Unesco Estudiantes Ged2006


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Unesco Estudiantes Ged2006

  1. 1. I N S T I T U T E f o r S T AT I S T I C S GLOBAL EDUCATION DIGEST 2006 Comparing Education Statistics Across the World UNESCO
  2. 2. 2 0 0 6 GLOBAL EDUC ATION DIGE S T Comparing Education Statistics Across the World [] UNESCO Institute for Statistics Montreal, 2006
  3. 3. UNESCO The constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was adopted by 20 countries at the London Conference in November 1945 and entered into effect on 4 November 1946. The Organization currently has 191 Member States and six Associate Members. The main objective of UNESCO is to contribute to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science, culture and communication in order to foster universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights and fundamental freedoms that are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations. To fulfill its mandate, UNESCO performs five principal functions: 1) prospective studies on education, science, culture and communication for tomorrow’s world; 2) the advancement, transfer and sharing of knowledge through research, training and teaching activities; 3) standard-setting actions for the preparation and adoption of internal instruments and statutory recommendations; 4) expertise through technical co-operation to Member States for their development policies and projects; and 5) the exchange of specialised information. UNESCO is headquartered in Paris, France. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is the statistical office of UNESCO and is the UN depository for global statistics in the fields of education, science and technology, culture and communication. UIS was established in 1999. It was created to improve UNESCO’s statistical programme and to develop and deliver the timely, accurate and policy-relevant statistics needed in today’s increasingly complex and rapidly changing social, political and economic environments. UIS is based in Montreal, Canada. Published in 2006 by: UNESCO Institute for Statistics P.O. Box 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 Canada Tel: (1 514) 343-6880 Fax: (1 514) 343-6882 Email: publications@uis.unesco.org http://www.uis.unesco.org © UNESCO-UIS 2006 Ref: UIS/SD/06-01 ISBN: 92-9189-028-6 Design: Sabine Lebeau / les souris zélées Original cover design: JCNicholls Design Photo credits: ©UNESCO/G.Malempré Printing: Tri-Graphic Printing Limited The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. To access the electronic version of data tables, see www.uis.unesco.org/publications/GED2006.
  4. 4. Foreword The state of tertiary education – the focus of analysis in this year’s Global Education Digest (GED) – in a country or region is a potent indicator of human capital and, thus, of human development and well-being. The growing ranks of university-level students and graduates represent a positive result of global efforts to promote educational participation and achievement at all levels. In turn, these new teachers, doctors, scientists and lawyers will no doubt help pull the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – particularly the goals on education, health and the rights of girls and women – into a sustainable reality. More generally, the growth in tertiary enrolment and graduation is associated with the steady rise in social and economic globalisation and mobility. This report contributes significantly to the understanding of what is being called the ‘internationalisation of tertiary education’. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) assembled and analysed a wide range of data for this task, extracting the most from what is available and highlighting gaps in current data collection. This report introduces the concept of ‘internationally mobile students’ – those who study in foreign countries where they are not permanent residents. It advances several new indicators to track the flows of these students whose numbers jumped by 41% between 1999 and 2004. These indicators ask: How many students, and what percentage of the student body, go abroad – and where do they go? What are the impacts on countries of origin and on host countries? What are the factors that push and pull these students? Other evidence presented in this report shows that low- and middle-income countries are playing catch-up with North America and Western Europe in terms of tertiary enrolment, leading to some startling changes in the rankings of countries. The report also examines the gender balance in education, as well as in fields of study. This study reflects factors like national wealth, labour market structure and gender opportunities. High-income countries have more than double the share of graduates in health- related fields than low-income countries. A similar gap is evident in engineering, computing and sciences. As for gender balance, not only is gender parity in tertiary enrolment rare, but female students are overwhelmingly clustered in education and non-science fields. There are different patterns of gender disparity in tertiary education, but the most prevalent is one that favours men. 3
  5. 5. FOREWORD The UIS is responsible for monitoring progress on international education-related targets, such as the MDGs and Education for All (EFA) goals. We initiate, support and participate in activities around the world that contribute to ongoing efforts to improve data quality. For example, a number of regional workshops on education statistics are taking place in 2006 for statisticians and policymakers in Member States. These intensive exchanges lead to improvements in the scope and comparability of data across countries by implementing international measurement standards. At the heart of the Digest are the indicator tables: they present a wide range of the best data available for all levels of education. This year we have introduced a number of positive changes in the Digest. The new reference school year is now harmonised with OECD and Eurostat countries and fosters more timely reporting. Countries – and their data – are grouped by a larger number of regions (the same as those used in the EFA Global Monitoring Report) and there are now more regional averages for indicators. For the first time in the Digest, new statistical tables provide data that take into account the flows of international students. For example, for each country of origin we name the top five destinations for students who go abroad to study. We also introduce a new indicator – the outbound mobility ratio – that will appear in future GED editions. Secondary and tertiary tables now include the share of private enrolment. Adult and youth literacy rates have also been added as part of UIS efforts to present a wider range of data sources on education and learning. This report is accompanied by an interactive database accessible online at www.uis.unesco.org/publications/GED2006 or on CD-ROM (see section on Online Resources). In this database, users will find additional indicators and time series beyond those presented in the print version of the Digest. Key indicators in the online database are updated twice a year and thus provide access to the most timely international education data available. Michael Millward Director a.i. UNESCO Institute for Statistics 4
  6. 6. Contents Foreword 3 Acknowledgements 6 Tertiary education: Extending the frontiers of knowledge 7 Reader’s guide 50 Statistical tables 55 1. Pre-primary education / ISCED 0 / Enrolment and teaching staff 56 2. Primary education / ISCED 1 / New entrants 66 3. Primary education / ISCED 1 / Enrolment and teaching staff 76 4. Measures of progression and completion in primary education / ISCED 1 86 5. Secondary education / ISCED 2 and 3 / Enrolment and repeaters 96 6. Secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education / ISCED 2, 3 and 4 / 106 Teaching staff and post-secondary non-tertiary enrolment 7. Upper secondary (ISCED 3) graduation and entry to tertiary (ISCED 5) education 116 8. Tertiary education / ISCED 5 and 6 / Enrolment and teaching staff 120 9. Internationally mobile students in tertiary education by host country and region of origin 130 10. International flows of mobile students at the tertiary level 132 11. Tertiary education / ISCED 5 and 6 / Graduates by field of education 138 12. School life expectancy 148 13. Education expenditure, spending as a % of gross domestic product and by nature 154 14. Education expenditure, sources as a % of gross domestic product 160 15. Adult and youth literacy 170 ANNEX A / Glossary 177 ANNEX B / Definitions of indicators 183 ANNEX C / International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED97) 187 ANNEX D / Regions 190 Online resources 192 UIS publications 193 5
  7. 7. Acknowledgements This Global Education Digest is based on data provided by the countries or territories covered in this publication. We would like to express our gratitude to all those statisticians who, in each country and territory, took the time to respond to the UIS, UOE or WEI questionnaires as well as our requests for clarification. We would also like to express our thanks to the international organizations, in particular the United Nations Statistics and Population Divisions, the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Eurostat and other specialised institutions, that supplied additional information and statistics to complement those gathered directly by the UIS. This publication is possible thanks to the work and coordination of various individuals and units within the UIS. The overall preparation of this report was the responsibility of Anuja Singh, under the supervision of Alison Kennedy, Chief of Section, Education Survey Operations. The data presented in the tables were collected and processed by a team consisting of: Saïd Belkachla, Hugo Castellano Tolmos, Léandre Francisco, Rosario Garcia Calderón, Nadia Ghagi, Monica Githaiga, Tin Nam Ho, Olivier Labé, Anne-Marie Lacasse, Weixin Lu, Lucy Hong Mei, Saïd Ould Voffal, Juan Cruz Perusia, José Pessoa, Pascale Ratovondrahona, Zahia Salmi and Ioulia Sementchouk. The overview chapter was prepared by the Analysis and Information Section, with Michael Bruneforth as the lead author. The chapter was edited by Amy Otchet. Others providing inputs to the chapter were: Aurélie Acoca, Ernesto Fernández Polcuch, Jane Foy, César Guadalupe, Albert Motivans, John Pacifico and Ranwa Safadi (UNESCO). Katja Frostell and Ian Denison coordinated the content and production of the Digest in print, and Anuja Singh, the content of the CD-ROM. Brian Buffett and Adriano Miele managed the production of the CD-ROM. Other important contributions were provided by Simon Ellis, Ivan Guentchev, Victoriya Ilyinska and other staff of the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 6
  8. 8. 1 Tertiary education: Extending the frontiers of knowledge Introduction 1. Comparing tertiary education systems There has been spectacular growth in the numbers of new students entering tertiary A comprehensive analysis of tertiary education education in the past decade. In some must build on a framework that covers the countries, such as China and Malaysia, entry entire tertiary education landscape. It must ratios have doubled in the five-year period address diversity of programmes within between 1999 and 2004. This edition of the countries, as well as differences in structures Global Education Digest analyses this rising across countries. demand for higher education – represented by some 132 million tertiary students worldwide Within countries, the diversification in 2004 – by examining indicators related to of education pathways, programmes, what they study and where. qualifications and institutions presents a challenge for the development of indicators This overview presents a global picture of the that can synthesise information on the whole tertiary sector based on the data assembled system. Universities, clearly a key part of all and presented in the statistical tables of tertiary systems, are complemented by a this Digest. The overview is divided into four diverse and growing set of public and private sections. tertiary institutions – technical institutes, polytechnics, community colleges, distance The first section describes the basic framework education centres, nursing schools, teacher- that is used to compare different types of training facilities and many more. They provide tertiary systems across countries. a cost-efficient option for the education and training of highly-skilled individuals. The second section looks at the outputs of the tertiary sectors in terms of graduates. It also Diversification is especially important for looks at the fields of study that are pursued, the development of tertiary education in as well as the gender differences imbedded in low-income countries. One reason why these choices. tertiary enrolment levels are still relatively low in many parts of the developing world The third section turns to trends in is the lack of institutional differentiation to participation using indicators that focus on accommodate demand that is both growing individuals, as well as years of study, and and varied (World Bank, 2002). measure gender parity across different types of tertiary programmes. The diversification of tertiary education will undoubtedly continue in countries of The final section examines changes in the all income levels – for different reasons. In international mobility of tertiary students changing marketplaces, tertiary education is focusing on their countries of origin and of a key provider of lifelong learning – and the study. 7
  9. 9. TERTIARY EDUC ATION : E X TENDING THE FRONTIERS OF KNOWLEDGE demand for such learning pushes institutions institutions that also have advanced research credentials and may involve completion of a to offer more varied and flexible degree research project or thesis. structures which, in turn, changes the pattern of educational pathways and participation. In • ISCED 6 programmes lead to an advanced this scenario, students may leave education research qualification, often at the Doctorate for the labour market and then return to or PhD level or beyond. These programmes go further studies; others pursue part-time further than course-work to advanced study studies and the completion of multiple and original research. degrees becomes more common. This type of growth changes the institutional landscape Again, it should be noted that the basis for of tertiary education substantially: new types ISCED classification is not the institutional of institutions, new types of programmes and setting but the programme content. This new profiles of participation emerge. means that not all university education is classified ISCED 5A or 6; that some universities The 1997 UNESCO International Standard also offer ISCED 5B programmes; and that Classification of Education (ISCED97) provides some institutions other than universities a global framework for classifying educational offer ISCED 5A programmes. Nonetheless, programmes based on content. Importantly, the general practice of equating ISCED 5A this ensures greater comparability of data with university degrees and ISCED 5B with across countries. Tertiary education comprises non-university degrees, although not strictly ISCED levels 5 and 6. correct, does provide a good indication of the content levels in the two types of • ISCED 5B programmes are typically programmes. shorter than ISCED 5A programmes and are mainly designed so that participants Across countries, the variety in national acquire the practical skills and know-how degree and qualification structures poses a needed for employment in a particular type challenge to comparative analysis. National or certain class of occupations or trades. qualifications at various stages of study These programmes have a minimum full- mark important educational and labour time equivalent of two years of study (but, market transition points and are, therefore, in practice, often run up to three years) and very relevant for the measurement of typically provide graduates with a specific outputs. When ISCED 5A studies provide labour market qualification. sequential qualifications, usually only the highest qualification gives direct access to • ISCED 5A programmes are largely level 6, yet all these qualifications or degrees theoretically-based and are intended to are allocated to level 5A. Consequently, provide sufficient qualifications for professions completion of ISCED 5A can be associated with high skills requirements (e.g. medicine, with different levels of content and does dentistry, architecture) and for entry into not automatically imply access to advanced advanced research programmes (ISCED 6). research programmes at ISCED 6. Completion at this level involves a minimum full-time equivalent of three years of study. As for labour market degrees obtained at this These programmes are typically offered at level, there are three main models. 8
  10. 10. 2006 GLOBAL EDUC ATION DIGEST COMPARING EDUC ATION STATISTICS AROUND THE WORLD • A first course of tertiary study of long total duration of studies completed without double-counting graduates require very or very long duration that leads to a degree detailed data which are available in only a few which qualifies for direct entrance to ISCED 6 countries (OECD, 2005a). programmes. Examples include Corsi di Laurea (Italy), Daigaku Gakubu (Japan) and Diplom Accounting properly for the diversity of post- (Austria, Germany). secondary programmes, and even upper- • A first degree, typically of shorter duration, secondary programmes, across and within countries means that many familiar concepts can be followed by a second degree that used in comparisons of basic education provides access to ISCED 6; for example, systems need to be adjusted for analyses Master’s programmes in Australia, the United of tertiary education or cannot be applied Kingdom and the United States. at all. These concepts include: the idea of • Three or more degrees at level 5A where a unique theoretical duration for a level of the first degree is typically of very short education; typical entry or graduation ages duration, classified as intermediate and does of participants; or a fixed pathway through not qualify as ISCED 5A completion. For the system. It is necessary then to revamp example, a Diplôme d’Etudes Universitaires indicators, such as entry, graduation and Générales or Professionnalisées (DEUG/DEUP), enrolment rates: followed by a Licence and then a Maîtrise • Unlike primary education, there is no (Algeria, France, Morocco). single completion or graduation rate for Although ISCED classification does take into ISCED 5 education, only separate figures for account national differences in the structure ISCED 5A and 5B sub-levels. of degrees and qualifications, comparability • Gross enrolment ratios cannot be problems remain. Graduation rates typically calculated on the basis of a common capture completion of a first tertiary degree. theoretical duration for most programmes in This results in the comparison of degrees of a given country. Instead they are based on a three years’ duration in some countries with standard duration of five years, leading to a degrees of five or six years’ duration in others, higher weight for long university programmes as well as comparison of degrees that provide compared to relatively short 5B programmes. access to ISCED 6 programmes with degrees Using gross enrolment ratios as an indication that do not. Intermediate programmes, such of population coverage is even less valuable for as DEUG in francophone countries, fall short tertiary than for lower levels of education. For of the duration criteria set by ISCED and are example, a country with extensive population excluded, although they are labour market- coverage from 5B programmes may have far relevant outputs in their countries. lower gross enrolment ratios than a country Furthermore, the shorter ISCED 5A with long university programmes, although programmes are in duration, the higher more students graduate in the first country. graduation rates are. In other words, a • Indicators based on headcounts are less comparison of outputs depends partially on authoritative due to the high incidence of the national degree structure. Attempts to part-time students. calculate graduation rates with respect to the 9
  11. 11. TERTIARY EDUC ATION : E X TENDING THE FRONTIERS OF KNOWLEDGE 2. Measuring the outputs (OECD, 2005). Without a viable tertiary education system, developing countries of tertiary education have little chance of approaching, let alone Research has shown that the impact of human achieving, the education- and health-oriented capital on economic growth can be even Millennium Development Goals (World Bank, greater in middle-income countries than those 2002). which are more developed. Indeed, in the Given the stakes in terms of human capital, 1980s and 1990s, progress in educational it is, therefore, critical to measure the attainment contributed more than half a outputs of education systems. This section percentage point to annual economic growth will identify related trends based upon in these countries (UIS/OECD, 2001). Moreover, three measures in particular: educational for rich and poor countries alike, the benefits attainment, entry and graduation ratios, and of human capital go far beyond the economic graduation by field of study. Data on tertiary domain. They lie at the core of collective and graduation are available from a wide range of individual health and well-being. countries. However, there are relatively few There is a considerable body of research data from developing countries on the first showing that social returns are greater for two indicators. Consequently, the following basic education than for higher education. analyses are largely limited to middle- and Nevertheless, post-secondary and tertiary high-income countries. This underscores the education systems provide the skills needed need to further develop similar indicators for in any developing society or economy developing countries. Box 1. Measuring the outputs of tertiary education Output measures for tertiary education are designed to indicate the percentage of a population with some or completed tertiary education. Educational attainment indicators – which are based on census data, as well as household and labour force surveys – measure the share of persons by age with a tertiary degree. They indicate progress toward higher tertiary completion levels by presenting changes in the last 25 years (by using data on the population currently between the ages of 20 to 64). However, the data do not necessarily reflect current trends. For example, a country with a relatively young population may have considerable numbers of tertiary students about to graduate, a prospect that would not be captured by these attainment indicators. In order to judge the output of current tertiary systems, this report presents current graduation ratios as a proxy of the proportion of the population completing tertiary education. The gross completion ratio shows the number of graduates compared to the population of graduation age. However, it is important to recognise that these measures are not infallible. For example, tertiary systems generally have different levels of tertiary programmes, such as ISCED 5A and 5B. Students may graduate from more than one type of programme during the course of their lives. Given the current reporting procedures, they will be counted twice as graduates. This double-counting will, therefore, inflate the size of the population completing a tertiary degree. As a result, completion ratios are calculated according to programme level. It is important to note that the separate ratios for ISCED 5A and 5B cannot simply be added together to calculate a completion ratio for tertiary education in general. 10
  12. 12. 2006 GLOBAL EDUC ATION DIGEST COMPARING EDUC ATION STATISTICS AROUND THE WORLD Educational attainment of adult education Peru’s current level is the equivalent to that of OECD countries in the mid-1980s, while Chile, An important measure of human capital is the Malaysia and Thailand have now reached share of the adult population that has attained the OECD average of the mid-1970s. The a tertiary degree (see Box 1). Figure 1 illustrates rest of the WEI countries reported levels that the considerable progress made in this regard industrialised economies exceeded more than in recent decades by comparing attainment 30 years ago. data for selected middle-income countries participating in the UIS/OECD World Education Yet, very different trends emerge by Indicators (WEI) programme (UIS/OECD, 2005) comparing these levels across age groups. to the OECD average. In Malaysia, Peru and Thailand, about three times as many 25- to 34-year-olds have a In 2003, the share of young people aged 25 to tertiary degree as 55- to 64-year-olds. Indeed, 34 years who had a tertiary degree in middle- most of the countries presented have growth income countries ranged from 5% in Indonesia rates approaching or even exceeding the to 22% in Peru, compared to the OECD OECD average. The exceptions are Argentina, average of 29%. The exception is the Russian Brazil and Uruguay, which all show signs of Federation, where about 55% of younger adults stagnation. have a degree. It is interesting to note that FIGURE 1 What share of the adult population attained at least some tertiary qualification? Percentage of the adult population that completed tertiary (ISCED 5A or 5B) education, 2003 ���� �������� ���������� ���� �������������������������������� ���� ���� ��������� ���� ���� ����� �������� �������� ��������� ������� ���� �������� ������ ��������� ��� ����� ����� ����� ����� ������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� ���������� ���������� ���������� ���������� Source: UNESCO/OECD, 2005. 11
  13. 13. TERTIARY EDUC ATION : E X TENDING THE FRONTIERS OF KNOWLEDGE Current outputs of tertiary education Austria (20%), Belgium (20%), Germany (21%) systems and Greece (15%). Ratios dip to 5% or less in Andorra, Cyprus and Luxembourg, although Figure 2 presents the gross graduation ratios this is partly explained by the high share of for first-time qualifications at ISCED 5A and young people from these countries who are 5B levels, by region. It is important to note studying abroad (see Section 4). that ISCED 5A is generally considered to be the more traditional university programme In East Asia and the Pacific, Australia, Japan, in many countries. ISCED 5B programmes New Zealand and the Republic of Korea have tend to be shorter and more vocationally- ISCED 5A graduation ratios of 30% or more. oriented. In many countries, students may Central Asia also reported some particularly decide to go on to a 5A level after completing high results, notably in Mongolia (34%), 5B programmes. As previously noted, it is, Kazakhstan (30%) and Kyrgyzstan (29%). therefore, important to present these data separately in order to avoid double-counting In Latin America and the Caribbean, where the graduates. regional average is about 12%, Panama and Costa Rica have the two highest ratios of 23% At the ISCED 5A level, Finland and Australia and 21%, respectively. had the highest graduation ratios with, The lowest ratios were generally found in respectively, 56% and 47% of young people of sub-Saharan Africa. Ratios are less than 1% graduation age attaining a tertiary degree. in Burundi, Chad, Madagascar, Mozambique, From a regional perspective, the share of Niger and Tanzania. Even countries with the graduates among those of graduation age is highest outputs – Mauritius, South Africa about one-third in Central and Eastern Europe and Togo – have ratios of less than 8%. as well as in North America and Western However, in some countries, graduation rates Europe (33% and 29%, respectively). Yet, at ISCED 5B exceed those at 5A. They include: striking differences exist within these regions. Burundi (0.6%), Kenya (2%), Lesotho (2%), While graduation ratios exceed 40% in Sierra Leone (6%) and Uganda (2%). Mauritius France, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway and is another notable case with a relatively high Poland, they are less than one-half of that in ratio of 12%. 12
  14. 14. 2006 GLOBAL EDUC ATION DIGEST COMPARING EDUC ATION STATISTICS AROUND THE WORLD FIGURE 2 How many young people graduate from tertiary education? First-time ISCED 5A and 5B graduates as a percentage of the population at the theoretical graduation age (gross graduation ratio), 2004 or most recent year available � �������� ������������������������� �������� �� ����������� �������������������������� ������������ ������������������������� �� �������������������� �� ���� �� �� ��� �� � ������� ����� ����������������� ������������ ����� ������ ������� ������� ���� ���� ������� �������� ������ ������ ������� ��������� ������� �������� ������ �������� ������� ������� �������� �������������� ������� ������ �������������� �������������������� ������� �������� ���������� ���������� ������� ���������� ��������� ����������� ����� ����������� ������������ ����������� ���������������� �������� �������� �������������� ��������� ���� �������� ������ �������� ������� ������ �� ������� ������������������������������� �������������������������������� ������������������ ��� ���� �� ���� �������������������� �� ���� �� �� ���� �� � ������ ���������� ����� ������ ���� ������ ��������� ������� ��������� ����������� �������� ��������������� ����������������� ����� ��������� �������� ������ ��������� ��������� ������� ������� ����������� ������ ������ ������ �������������� ������� ������� ����� ������ ������ ������ ����� ����� ����������� ������� ������� ������� ������ ������ ����������� ������� �������������� ���������� ��������� ������������ ����� ������ ��������� �������� ������� ��������� �������� ������ ������ ������ ������ ������������� ������� ������� ������ ���������� ���������� ������� �������� ����� ������ Coverage: Regional average for ISCED 5A calculated for regions where graduate data cover more than 85% of the tertiary education age group. Coverage by region: Central and Eastern Europe, 87%; East Asia and the Pacific, 94%; Latin America and the Caribbean, 91%; North America and Western Europe, 98%. Regional averages are based upon the latest year of available data. Average for East Asia and the Pacific includes 2000 data for China. This does not reflect the very recent and substantial growth in tertiary education which the country has experienced. As a result, the average for 2004 may be underestimated. Notes: For year of reference see Statistical Table 8. * Data refer to a year prior to 2002. See UIS Database for details. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Statistical Table 8. 13
  15. 15. TERTIARY EDUC ATION : E X TENDING THE FRONTIERS OF KNOWLEDGE The substantial growth in enrolment has Switzerland (24%) and the United Kingdom translated into a rise in the number of (39%), and even fell in New Zealand (from graduates from ISCED 5A programmes 42% to 38%). (see Statistical Table 8). To evaluate these The growth in graduation ratios has led to changes over time, Figure 3 compares some notable changes in the standing of graduation ratios from 60 countries with countries. For example, Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, available data for 1999 and 2004. More Lebanon, Malta, Mongolia, Romania and than one-half experienced strong growth, Thailand have gone from having lower with a 20% increase over the five-year graduation rates than Germany in 1999 to period. Graduation ratios even doubled in surpassing the OECD stalwart by more than Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Costa Rica, five percentage points in 2004 (see Figure 3). Djibouti, Estonia, Ethiopia and Kyrgyzstan Similarly, France, Iceland, Netherlands and and grew by more than 40% in another Poland surpassed the United Kingdom, which 16 countries. On the contrary, the ratios had had one of the highest graduation ratios, stagnated in Albania (10%), Bangladesh (5%), 39%, among industrialised countries. Croatia (15%), Germany (21%), Morocco (4%), FIGURE 3 How has tertiary completion changed since 1999? Gross graduation ratio, ISCED 5A, 1999 and 2004 ������� �� ��������� ������� ����������� ������ ������ ������ �� �������������� �������������������������� ������ ����������� ������� ����� ����������� ������ �������� ������� ��������� ������� ������ ����� �������� �� ���������� ���������� ������� �������� ����� ������� ����������� �������� ������������ ��������� ���������� ������� ������� �� ������� ������������ �������� ����� ���������� ���������� ������������ ����������������� ������������ ������� �������������� ���� ������������ ������ ��������� ��������� �� ������� ������� �������� �������� ������������������� ���������� ������ �������� ����� ������ ������� ������� � � �������� �� �� �� �� �� �������������������������������� Coverage: 60 countries with data for 1999 and either 2003 or 2004 are included. See Statistical Table 8 for the latest reference year. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Statistical Table 8. 14
  16. 16. 2006 GLOBAL EDUC ATION DIGEST COMPARING EDUC ATION STATISTICS AROUND THE WORLD An important measure of current educational growth was the case for countries with high and demand lies in gross entry ratios – the number low participation levels. Those with the highest of tertiary students beginning their studies as entry ratios in 1999 – namely Hungary, Iceland, a percentage of the population at the typical Norway, Poland and Sweden – still experienced entry age. This measure provides a proxy for the growth exceeding 10%. Currently, the number share of young people beginning ISCED 5A or of students enrolled in tertiary programmes 5B programmes. Entry ratios are usually much (ISCED 5A) is equivalent to more than 70% of higher than graduation ratios because many new the population of entry age. students drop out. Nevertheless, changes in entry Tertiary access also expanded in countries with ratios suggest future trends in tertiary output. relatively low participation levels, as reflected Figure 4 compares the entry ratios for 1999 in WEI countries. In just five years, entry ratios (when many current graduates entered doubled in China and Malaysia, almost doubled university) and 2004 for those countries with in Tunisia, and rose by one-third in Indonesia. data available for both years. They all reported Rising ratios in Germany and Switzerland significantly higher entry ratios in 2004 than five suggest that the recent stagnation in graduation years earlier – with the exception of Spain. This ratios noted above will soon give way to growth. FIGURE 4 Will graduation rates grow at the same pace? A look at recent changes in admissions Gross entry ratios to ISCED 5A, 1999 and 2004 �� ������� ������ �� ������ ������� ������� ��������� ������ �� ������ ������� ����������� ���� �� ��������� ����� �������������������� ������ ����������� �� �������� ����� ����������� ����� ����� ����������� �������� �� ���������� ������ �������� ������� ������� ������� �� ������ �� ��������� �� ����� � ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� �������������������� Coverage: 32 countries completing the UNESCO/OECD/Eurostat (UOE) questionnaire or participating in the UIS/OECD World Education Indicators programme (WEI). Notes: Only countries with data for 1999 and either 2003 or 2004 are included. See Statistical Table 7 for latest reference year. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics; reference year 2004: Statistical Table 7; reference year 1999: UIS/OECD, 2001. 15
  17. 17. TERTIARY EDUC ATION : E X TENDING THE FRONTIERS OF KNOWLEDGE Fields of study programmes. In this case, the finance graduate might be counted twice, whereas This report goes beyond total numbers of the medical graduate would only be counted tertiary graduates to explore the fields in once. which they study. These data can provide valuable insight into current trends shaping Several key factors appear to influence the human capital formation and inform the distribution of graduates by field of study. To debate as to whether or not tertiary systems begin with, low national income generally are geared to meet the needs of both the indicates reduced resources for tertiary labour market and society at large. The education and a lower graduate output. In distribution of graduates’ fields of study also these countries, the public sector is often helps to explain differences in expenditure a major employer of graduates. So fields of between and within tertiary education study related to the core functions of society, systems, e.g. some systems cannot afford like education, account for a greater share of the higher unit costs of medical programmes the relatively few graduates. compared to the humanities. Indeed, the choices students make in terms of subject Figure 5 presents the share of graduates from matter partly reflect the national wealth and selected fields of study (as a percentage of economic opportunities of their countries. all graduates) in relation to national wealth (GDP per capita). Typically, countries with This part of the report begins by identifying low national income have low graduation trends in the study fields of graduates across ratios (grouped to the left of the chart) and countries. However, it does not provide countries with high national income have regional figures or analyses because more high graduation ratios (grouped to the right than one-half of the world’s countries lack of the chart). In general, there is far greater comparable data in this area. This is especially diversity in the importance of a given field of true for countries with low levels of both study across low-income countries with low national income and tertiary education graduation ratios than across middle- and provision. high-income countries with high graduation ratios. It is important to note that the distribution by fields of study combines graduates from In two-thirds of countries with data available, all tertiary levels – ISCED 5B programmes, the social sciences, business and law ISCED 5A first, second and further programmes, were the most popular fields of programmes, as well as PhD and other ISCED study. They also formed the second-largest 6 programmes. This provides an overall study choice in the rest of the countries. In picture of student choices. However, it can Cambodia, Ethiopia, Latvia, Macao (China) cause slight distortions. For example, in some and Madagascar, more than one-half of the countries, medical studies can be part of a graduates studied in these fields. However, single programme of relatively long duration less than 20% of graduates came from the whereas other fields of study, like finance, social sciences in the following countries: may be divided into Bachelors and Master’s Brunei Darussalam, Gambia, Lesotho, Oman, 16