The Analytical Life of Sigmund Freud Twentieth Century Humanities Professor Will Adams Valencia College
Background Information• Dr. Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 to a middle class family, and grew up in Vienna, Austria.• As a young man, Freud attended school at the University of Vienna in beginning in 1873.• By the 1890’s, Freud had become an established physician working in Vienna.• He married Martha Bernay and they had six children: Matilde (1887), Jean Martin (1889), Oliver (1891), Ernst (1892), Sophie (1893), & Anna (1895).
The Field of Study• As an Austrian psychologist, he is credited as the inventor of psychoanalysis.• His theories & discoveries had a major impact on Western thought, philosophy, art, & culture.• He is perhaps most famous for his discovery of the subconscious, founding of psychoanalysis, & theories of human sexuality.
The Field of Study • Freud emphasized that many of our problems in adult life come from our relationships with our parents during childhood. • He defined psychoanalysis as a procedure for the treatment for the medically ill. • Freud was intrigued by cases involving child abuse, incest, as well as other sexually-related cases .
The Conscious Mind • Your conscious mind consists of what you are aware of at any particular moment, your present perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies, & feelings. • It also involves anything that can easily be made conscious - the memories you are not at the moment thinking about but can readily bring to mind.
The Subconscious Mind• This is the largest part of the mind.• It includes all the things that are not easily available to awareness - our drives or instincts, & things that are put there because we cant bear to look at them (such as the memories and emotions associated with trauma).• Our motivations - whether they be simple desires for food or sex, neurotic compulsions, or the motives of an artist or scientist - are also housed in the subconscious mind.
The Subconscious Mind • Many artists find inspiration for their artwork through their subconscious minds. • We are sometimes driven to deny or resist becoming conscious of these motives, & they are often available to us only in disguised form, such as dreams .
The Tripartite Mind• The Id is that part of the mind in which the instinctual sexual drives which require satisfaction are situated .• The Super-Ego is that part which contains the conscience, which is a socially-acquired control mechanism (usually imparted in the first instance by the parents) which has been internalized.• The Ego is the conscious self created by the dynamic tensions and interactions between the id and the super-ego, which has the task of reconciling their conflicting demands with the requirements of external reality.
The Id• The nervous system translates our needs into motivational forces called instincts or drives (Freud called them wishes).• The translation from need to force is called the primary process.• The id is controlled by the pleasure principle: the desire to take care of needs immediately.• An example of this is an infant screaming for something: It does not know what it wants, it just knows it wants it now. The id is developed at birth.• As a want demands more & more of your attention (like a big piece of chocolate cake when you’re on a diet) that is the id breaking through to the conscious mind.
The Ego• The ego relates the organism to reality by means of its consciousness.• It searches for objects to satisfy the wishes that the id creates to represent our needs.• This is called the secondary process• The ego functions according to the reality principle: It will take care of a need as soon as an appropriate object is found.• This develops at around the age of one year.• Developmentally, it also keeps track of the rewards & punishments handed out by parents.• Psychoanalysis is used to gain access to that which the ego has tried to hide in the unconscious, or disguise by means of other defense mechanisms.
Defense Mechanisms• The mind possesses a number of defense mechanisms to attempt to prevent conflicts from becoming too acute. A few examples are: – Repression (pushing conflicts back into the unconscious) – Sublimation (channeling the sexual drives into the achievement socially acceptable goals, in art, science, poetry, etc.) – Fixation (the failure to progress beyond one of the developmental stages) – Regression (a return to the behavioral characteristic of one of the stages).
The Super Ego• There are two components to the superego: – The conscience, which is an internalization of punishments and warnings – The other is called the ego ideal• The ego ideal derives from rewards & positive models presented to the child• The ego ideal is a new set of needs & accompanying wishes of social, not biological origin, which can conflict with the id.• The super-ego represents society, & society often wants nothing better than to have you never satisfy your needs at all.
Our Basic Instincts • Life instincts: These instincts perpetuate – The life of the individual, by motivating him or her to seek food & water, and – The life of the species, by motivating him or her to have sex • Death instinct: every person has an unconscious wish to die • Nirvana principle: This refers to non- existence, nothingness, the void, which is the goal of all life in Buddhist philosophy.
Anxiety and Neurosis• The ego is the center of powerful forces: reality; society, as represented by the superego; & biology, as represented by the id.• As a result, it can feel overwhelmed or anxious.• There are many types of anxiety: – Realistic anxiety or fear – Moral anxiety: Here, threats come not from the outer world, but from the internalized social world of the superego. – Neurotic anxiety: This is the fear of being overwhelmed by impulses from the id (losing control) (e.g. Temper, rationality, peace of mind).
Psychosexual Development Stages of Infantile Sexual Development• The oral stage lasts from birth to about 18 months. The source of pleasure comes from the mouth (sucking and biting).• The anal stage lasts from about 18 months to three or four years old. The focus of pleasure comes from the anus (“holding it in”). This is also where the child learns behavior modification.• The phallic stage lasts from three or four to five, six, or seven years old. The focus of pleasure comes from the genitalia (self-explanatory).• The latent stage lasts from five, six, or seven to puberty (sexual drive is suppressed while learning).• The genital stage begins at puberty, & represents the resurgence of the sex drive in adolescence, & the more specific focusing of pleasure in sexual intercourse
The Oedipal Crisis• Freud believed that all children yearn for their mothers’ attention in an essentially sexual way.• The son recognizes father as an archetype of masculinity & as a rival (gets to sleep with mother etc.).• As a result, the son attempts to become more & more like the father as he enters adolescence & the world of mature heterosexuality.• Castration anxiety, the fear of losing ones penis, develops as boys notice the difference between males and females during the phallic stage.• Penis envy occurs when the young girl notices the difference between boys & girls and feels that she somehow doesnt “measure up”.
The Theory of Hysteria• Freud believed that every hysteria was the result of a traumatic experience – one that cannot be integrated into the persons understanding of the world, or the result of a traumatic childhood experience (e.g. sexual abuse or molestation).• The emotions appropriate to the trauma are not expressed directly.• Instead, they express themselves in behaviors that in a weak, vague way offer a response to the trauma.
The Theory of Hysteria • These symptoms are meaningful. • When the client is be made aware of the meanings of his or her symptoms (e.g. through hypnosis) then the unexpressed emotions are released & no longer need to express themselves as symptoms. • Freud believed that secret sexual desires lay at the bottom of all hysterical neuroses.
The Use of Psychoanalysis• To re-establish a harmonious relationship between the id, ego, and superego (which constitute the psyche) by uncovering and resolving unconscious, repressed conflicts.• When a hysterical patient was encouraged to talk freely about the earliest occurrences of her symptoms & fantasies, the symptoms began to disappear & were eventually eliminated entirely.• This was, Freud theorized, because she was being induced to remember the initial trauma which caused the symptoms.
Sigmund and The Big C• That’s right: Freud liked the • In Uber Coca (1884) Freud yeyo! concluded there were 7• In fact, he loved cocaine so conditions for which cocaine much that he sent it to friends, use might prove valuable: his fiancé, and prescribed it to – As a mental stimulant his patients. – As a possible treatment for digestive disorders• He became interested in – As an appetite stimulant in case cocaine after reading a German of wasting diseases doctor’s report that the drug – As a treatment of morphine and increased soldiers’ endurance. alcohol addiction• After learning this, he – As a treatment for asthma continued his exploration of its – As an aphrodisiac uses with a new energy. – As a local anesthetic
The 4 Periods of Study• Freud’s work can be divided into 4 main periods:• 1886 – 1895: The exploration of neurosis, from the inception of practice until the "Studies on Hysteria".• 1895 – 1899: Self-analysis.• 1900 – 1914: Id psychology, in which he developed the first system of psychoanalytic psychology.• 1914 – 1939: Ego psychology, involving a considerable extension and elaboration of the earlier ideas.