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Hum1020 1030 the inquisition

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  • 1. The InquisitionLooking Into The Human Soul Professor Will Adams Valencia College Fall 2011
  • 2. What Is An Inquisition?1. A formal tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church created to discover and suppress heresy 1. Heresy: Any opinion or belief that is or is thought to be contrary to official or established theory of the Catholic Church2. A severe interrogation (often violating the rights or privacy of individuals)
  • 3. The Church in Medieval Europe By 1200, Catholicism had been dominant religion in Europe for 800+ years In most of Europe, the Pope was the undisputed religious leader Heresy wasn’t much of a problem The Church actually tolerated small groups with opposing views Others were suppressed
  • 4. A New Challenge to Church In the 1100’s, thousands began following Catharism  Catharism: A rigorously ascetic Christian sects maintaining a dualistic theology which stated that the material world was evil and only the spiritual was good They believed they were true Christians and that the Catholic Church was false Many dukes and local leaders in France protected the Cathars This new religion attracted large numbers of converts This, in turn, threatened the Pope and the French government
  • 5. A Crusade Against Cathars In 1209, Pope Innocent III declared a Crusade against the Cathars This led to a long war between Northern and Southern French nobles The North won, but many thousands of people remained secret Cathars Consequently, Church leaders felt something stronger needed to be done
  • 6. The Coming of the Inquisition  In 1232, Pope Gregory IX decided to end this heresy once and for all.  He set up a system of special courts called the Inquisition.  Gregory authorized the leaders of the Dominican religious order to send out friars to find and question heretics.
  • 7. The Inquisition’s Purpose Bernard Gui, a French inquisitioner described the purpose of the Inquisition thusly:“Heresy cannot be destroyed unless heretics are destroyed and . . . their defenders and [supporters] are destroyed, and this is effected in two ways: . . . they are converted to the true Catholic faith, or . . . burned.”
  • 8. Inquisitional Procedure When the Inquisition arrived in town, townspeople would gather in a public place Failure to show immediately placed one under suspicion Anyone could denounce him or herself for a light punishment They would also have to inform on other heretics Other people faced forced interrogation
  • 9. Sample Inquisition TrialThe inquisition has come to town. Everyone gathertogether to confess your crimes!
  • 10. The Inquisitional Trial The Church generally favored prosecution – Why? Lawyers were allowed to defend the accused, but seldom used Unlike modern criminal trials, these were closed trials Defendant were allowed to confess (but seldom knew the charges to which they were confessing) The Defendant didn’t have the right to face his or her accuser Prosecutorial testimony was taken from all sorts
  • 11. Defendants’ Rights: A Loophole! Defendants named those with “mortal hatred” against them. If the accuser was named, the defendant was released. The accuser faced a life sentence. This was meant to keep the Inquisition out of local grudges.
  • 12. Inquisitional Torture Torture was not used until after 1252 A confession under torture was not admissible in court The inquisitor could, however, threaten torture Ironically, torture was common in the medieval judicial system Torture methods used by the Inquisition was mild in comparison
  • 13. Inquisitional Torture Torturers were forbidden to use methods that resulted in bloodshed, mutilation or death One of the more common forms of medieval inquisition torture was known as strappado.  Strappado: The hands were bound behind the back with a rope, and the accused was suspended this way, dislocating the joints painfully in both arms. Weights could be added to the legs dislocating those joints as well.
  • 14. Strappado
  • 15. Another Torture Method: The Rack
  • 16. Punishment A long pilgrimage was assigned to first offenders  Pilgrimages: Journeys made to some place with the purpose of venerating it, or in order to ask there for supernatural aid, or to discharge some religious obligation. Others were sentenced to wearing a yellow cross for life The Church could also order the confiscation of property Banishment was another punishment for the convicted Still more were forced to publicly recant their heresy Long-term imprisonment was a finally (expensive) solution for the Church
  • 17. A Final, Grisly Punishment Burning at the stake was only for the most serious cases, including repeat offenders and unrepentant heretics. Execution was carried out not by the Church, which was forbidden to kill, but by secular officials.
  • 18. Punishment in the Inquisition The inquisitors generally preferred to persuade the heretic to repent. They wanted to be perceived as merciful, and they generally preferred to keep defendants alive in hopes of obtaining confessions. Bernard Gui executed 42 people out of over 900 guilty verdicts in fifteen years of office. Execution was to admit defeat, that the Church was unable to save a soul from heresy, which was the goal of the Inquisition.
  • 19. The Spanish Inquisition The Spanish Inquisition began in 1478 under King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella Around that time, thousands of Jews & Muslims had settled in Spain They’d been forced to convert to Christianity to participate in business and government These conversos made up a large portion of the wealthy and influential
  • 20. The Spanish Inquisition The wealth of these groups led to much resentment and Anti-Semitism in Spain Rumors then began spread that conversos continued to practice Judaism Anti-converso riots erupted across the nation This upset the just-united Spain Alarmed by this unrest, King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella took action
  • 21. “No one expects the Spanish Inquisition!”
  • 22. Spanish Inquisition The Spanish government didn’t attack rioters Instead, they attacked the conversos! Pope Sixtus IV gave Ferdinand & Isabella permission to set up their own Inquisition in Spain Tomas de Torquemada, a Dominican friar, was appointed Inquisitor General
  • 23. The Spanish Inquisitor General
  • 24. Spanish Inquisition The Spanish Inquisition was ferocious in dealing with heretics Within 10 years of its advent, 2,000 people had been burned at the stake Another 15,000 suffered other penalties Even the auto-da-fe was horrendous
  • 25. Auto-Da-Fe It can be translated as “Act of faith” It was the final public ceremony of Spanish Inquisition Crowds gathered in a public square A bishop called out names of the condemned Then, heretics led out, wearing black robes with red demons and flames Next, they were tied to stakes in the square
  • 26. Auto-Da-Fe A priest would ask if they’d given up their heresy to the church Anyone who repented would be strangled to death The others were burned Their screams mingled with the crowd’s cheers
  • 27. Spanish Inquisition Ends In 1492, Ferdinand & Isabella expelled all Jews who refused to convert This paralyzed Spanish commerce 100 years later, the same resentment and fury turned toward Muslims As a result, Spain never recovered as a commercial power
  • 28. The Inquisition
  • 29. Protestant Reformation In the 1500’s, the Pope tried to use the Inquisition against the growing Protestant (Lutheran & Calvinist) movements, but was unsuccessful The Protestants had government allies; they were therefore protected A single, Catholic Europe had come apart
  • 30. The Inquisition Peters Out The Inquisition began as an attack on a few sects of heretics 300 years later, it could no longer hold Europe together Religious and national wars were to last centuries and take hundreds of thousands of lives
  • 31. The Controversy of Galileo Galilei Galileos belief in the Copernican System eventually got him into trouble with the Catholic Church. A committee of consultants declared to the Inquisition that the Copernican proposition that the Sun is the center of the universe was a heresy. Because Galileo supported the Copernican System, he was warned that he should not discuss or defend Copernican theories.
  • 32. The Controversy of Galileo Galilei  In 1624, Galileo was assured by Pope Urban VIII that he could write about Copernican theory as long as he treated it as a mathematical proposition.  However, with the printing of Galileos book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Galileo was called to Rome in 1633 to face the Inquisition again.  Galileo was ordered to stand trial on suspicion of heresy in 1633.
  • 33. Galileo’s Sentence Galileo was required to recant his heliocentric ideas, which were condemned as “formally heretical”. He was ordered imprisoned; the sentence was later commuted to house arrest. His offending Dialogue was banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works was forbidden, including any he might write in the future.
  • 34. The End