Art1204 classical greek architecture


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Art1204 classical greek architecture

  1. 1. Classical Greek Architectureı Art Appreciation Professor Will Adams
  2. 2. The Origin of Architectureı
  3. 3. The Origin of Architecture' n  Greek temples, like the earlier Egyptian hypostyle halls that their designs are based upon, used basic post-and-lintel construction. n  This type of design – which is based on right angles and not curves – is sometimes referred to as trabeated architecture.
  4. 4. Petrified Architectureı
  5. 5. Petrified Architectureı n  However, by the 6th Century BCE, stone had replaced wood in the construction of important temples. n  This transformation in material from wood to stone is referred to as petrification. n  Designs still reflected their origins in wood, however.
  6. 6. Petrified Architecture n  In moving from wood to stone, builders had to adapt to the differing properties of their building materials. n  Stone has greater compressive strength (resistance to crushing) than wood, but lacks wood’s tensile strength (tolerance of bending or twisting).
  7. 7. Petrified Architecture n  As a result, the Greeks designed temples that could have towering, widely-spaced columns, but their superstructures (the parts of the building held up by the columns) had to be solid, unified masses capable of being held together by multiple columns. n  This part must be solid. n  This part can have open space.
  8. 8. Petrified Architecture n  Early temples had massive pillars, as architects worried about their ability to support the weight above. n  As a result, the earliest Greek temples, like the Temple of Hera I at Paestum, look low & wide. n  Later Greek temples, like the Temple of Hera II at Paestum, appear taller & more elegant.
  9. 9. The Purpose of a Templeı
  10. 10. The Purpose of a Templeı n  Unlike modern churches or mosques, Greek temples’ interiors were not meant to be meeting places for worship. n  They were seen as earthly homes for the community’s god or goddess and a place to keep offerings. n  A cult image was centrally located within the naos, or central interior space.
  11. 11. The Anatomy of a Greek Templeı
  12. 12. The Anatomy of a Greek Temple n  There are four distinct parts, or sections, that are used to construct a Greek temple. n  The lowest, horizontal part of the temple is its foundation, which looks like steps. n  Most Greek temples had three of these “steps”. n  Collectively, this section is called the stylobate.
  13. 13. The Anatomy of a Greek Temple n  The next section is the vertical, height-building section that is referred to as the column. n  Most columns had a base (though not the Doric), at the bottom, a shaft in the middle, and a capital at the top. n  The shaft may also be smooth or fluted (a series of grooves that run the length of the shaft). CapitalShaftBase
  14. 14. The Anatomy of a Greek Temple n  Above that, supported by the column, is the entablature. n  The entablature forms the ceiling of the temple. n  If the column is like a table leg, think of this as the tabletop. n  It has three parts: n  Architrave: the beam that rests on the capital. n  Frieze: A sculpted band. n  Cornice: A crowning trim.
  15. 15. The Anatomy of a Greek Temple n  The angled top section that forms the roof is called the pediment. n  The angled beam at the top is called the sloping cornice. n  The triangular part below is called the tympanum; this is often carved and decorated. n  Sometimes there are carved features attached to the roof; these are called antefixes (2D on roof edges) & acroterion (3D, on corners).
  16. 16. The Greek Architectural ordersı
  17. 17. The Greek Architectural orders n  Greek temples, like Egyptian temples, tended to follow set design patterns, which were regarded as unchangeable, ideal forms. n  Resultantly, design variations are few in any given period. n  Instead, the architects choice of a particular Greek order (decorative detail style), expressed his creativity.
  18. 18. The Greek Architectural orders n  In order of chronological development, the three classical Greek orders are: n  The Doric n  The Ionic n  The Corinthian
  19. 19. The Doric Orderı n  The Doric order’s columns are – by comparison – the shortest and widest, making these temples the heaviest in appearance. n  The tripartite capital is plainly carved. n  Doric columns have thick shafts (though it loses some of its mass over time) that are constructed with cylindrical blocks called drums. n  The columns are baseless.
  20. 20. The Doric Capital n  As stated, the capitals of the Doric order’s columns consist of three separate elements. n  From top to bottom, they are: n  The Abacus n  The Echinus n  The Necking
  21. 21. The Temple of Zeus c. 470 – 456 BCE; Olympia, Greeceı
  22. 22. The Ionic Orderı n  Temples of the second Greek order, the Ionic, appear more elegant than the Doric. n  Besides basic proportion, the Ionic is distinguishable from the Doric order by its capital’s distinctive scroll-like volutes. n  The columns that they surmount also have shafts that are thinner and taller than the Doric. n  Finally, the Ionic order adds a base to the column.
  23. 23. The Ionic Capital n  As with the Doric order, Ionic order capitals also have three component elements. n  From top to bottom they are: n  The Abacus n  The Volute n  The Necking
  24. 24. The Temple of Artemis c. 323 BCE; Ephesus, Turkeyı
  25. 25. The Corinthian Orderı n  Of the three ancient Greek temple orders, the Corinthian order temples are by far the tallest, most elegant, and most majestic in their appearance. n  Their towering columns are topped by foliated capitals that are delineated by acanthus leaf carvings. n  As with the Ionic order, column bases are also employed.
  26. 26. The Corinthian Order n  Like the earlier Doric & Ionic orders’ capitals, the Corinthian also have three component elements. n  From top to bottom they are: n  The Abacus n  The Acanthus Leaves n  The Necking
  27. 27. The Temple of Caesar c. 42 BCE; Rome, Italyı
  28. 28. Column Refinement Entasis n  Columns of all Greek orders feature a swelling of the shaft called entasis. n  Entasis counteracts the eye’s tendency to reach upward & forces it to look both ways. n  Also, columns that are straight appear thinner in the middle when seen against harsh light, making them appear flimsy. n  The shaft’s middle bulge visually counteracts this.
  29. 29. The Plans of Greek Templesı
  30. 30. The Plans of Greek Templesı n  The grandeur and evident expense of a temple can be determined by the number of columns that were used to construct it. n  Simple, early temples were only blank walls surrounding the naos. n  Later, an open area or porch was added in front, called a pronaos, supported with either two or four columns.
  31. 31. The Plans of Early Greek Temples Temple In Antis Prostyle Amphiprostyle Simple naos, no pronaos A naos with a pronaos in front A naos with a pronaos at either end
  32. 32. The Plans of Greek Temples n  Later, grander temples, like the Parthenon in Athens, had both a front and back pronaos (like an amphiprostyle temple), but added a colonnade that surrounded the entire structure called a peristyle. n  A structure with this type of floor plan is referred to as a peripteral temple.
  33. 33. The Parthenon c. 427 BCE; Athens, Greeceı
  34. 34. The Plans of Greek Temples n  Grandest of all, and generally constructed during the late Greek period (what is known as the Hellenistic Age), are dipteral temples. n  These are essentially peripteral temples, but with a second colonnade surrounding them, creating a double peristyle.
  35. 35. The Temple of Apollo c. 300 BCE; Didyma, Turkeyı
  36. 36. The Acropolis c. 450 BCE; Athens, Greeceı n  Perhaps the greatest concentrated collection of Greek architecture sits atop the Acropolis, the sacred sanctuary of Athena in Athens. n  This sanctuary’s collection of buildings includes: n  The Propylaia: The gatehouse n  The Temple of Athena Nike: The temple dedicated to victory. n  The Parthenon: The temple of Athena as patron goddess of Athens n  The Erechtheum: The temple dedicated to the early kings of Athens & the god Poseidon
  37. 37. The Parthenon c. 427 BCE; Athens, Greece n  This building is the culmination of Classical Greek architecture, and is the template that many other structures would go on to emulate. n  To create this temple, the architects (Kallikrates & Iktinos) included many subtle optical refinements. n  The result is a building that reflects the Greek concept of arete, visual perfection.
  38. 38. The Greek Legacyı n  The forms and designs of ancient Greek architecture had a lasting impact on the world. n  The Romans went on to adopt its plans and orders as ideals, but would modify them to meet their more pragmatic building requirements, creating structures like the Pantheon in Rome.
  39. 39. The Greek Legacy n  As a result, the Greek forms of Greek architecture have become an integral part of the vocabulary of world architecture. n  In fact, the architecture of Rome would strongly influence the development of the United States’ federal architectural language, centuries after the Classical era.
  40. 40. Homework for Next Classı n  Identify a building in the local area that uses the Greek architectural language that we learned in class today. n  Hint: Prime suspects for your building include banks, churches, and government buildings. n  Using a piece of graph paper & a pencil, sketch the façade, or front, of the building. n  Then, trace over your pencil sketch in black ink pen. n  Next, identify and label all of the Greek architectural elements from today’s lecture that you can in your sketch of that building’s façade. n  On the back of your sketch, please write your name, the name of the building, and its physical address. n  Your sketch will be due at the beginning of next class.
  41. 41. Telosı