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- 1. Art Appreciation - ART1204 Professor Will Adams Fooling The Eye Brunelleschi, Alberti & Linear Perspective
- 2. THE INVENTION OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
- 3. WHAT IS LINEAR PERSPECTIVE?
- 4. WHAT IS LINEAR PERSPECTIVE? Ò Linear perspective is a system for creating the illusion of a three- dimensional space on a two- dimensional, flat surface.
- 5. WHAT IS LINEAR PERSPECTIVE? Ò Linear perspective is a system for creating the illusion of a three- dimensional space on a two- dimensional, flat surface. Ò It was discovered in Florence, Italy in the early 15th century by Filippo Brunelleschi & Leon Batista Alberti.
- 6. DEVELOPING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Ò Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446 CE) was the Italian sculptor and architect who demonstrated the principles of perspective through optics. Ò In 1415 CE, Brunelleschi painted a picture of the Florentine Baptistery on the surface of a small mirror, right on top of its own reflection.
- 7. DEVELOPING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
- 8. DEVELOPING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Ò To demonstrate the fact that his painting was indeed an exact replica that could fool the eye, Brunelleschi drilled a small hole in the mirror and then stood directly in front of the Baptistery, looking through the peephole to see the real building.
- 9. DEVELOPING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Ò To demonstrate the fact that his painting was indeed an exact replica that could fool the eye, Brunelleschi drilled a small hole in the mirror and then stood directly in front of the Baptistery, looking through the peephole to see the real building. Ò He then held up a second, clean mirror in front of his painted panel. The second mirror blocked the view of the real building, but now reflected his painted version on the original mirror.
- 10. DEVELOPING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
- 11. DEVELOPING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
- 12. DEVELOPING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Ò By holding up the panel and pressing the hole to one eye while holding a mirror with the other hand, the viewer could see the painting’s reflection.
- 13. DEVELOPING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Ò By holding up the panel and pressing the hole to one eye while holding a mirror with the other hand, the viewer could see the painting’s reflection. Ò A viewer standing in the cathedral doorway could check the painted illusion against the real view.
- 14. LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI
- 15. LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI Ò Alberti (1404-1472) was an architect and writer who first formulates rules that artists could follow to create perspectival work.
- 16. LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI Ò Alberti (1404-1472) was an architect and writer who first formulates rules that artists could follow to create perspectival work. Ò He imagined the picture surface as an “open window” through which a painted world is seen.
- 17. LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI Ò Alberti (1404-1472) was an architect and writer who first formulates rules that artists could follow to create perspectival work. Ò He imagined the picture surface as an “open window” through which a painted world is seen. Ò Showed how a perspective “checkerboard pavement” is created within the picture space - in which the receding parallel lines represent the visual rays connecting the spectator’s eye to a spot in the distance.
- 18. LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI ▪ Based his system on the height of the human figure, being 3 braccia tall ▪ Drew a rectangular picture plane, imagined as an open window ▪ Divided the ground line into 6 scaled braccia ▪ Fixed the central vanishing point by drawing a vertical line three braccia high from the center of the ground line ▪ Drew diagonals – orthogonals - joining the ground line to the vanishing point
- 19. USING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
- 20. USING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Ò Brunelleschi used the knowledge of perspective for architectural purposes.
- 21. USING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Ò Brunelleschi used the knowledge of perspective for architectural purposes. Ò He is said to have made a ground plan for the Church of Santo Spirito on the basis of which he produced a perspective drawing to show his clients how it would look after it was built.
- 22. USING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Ò Brunelleschi used the knowledge of perspective for architectural purposes. Ò He is said to have made a ground plan for the Church of Santo Spirito on the basis of which he produced a perspective drawing to show his clients how it would look after it was built. Ò We can compare this drawing with a modern photo of the actual church.
- 23. USING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Brunelleschi’s proposal drawing of Santo Spirito, dated 1543 A photograph of the interior of Santo Spirito as it looks today.
- 24. USING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Brunelleschi’s proposal drawing of Santo Spirito, dated 1543 A photograph of the interior of Santo Spirito as it looks today.
- 25. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE
- 26. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE
- 27. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
- 28. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE LINEAR PERSPECTIVE ▪ Based on the way the human eye sees the world.
- 29. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE LINEAR PERSPECTIVE ▪ Based on the way the human eye sees the world. ▪ Objects that are closer appear larger, more distant objects appear smaller.
- 30. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE LINEAR PERSPECTIVE ▪ Based on the way the human eye sees the world. ▪ Objects that are closer appear larger, more distant objects appear smaller. ▪ To create the illusion of space the artist creates a vanishing point on the horizon line.
- 31. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE LINEAR PERSPECTIVE ▪ Based on the way the human eye sees the world. ▪ Objects that are closer appear larger, more distant objects appear smaller. ▪ To create the illusion of space the artist creates a vanishing point on the horizon line. ▪ Objects are drawn using orthogonal lines, which lead to the vanishing point.
- 32. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE ▪ Horizon Line: The place where the land and the sky meet. ▪ Vanishing Point: The single point on the horizon where all the lines on the ground level seem to come together. ▪ Orthogonals: Lines that connect to the vanishing point.
- 33. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE ▪ Horizon Line: The place where the land and the sky meet. ▪ Vanishing Point: The single point on the horizon where all the lines on the ground level seem to come together. ▪ Orthogonals: Lines that connect to the vanishing point.
- 34. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE ▪ Horizon Line: The place where the land and the sky meet. ▪ Vanishing Point: The single point on the horizon where all the lines on the ground level seem to come together. ▪ Orthogonals: Lines that connect to the vanishing point.
- 35. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE ▪ Horizon Line: The place where the land and the sky meet. ▪ Vanishing Point: The single point on the horizon where all the lines on the ground level seem to come together. ▪ Orthogonals: Lines that connect to the vanishing point.
- 36. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE ▪ Horizon Line: The place where the land and the sky meet. ▪ Vanishing Point: The single point on the horizon where all the lines on the ground level seem to come together. ▪ Orthogonals: Lines that connect to the vanishing point.
- 37. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE ▪ Horizon Line: The place where the land and the sky meet. ▪ Vanishing Point: The single point on the horizon where all the lines on the ground level seem to come together. ▪ Orthogonals: Lines that connect to the vanishing point.
- 38. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE ▪ Horizon Line: The place where the land and the sky meet. ▪ Vanishing Point: The single point on the horizon where all the lines on the ground level seem to come together. ▪ Orthogonals: Lines that connect to the vanishing point.
- 39. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example?
- 40. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example?
- 41. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line
- 42. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line
- 43. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line
- 44. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line
- 45. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line
- 46. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line
- 47. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line
- 48. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line
- 49. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 50. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 51. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 52. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 53. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 54. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 55. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 56. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line Orthogonals Vanishing point!
- 57. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In one-point perspective, the vanishing point can be at any location along the horizon line; where is the vanishing point in this example? Horizon Line Orthogonals Vanishing point!
- 58. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it?
- 59. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it?
- 60. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line
- 61. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line
- 62. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line
- 63. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line
- 64. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line
- 65. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line
- 66. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 67. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 68. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 69. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 70. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 71. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 72. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line Orthogonals Vanishing Point!
- 73. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE In this painting, Little Street, by Vermeer, the vanishing point is hidden by the building itself; can you locate it? Horizon Line Orthogonals Vanishing Point!
- 74. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper?
- 75. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper?
- 76. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line
- 77. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line
- 78. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line
- 79. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line
- 80. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line
- 81. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 82. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 83. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 84. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 85. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 86. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line Orthogonals
- 87. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line Orthogonals Vanishing Point!
- 88. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE Sometimes the vanishing point can be obscured by subjects within the composition or placed outside the picture plane itself; where is it in da Vinci’s The Last Supper? Horizon Line Orthogonals Vanishing Point!
- 89. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE
- 90. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 91. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 92. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 93. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 94. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 95. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 96. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 97. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 98. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 99. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 100. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 101. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 102. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 103. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 104. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Ò In two-point perspective, there are two vanishing points located along the horizon line. Ò This allows an artist to create a three-quarter view of a structure, as if you are standing at the corner of a city block. Ò Horizon Line Ò Front edge (corner) Ò Orthogonals Ò Vanishing points
- 105. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE
- 106. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE ▪ Notice how the corner of the building is facing the viewer. ▪ This is a simple example of two-point perspective. ▪ Where are the vanishing points? ▪ Sometimes vanishing points are not on the picture plane at all!
- 107. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE How To Create A Basic Image In Two-Point Perspective Ò Draw in the horizon line across the picture plane and place a vanishing point at either end of it. Ò Draw a vertical front edge line toward the center of the picture plane between the ground line & horizon line. Ò Draw orthogonals from the top & bottom ends of the front edge line to the left & right vanishing points, respectively. Ò Within each of the triangles the orthogonals create on either side of the front edge, draw in a vertical back edge line. Ò The, from the top, outside corners of each back edge, draw orthogonal lines connecting them to the opposite vanishing points. Ò Voila! A box rendered in two-point perspective!
- 108. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical.
- 109. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical.
- 110. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line
- 111. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line
- 112. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line
- 113. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points
- 114. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points
- 115. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points
- 116. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge
- 117. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge
- 118. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge
- 119. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge
- 120. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge
- 121. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge
- 122. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals
- 123. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals
- 124. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals
- 125. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals
- 126. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals Back edges
- 127. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals Back edges
- 128. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals Back edges WALLS!
- 129. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals Back edges WALLS!
- 130. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals Back edges WALLS!
- 131. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals Back edges WALLS! Back orthogonals
- 132. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals Back edges WALLS! Back orthogonals
- 133. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals Back edges WALLS! Back orthogonals ROOF!
- 134. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Any structure’s form can be reduced to a simple box. All convergent lines are drawn from each of the corners. Notice how the side of the box must be perfectly vertical. Horizon line Vanishing points Front edge OrthogonalsOrthogonals Back edges WALLS! Back orthogonals ROOF! THERE’S YOUR BOX!
- 135. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Next, try lowering the horizon line. Notice that the viewer’s position in relationship to the box appears lower. Also, note that if the front edge is higher than the horizon line, the box’s roof will be invisible.
- 136. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Next, try lowering the horizon line. Notice that the viewer’s position in relationship to the box appears lower. Also, note that if the front edge is higher than the horizon line, the box’s roof will be invisible.
- 137. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Next, try lowering the horizon line. Notice that the viewer’s position in relationship to the box appears lower. Also, note that if the front edge is higher than the horizon line, the box’s roof will be invisible.
- 138. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Next, try lowering the horizon line. Notice that the viewer’s position in relationship to the box appears lower. Also, note that if the front edge is higher than the horizon line, the box’s roof will be invisible.
- 139. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Next, try lowering the horizon line. Notice that the viewer’s position in relationship to the box appears lower. Also, note that if the front edge is higher than the horizon line, the box’s roof will be invisible.
- 140. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Next, try lowering the horizon line. Notice that the viewer’s position in relationship to the box appears lower. Also, note that if the front edge is higher than the horizon line, the box’s roof will be invisible.
- 141. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Next, try lowering the horizon line. Notice that the viewer’s position in relationship to the box appears lower. Also, note that if the front edge is higher than the horizon line, the box’s roof will be invisible.
- 142. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 143. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 144. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 145. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 146. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 147. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 148. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 149. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 150. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 151. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 152. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 153. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 154. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 155. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 156. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 157. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 158. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 159. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 160. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 161. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 162. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 163. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals.
- 164. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE For a greater challenge, begin stacking boxes atop one another and adding additional boxes along the bottom orthogonals. Notice that the second cube’s top is invisible because its front edge rises above the horizon line!
- 165. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 166. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 167. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 168. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 169. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 170. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 171. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 172. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 173. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 174. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 175. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 176. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 177. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 178. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 179. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 180. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 181. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 182. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 183. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 184. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 185. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 186. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 187. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 188. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 189. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 190. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 191. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 192. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 193. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 194. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 195. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 196. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 197. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 198. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 199. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 200. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Finally, add details like windows, doors, or signs to your boxes to give them visual interest. To do this, simply draw bands stretching from the box’s front edge back to the vanishing point.
- 201. HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT YOUR ASSIGNMENT ▪ Create a fantasy city using two-point perspective! ▪ Sketch out in pencil first ▪ Add forms and details to create your city ▪ Outline with black marker or pen ▪ Paint with watercolor, colored pencil or marker to complete your city ▪ Your fantasy city will be due next class meeting.
- 202. FINE

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