WHAT IS LINEAR PERSPECTIVE? A system for representing three- dimensional space on a two-dimensional flat surface Developed in Florence, Italy in the early 15th century by Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Batista Alberti
DEVELOPMENT OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) was the sculptor and architect who demonstrated the principles of perspective through mathematics In 1415, Brunelleschi painted his picture of the Baptistery on the surface of a small mirror, right on top of its own reflection. The Baptistery in Florence
BRUNELLESCHI’S “PEEP SHOW” To demonstrate the fact that his painting was indeed an exact replica that could fool the eye, Brunelleschi drilled a small hole in the mirror and then stood directly in front of the Baptistery, looking through the peephole to see the real building. He then held up a second, clean mirror in front of his painted panel. The second mirror blocked the view of the real building, but now reflected his painted version on the original mirror.
BRUNELLESCHI’S “PEEP SHOW” By holding up the panel and pressing the hole to one eye while holding a mirror with the other hand, the viewer could see the painting’s reflection. A viewer standing in the cathedral doorway could check the painted illusion against the real view.
LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI (1404-72) Architect and writer who was the first to formulate rules that artists could follow Imagined the picture surface as an “open window” through which a painted world is seen Showed how a perspective “checkerboard pavement” is created within the picture space - in which the receding parallel lines represent the visual rays connecting the spectator’s eye to a spot in the distance
LEON BATISTA ALBERTI• Based his system on the height of the human figure, being 3 braccia tall• Drew a rectangular picture area, imagined as an open window• Divided the ground line into scaled braccia• Fixed the central vanishing point by drawing a vertical line three braccia high from the center of the ground line• Drew diagonals – orthogonals - joining the ground line to the vanishing point
APPLICATION OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Brunelleschi devised the method of perspective for architectural purposes. He is said to have made a ground plan for the Church of Santo Spirito on the basis of which he produced a perspective drawing to show his clients how it would look after it was built. We can compare this drawing with a modern photo of the actual church.
BRUNELLESCHI’S PROPOSAL DRAWINGOF SANTO SPIRITO, DATED 1543 INTERIOR OF SANTO SPIRITO TODAYAPPLICATION OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
PERSPECTIVE Linear Perspective: Based on the way the human eye sees the world. Objects that are closer appear larger, more distant objects appear smaller. To create the illusion of space the artists creates a vanishing point on the horizon line. Objects are drawn using orthogonal lines, which lead to the vanishing point.
PERSPECTIVE Horizon Line The place where the land and the sky meet. Vanishing Point The single point on the horizon where all the lines on the ground level seem to come together Orthogonal Line Lines that connect to the vanishing point
In two-point perspective, there are 2 vanishing points located along the horizon line.
• Notice how the corner of the building is facing the viewer. This is a simple example of 2 point perspective.• Where are the vanishing points?• Sometimes vanishing points are not on the picture plane at all!
• A building can be reduced to a simple shape…..a box.• All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners.• Notice how the “walls” of the box are straight up &down.
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: DUE OCTOBER 27TH Your Final Assignment • Create a fantasy city using two-point perspective! • Sketch out in pencil first • Add forms and details to create your city • Outline with black marker or pen • Paint with watercolor, colored pencil or marker to complete your city