Art1204 pursuing perfection classical greek art

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  • 1. Art  Appreciation   Professor  Will  Adams  
  • 2. v  Early  Classical  Period,  ca.  480-­‐450  BCE:   Defeat  of  Persians,  Use  of  Bronze   Sculpture,  more  detail  in  sculpture   v  High  Classical  Period,  ca.  450-­‐400  BCE:   Parthenon  &  Erectheion,  Doric  and  Ionic   Orders,  Caryatids,  Canon  of  Polykleitos   v  Late  Classical  Period,  ca.  400-­‐323  BCE:   Sparta  beats  Athens,  Corinthian  Order,   ends  with  the  death  of  Alexander  the   Great;  Praxiteles  redefines  Polykleitos’   figures;  sculptures  are  created  with  a  more   360-­‐degree  interest   v  Hellenistic  Period,  ca.  323-­‐31  BCE  
  • 3. v  Greek  city-­‐states  banded   together  and  defeated  the   Persians  in  479  BCE   v  This  victory  gave  them  a   self-­‐confidence    that   accelerated  their  society   and  art.   v  Lasted  until  about  450  BCE   Kritios  Boy,  ca.  480  BCE  
  • 4. The  use  of   hollow-­‐casting   bronze   developed   toward  the  end   of  the  Archaic   Period     It  made  for  more   complex,  detail   poses.     Charioteer,  ca.   470  BCE,  Bronze  
  • 5. Using  bronze  allowed   such  an  extensive   study  of  the  anatomy   that  it  paved  the  way   for  the  achievements   of  the  Classical   period.   Riace  Warrior,  ca.   470-­‐460  BCE,  Bronze.     With  Copper  lips  and   nipples.  
  • 6. Balanced,  dynamic  poses  like  this   could  only  be  created  with  the   invention  of   contrapposto.   Contrapposto  is  the  standing  human   figure  poised  in  such  a  way  that  the   weight  rests  on  one  leg  (called  the   engaged  leg),  freeing  the  other  leg,   which  is  bent  at  the  knee.  With  the   weight  shift,  the  hips,  shoulders,  and   head  tilt,  suggesting  relaxation  with   the  subtle  internal  organic  movement   that  denotes  life.     Statue  of  Zeus,  from  the  sea  off  Cape   Artemision.  Greece,  ca.  460  -­‐  450  BCE  
  • 7. The  master  High  Classical  sculptor   Polykleitos  wrote  the  treatise  entitled   “Canon  of  Polykleitos”,  which  was  a  set  of   mathematical  rules  or  laws  for  creating   scale  in  human  sculptures.   Polykleitos  set  the  proportions  for  the   head  to  the  body  at  1:7.   Polykleitos,  Doryphoros,  c.  450-­‐440  BCE,   High  Classical  Greek   Doryphoros  means  ‘spear-­‐bearer’  in   Greek.  
  • 8. This  period  in  Greek  history   lasted  from  about  400-­‐330  BCE   During  this  time,  Sparta   defeated  Athens  in  the   Peloponnesian  War   Greek  Art  still  flourished  with   Ionic  order,  and  even   introduces  Corinthian  order  for   interiors.   The  Romans  would  later  copy   it  for  their  buildings.  
  • 9. The  Late  Classical  sculptor  Praxiteles   developed  even  more  extensive  rules   for  proportion  in  sculpture,  based  on   the  Canon  of  Polykleitos.   Praxiteles’  canon  differs  from   Polykleitos’  in  that  the  body  of  a   Praxitelian  figure  is  8  heads  tall  instead   of  7.   Praxiteles,  Hermes  &  Infant  Dionysus,   343  BCE,  Roman  copy  of  Late  Classical   Greek  bronze  
  • 10. Polykleitos  (1:7)   Praxiteles  (1:8)   1   8   1   7  
  • 11. LATE CLASSICAL PERIOD Praxiteles   Aphrodite  Taking   A  Bath,  350  -­‐  340   BCE   Roman  copy  of   Late  Classical   Greek  bronze    
  • 12. Lysippos,  Apoxyomenos   (The  “Scraper”),  ca.  320   BCE,  Roman  copy  based  on   bronze  original    Canon  modified  to  1:9   1   9