Greek & Roman Humanities Professor Will Adams Valencia College
Events that occurred before written history. This part of history is divided into three periods. The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age
Premise of Sympathetic Magic Everything in the universe is connected. There is a direct correlation between the body and forces of nature. Understanding these connections assists an individual in the interpretation and manipulation of events.
Contagious It holds that physically connected objects can never be separated. Practitioners believe that any action against the part constitutes an action against the whole. Imitative Premise: “like follows like”. The assumption is that a person will imitate the desired behavior or achievement shown to them by religious or spiritual leaders.
There were two kinds of art produced during this time. Parictal art – Paintings, sculptures & engravings found in caves along the walls and the ceilings (these caves were ceremonial sites, not for shelter). Mobiliary art - Small, portable sculpted objects buried at habitation sites.
Bison with Turned Head• Found in Tarn, France · 11,000 – 9,000 BC · Carved elk horn
Bison• Found in Tuc d’Audoubert, France · c. 13,000 – 8,000 BCE · Unbaked clay modeled on living rock
25,000 BCE Made of limestone 4 3/8” high Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria Suggest abundant fertility and a plentiful supply of food Found in 1908 Venus is the classical goddess of love and beauty This “Venus” was sort of a joke: a “failed Venus” – not feminine
She is seen as a fertility idol due to the large breasts, the vagina being indicated, and a round stomach Some argue whether she is wearing a hat or if it is braided hair on top of her head She was perfectly preserved – never had feet Arms are short and skinny comparatively and hold the top of her breast She doesn’t have a face because this focuses on the only parts needed for reproduction
Colored powders made from organic substances such as minerals or semi-precious stones. Pigments are mixed with liquid (referred to as medium, binder, or vehicle) in order to be applied to a surface. That surface is known as the pigment & medium’s support.
• The Cosquer Cave is located near Marseilles.• It can be accessed through a tunnel 574 feet in length, which is 121 feet under the sea level.• The unique feature of this cave is that it contains several dozen works painted and engraved between 27,000 and 19,000 years ago.• It is decorated with a variety of land animals, but also with seals and auks, fifty-five hand stencils.
• The submerged main chamber measures 197 feet across. • The cave is more than 328 feet in diameter when all the flooded areas are included.
Animal Paintings• Marine animals are rarely found in decorated caves from the Paleolithic era.• In the Cosquer Cave, they make up a significant portion (11%) of the overall number of figures.• Drawn or engraved in the rock are penguins, seals, fish, and various figures that may stand for jelly-fish or octopi.• Big-bellied horse painted in black 18,500 years before the present.• This black horse, about 26” long, is drawn with simple lines although the legs are slightly awkward.• Some details, such as the eye, the lower jaw, and the mane done in parallel hatching, are well executed.
• The fact that some knuckles areCan I Get Your Digits? missing in these drawings has given rise to a certain controversy. • Does this bear witness to mutilations, sacrificial rituals, circulatory ailments or frostbite? • Although the fingers are incomplete, the thumb is always intact on these hands which immediately eliminates the hypothesis of severe frostbite having resulted in the necrosis of the fingers. • The most probable hypothesis is that the hands were drawn with bent fingers to represent a sign of greeting or a coded language. This was probably associated with hunting and various rituals, thus similar to the silent language once used by hunting peoples such as the Bushmen and the Australian Aborigines.
The Chauvet Cave is one of the most famous prehistoric rock art sites in the world. Located in the Ardeche region of southern France, along the bank of the river Ardeche near the Pont-dArc, this cave was only discovered as recently as 1994. Chauvet Caves importance is based on two factors: firstly, the aesthetic quality of these Paleolithic cave paintings, and secondly, their great age. With one exception, all of the cave art paintings have been dated between 30,000 & 33,000 years ago. Not only is the Ice Age art of the Chauvet Cave extremely old, it is also very extensive and highly varied.
Lion Panel c. 25,000 – 17,000 BCE Black pigment on limestone• The wall to the right of the central recess has a large number of animals drawn on to it. The overall scene depicts a hunt.• On the right of the composition there is a rhinoceros and a mammoth.• On the left, there are four bison heads, and two more rhinos.• Then there are seven bison, pursued by a pride of sixteen lions, mainly depicted by their heads alone.
• Lascaux is famous for its paintings, found in a complex of caves in the Dordogne region of France, because of their exceptional quality, size, sophistication and antiquity.• Estimated to be up to 20,000 years old, the paintings consist primarily of large animals, once native to the region.• Lascaux is a complex cave with several areas or galleries.• It was discovered on September 12, 1940.• The cave contains nearly 2,000 figures, grouped into three main categories - animals, human figures and abstract signs.
Details of the Hall of the Bulls• Among the most famous images arefour huge, black bulls or aurochs in theHall of the Bulls.• One of the bulls is 17 feet long - thelargest animal discovered so far in caveart.• Additionally, the bulls appear to be inmotion. There are no images of reindeer,even though that was the principalsource of food for the artists.•A painting referred to as The CrossedBison, found in the chamber called theNave, is often held as an example of theskill of the Paleolithic cave painters. Thecrossed hind legs show the ability to useperspective.
The Chinese Horse of Lascaux Cave c. 13,000 BCE • This ancient horse was called "Chinese" because of its resemblance to 3,000 year old Tang dynasty horses. Visit Lascaux!
You will be given a sheet of paper, which you will affix to the underside of your desktop. You will be given pigments in the form of crayons. I will extinguish the lights in the room. You will then use your pigments to “paint” your sheet of paper. Your painting should depict someone or something you admire and would like to imitate. VERY IMPORTANT: Do NOT use any words, characters, or written language. Be sure to work continuously throughout the allotted time, attempting to fill all blank space with images that are as expressive you are capable of creating.
Create an image of The Ideal Earth Mother. Your representation of The Ideal Earth Mother should physically embody and emphasize those traits which you feel make her The Ideal. Consider the artist’s motivations in creating the Venus of Willendorf as you create your own. Your representation should measure no smaller than 8.5” x 11”, and should be mounted on black construction paper, black foam-core, or black poster board forming a 1” margin. On the back of your representation, please attach a one- page explanation of your representation and how it embodies what you feel is Ideal. Be prepared to share your creation at the beginning of next class.