print within seventy years after the firstsettlement at Jamestown, Virginia; it has no known English origin. Our latest,juke box, comes from the word juke, a Senegalese term implying a wild time. The words tote (to carry) and juke box have been taken directly from African languages.
  • 15. Negro spirituals, too, are traceable to Africa, and their identicalprototypes can be found in African music. Once in America, theseoriginal patterns were fused with the spirit of Christianity, a religionwhich promised that in the next world the adverse conditions of theslave would be reversed. The result was a body of song voicing all thecardinal virtues of Christianity-patience, forebearance, faith, and hope-though a necessarily modified form of primitive African music. TheNegro took complete refuge in Christianity, and his spirituals wereliterally forged out of sorrow in the heat of religious fervor; theybrought hope and comfort to a burdened people. One of the Negros greatest contributions to American music, the spiritual, is a blend of primitive African music and the religious fervor of Christianity.
  • 16. Anthropologists attest that many of our most popular plantshave their roots in Africa. Black-eyed peas traveled from Africato North America in the holds of slave ships as food for thepitiful cargo. Africa‘s greatest contribution to the joy of eatingis the watermelon, which is still found wild in the interior ofAfrica, where it originated. Our word coffee is derived fromKaffa, Ethiopia, its place of origin. Okura (okra) and kola nuts(the basis for cola drinks) were both brought to the new worldby Africans. Foods such as okra, watermelon, and even coffee have their roots in Africa.
  • 17. These astonishing survivals of African culture prompted the late Professor Carter G. Woodson, one of the worlds most eminent authorities on Negro culture and history, to state, "All around me I can see Africa .... " These everyday elements are astonishing evidence of the African contribution to American life.
  • 18. African survivals in American culture have diminishedmarkedly over the past one hundred years, but someare still existent and are interwoven into the culturalpattern of America and the Western Hemisphere itself.These are reflected in the words we speak, the songswe sing, and the foods we consume.
  • 19. You will notice that the previous paragraph is unlikeany of the paragraphs which you have seen so far inthis book. It is called a paragraph of introduction.
  • 20. The first thing you will notice about it is that it does not beginwith a topic sentence; in fact, there is no topic sentence whichapplies to only that paragraph. Rather, its first sentenceintroduces the general idea of African survivals in the UnitedStates today.The second sentence is more specific: it narrows the choicesdown to three of these kinds of survivals - 1} words, 2} songs,and 3) foods. We will call this sentence the controlling idea ofthe composition, since it announces in very precise fashionwhat is to follow.
  • 21. The next three paragraphs then talk about each ofthese kinds of survivals. They all have topic sentences;each topic sentence reminds the reader that onespecific kind of African survival is being discussed.
  • 22. We might say, then, that a controlling idea is more powerfuland more general than a topic sentence. This is notsurprising, since a controlling idea controls not a singleparagraph, but rather an entire composition.It announces to the reader the main idea of that composition;any topic sentences which follow in subsequent paragraphshelp to develop that main idea in much the same way that, in asingle paragraph, each sentence helps to develop the ideaannounced in the topic sentence.
  • 23. *
  • 24. I. INTRODUCTIONYou will have to expand your original topicsentence into a paragraph of introduction. Yourcontrolling idea should be the last sentence of theparagraph. Study the paragraphs of introductionof the two model compositions in this unit to getideas for your first paragraph.
  • 25. II. BODYYou will want to devote one entire paragraph toeach of the qualities you mention. Three or fourparagraphs, each devoted to one particularquality, will be sufficient. You will, of course, haveto go into greater detail for each of the qualitiesthan you did in your original paragraph.Arrange the paragraphs of the body in eitherascending or descending order. Be sure to begineach paragraph with a topic sentence that tells thereader which quality you will be discussing in thatparticular paragraph.
  • 26. III, CONCLUSIONYou will have to add a paragraph of conclusion. Init you should summarize, restate, or reemphasizethe main ideas in your composition. Notice how theauthors of both model compositions in this classhave used a single pronoun-these-to remind thereader of all the paragraphs in the body of thecomposition. You might want to try this technique.You might also want to use a quotation.
  • 27. Note: Dont forget to indent!
  • 28. Directions: Write a five paragraphcomposition based on the following topic:Use the following plan to develop yourcomposition, which will have a title.
  • 29. I. TitleII. INTRODUCTION Think of an interesting way to introduce the composition. Conclude the paragraph of introduction with a controlling idea in which you announce the general topics you will discuss in the three paragraphs of the body. (Suggestion: You might want to come back to your controlling idea after you have written the body to see if your controlling idea is well thought out.)
  • 30. III. BODYParagraph 2.Paragraph 3.Paragraph 4.IV. CONCLUSIONSummarize the ideas you have discussed in yourcomposition.

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