Improving Urban Schools ppt


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I prepared this for my culminating project for masters in teaching an learning

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Improving Urban Schools ppt

  2. 2. DEDICATION <ul><li>This project is dedicated to those teachers who enter the halls of the struggling/ failing urban schools with the mission and hope of preparing a better future for our future leaders. Urban schools can be successful, but only if we state the problem and diligently search and research for real solutions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>“The Black population has for more than a century, focused on achieving equality primarily through high educational attainment. This is because blacks strongly believe that education is at the cutting edge of broad social changes as well as the most effective route to upward mobility.” by Dr. James E. Blackwell </li></ul>
  4. 4. Purpose <ul><li>The purpose of this culminating project is to investigate and analyze the following: </li></ul><ul><li>The best culturally responsive pedagogy strategies for urban schools with a large at risk student population. </li></ul><ul><li>The strategies that high performing urban schools have used to become successful. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Purpose <ul><li>Strategies to improve parental and community support of urban schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to recruit and retain highly qualified teachers in urban schools with a large at risk student population. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Significance <ul><li>This culminating project is significant: </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses the achievement gap; </li></ul><ul><li>Could be used to facilitate the long term change of low performing, high poverty and high minority schools to high performing urban schools; </li></ul><ul><li>Provides strategies that will result in a quality education for students to be ready for a global economy and society. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Goals <ul><li>The goal of this culminating project is to accomplish the following: </li></ul><ul><li>To use the finding to develop recommendations and strategies for impacting and improving low performing urban schools with a high African American population. </li></ul><ul><li>The long term goal of this researcher is to strive: </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce or eliminate the achievement gap between minorities and non minorities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Defining Urban Schools <ul><li>Urban schools are located and function in areas with high population density. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban schools are bigger, and urban school districts serve more students. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Defining Urban Schools <ul><li>Compared to suburban and rural schools, urban schools serve large numbers of students of low socioeconomic class. (Kincheloe, J., et. al., 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>According to the Tennessee Department of Education Report Card 2008 for Davidson county 72.8% of the students attending the district schools are economically disadvantaged. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Defining Urban Schools <ul><li>Urban schools function in areas marked with economic disparity. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban schools are in close proximity to affluent neighborhoods. </li></ul><ul><li>The digital divide is higher for urban students in poor areas who have less access to computers and the Internet than their rural and suburban students. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Defining Urban Schools <ul><li>There is a higher rate of ethnic, racial, and religious diversity in urban areas and urban schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Student demographics for Davidson County schools are as follows: </li></ul>
  12. 12. Defining Urban Schools 72.8 50,861 Economically Disadvantaged 34.2 25,012 White .2 119 Native American / Alaskan 14.2 10,399 Hispanic 3.3 2,383 Asian / Pacific Islander 48.1 35,144 African American % of Students # of Students Student Demographics
  13. 13. Defining Urban Schools <ul><li>Infighting is a common experience among urban school boards over issues concerning resources and influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban schools experience higher student, teacher, and administrator mobility. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Defining Urban Schools <ul><li>In addition one out of every two teachers in urban schools transfers or leaves in approximately five years. </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally, urban administrators do not serve in their positions as long as their counterparts in suburban or rural areas. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Defining Urban Schools <ul><li>Urban schools experience distinctive transportation problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Many urban students depend on public transportation to transport them to and from school. Public transportation is unreliable and public transportation is not designed for school schedules. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Defining Urban Schools <ul><li>Teachers working in poor urban schools are less likely to live in the communities surrounding the schools than teachers in suburban and rural systems. (Kincheloe, J., et. al., 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban schools lack parental and community support. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Meta-Analysis <ul><li>The research was conducted using a meta-analysis of six identified case studies. </li></ul><ul><li>The common subjects studied across the studies are low income students and parents, urban teachers, urban administrators, community agencies, and urban schools. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Meta-Analysis <ul><li>“ Towards an Understanding of Excellence in Urban Pedagogy: A Portrait of a High School” by Renu Ahuja </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why quality teachers stay in “High Need” Urban Schools: Insights for the retention of urban teachers” by Archie Blanson & Norvella Carter </li></ul><ul><li>“ The 90/90/90 Schools: A Case Study” by Douglas Reeves </li></ul>
  19. 19. Meta-Analysis <ul><li>“ Parental Involvement in Education Among Low-Income Families: A Case Study” by Jane G. Smith </li></ul><ul><li>“ Collaborating for High School Student Success: A Case Study of Parent Engagement at Boston Arts Academy” by Jay Feldman, Monique Y. Ouimette, & Rosann Tung </li></ul><ul><li>“ Reflections and Directions on Research Related to Family-Community Involvement in Schooling” by Diana Hiatt-Michael </li></ul>
  20. 20. Meta-Analysis <ul><li>Several themes emerged from the six case studies: </li></ul><ul><li>At-risk/Urban Students </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Urban Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Teacher/Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Community Engagement </li></ul>
  21. 21. Findings/Conclusion <ul><li>At Risk /Urban Students </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher and collective efficacy is demonstrated through sharing a sense of responsibility for their school and students. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers who teach a large population of at risk students must be flexible and work towards a student-centered differentiated environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers understand that their students come to school with certain disadvantages, but they do not use that as an excuse for students to fail. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Findings/Conclusion <ul><li>In some cases teachers may need to make an emotional investment in the children by taking on parental roles, caring for students, and preparing them for life. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning occurs when teachers have “task focus goals” and “performance focus goals.” </li></ul><ul><li>Students are placed into academic classes based on diagnostic testing. (Ahuja, R., 2007) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Findings/Conclusion <ul><li>Successful Urban Schools & Urban Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Keys to effective pedagogy are excellent mission, strong instructional leadership, shared vision, high expectations, collective efficacy, student-centered instruction, and willingness to go the extra mile. </li></ul><ul><li>A well designed mission is the driving force of the school; the persistent belief that the vision and mission of the school are more important than anything else. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Findings/Conclusion <ul><li>Close collaboration and communication of the set of values enables the school to create a sense of individuality and a clear set of expectations throughout. </li></ul><ul><li>Time is important. Successful schools break away from the traditional schedule. This had an impact on student achievement. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Findings/Conclusion <ul><li>Urban Teacher/Administration Retention Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>It is important for teachers to feel respected as professionals by their administrative team. </li></ul><ul><li>Hire teachers who live close to the urban schools. These teachers will most likely have an invested interest in the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong administrative support is an important factor in teacher retention. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Findings/Conclusion <ul><li>Administrators should take time out of their day to come by the classroom just to speak and check on the well being of their teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need emotional support in a way that shows someone cares about their personal and professional circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>The communication skills of the principal are major factors in teachers remaining in urban schools. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Findings/Conclusion <ul><li>• Urban schools must have Administrators who have an open door policy. Teachers want to be able to go to their administrator’s office with a problem and obtain advice and directions without fear of retaliation. </li></ul><ul><li>• The freedom to teach the way that would best benefit their students influenced retention factors with instructional data to support the freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>• Professional development should be relevant and address the needs of the students. (Blanson, A., Carter, N., 2006) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Findings/Conclusion <ul><li>Parent Engagement/ Community Engagement Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>The strengths and needs of school families is the foundation for attempts aimed at enhancing parental involvement in education. </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging the community agencies allows the agencies to give input regarding the needs of the mostly low-income families in the neighborhood. </li></ul><ul><li>A broad definition of parental involvement is needed that recognizes a wide array of parental involvement behaviors. (Smith, J., 2006) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Findings/Conclusion <ul><li>Provide multiple entry points for parent involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>By understanding the different parent dispositions toward engagement staff are able to design a range of opportunities for involvement. (Hiatt-Michael, D., 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Educators recognized that there are challenges related to socioeconomic status and language proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents might not be able to be involved in the same manner that parents at middle and upper class schools would be. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Findings/Conclusion <ul><li>Educators should recognize all attempts made by parents to support their children’s education. </li></ul><ul><li>The development, administration, and support of the Family Resource Center in the school is central to the improvement in school culture. (Smith, J., 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized creation of two staff positions to welcome parents into the school community and support their involvement. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Findings/Conclusion <ul><li>Leadership must set high expectations for parent involvement and provide the framework to facilitate it. (Feldman, J; Ouimette, M.; Tung, R. 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing teachers who are provided with knowledge and skills to apply culturally appropriate practices report positive outcomes for parent involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>A community school embodies and recognizes the power of working together to strengthen communities, strengthen families, and educate children. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Future Research <ul><li>Future research and analysis needs to be conducted on classroom management, behavior management, types of scheduling, culturally responsive/appropriate curriculum, and student and family support services. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Acknowledgments <ul><li>First I would like to thank the God Almighty for providing me with the support system necessary to pursue and strategize solutions to providing a quality education to a set of people who have historically have been kings and queens, to slaves, to second class citizen, and hopefully a completely equal playing field. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Second I would like to thank my wife for being my confidant, my number 1 supporter, and my motivator. Thank you for taking care of our tribe, and allowing me to work on this project. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Third I would like to thank my mother for answering the questions “Why teach in an urban environment and how do you stay for the long run?” when I couldn’t find an answer. Finally I would like to thank Dr. John Norris for his leadership, flexibility, and advice on this project. </li></ul>
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