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ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire
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ARH2050 The Burden of Glory: The Art of the High & Late Roman Empire

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  • 1. The Burden Of GLORY The Art Of The High Roman Empire Introduction  To  Art  History  I   Professor  Will  Adams  
  • 2. Pont-­‐du-­‐Gard,  Nîmes,  France;  19   BCE   The Imperial Age §  The  Romans  typically   built  aqueducts  to  serve   any  large  city  in  their   empire.   §  The  city  of  Rome  itself,   being  the  largest  city,  had   the  largest  concentration   of  aqueducts,  with  water   being  supplied  by  eleven   aqueducts  constructed   over  a  period  of  500  years.  
  • 3. The Imperial Age
  • 4. The Imperial Age
  • 5. The Imperial Age §  There  were   approximately  300  miles   of  aqueducts,  while  only   29  of  them  were  above   ground.   §  The  aqueduct  provided   about  one  hundred   gallons  of  water  a  day   for  the  inhabitants  of   Nîmes  from  a  source   some  thirty  miles  away.  
  • 6. The Imperial Age
  • 7. Pont-­‐du-­‐Gard,  Nîmes,  France;   19  BCE   The Imperial Age
  • 8. The Imperial Age §  This  civic  Roman  temple  was  built   by  Agrippa,  who  died  in  12  BCE.   §  It  was  then  dedicated  to  his  two   sons,  Caius  and  Lucius,  heirs  of   Augustus  who  both  died  very   young.   §  It  shows  the  allegiance  &  loyalty   of  the  Roman  colony  to  the   empire.   §  It  stands  on  the  short  south  side   of  the  forum  on  a  podium  which  is   nearly  10  feet  high.   §  It  was  built  of  local  limestone,  but   without  a  doubt  the  architect  and   workmen  came  from  Rome.   Maison  Carrée,  Nîmes,  France;  c.  10  CE  
  • 9. The Imperial Age Maison  Carrée,  Nîmes,  France;  c.  10  CE  
  • 10. An empire emerges §  After  his  father’s  death,   Vespasian’s  son,  Titus,  assumes   control  of  the  Empire  in  79  CE,   the  same  year  that  Mt.  Vesuvius   erupts  and  buries  the  cities  of   Pompeii  and  Herculaneum.   §  Despite  the  disaster,  Emperor   Titus  was  known  as  “the  light  of   the  world”  during  his  reign,  in   recognition  of  his  administration   and  completion  of  his  father’s   Coliseum  project.   §  Titus  was  mysteriously  killed  in   81  CE.  
  • 11. Pompeii & Herculaneum §  Pompeii  &  neighboring   Herculaneum  were   buried  on  August  24  &   August  25,  79  CE  by  the   eruption  of  Mt.   Vesuvius.   §  Pompeii  is  the  most   important   archaeological  site  for   learning  about  life  in  a   Roman  city.  
  • 12. The City of Pompeii
  • 13. The Imperial Age Roman  Cities  &  Pompeii   §  The  forum  was  an  oasis  in   the  heart  of  Pompeii  -­‐  an   open,  airy  plaza.   §  Throughout  the  rest  of  the   city,  every  square  foot  of   land  was  developed.   §  The  forum  was  constructed   at  the  southern  end  of  the   town,  immediately  after   the  Roman  colony  was   founded  in  80  BCE.  
  • 14. MISCONCEPTIONS §  Some  misconceptions  about  Pompeii  are:   § The  victims  were  “buried  alive;”  they  had   no  chance  of  escape.   § The  city  was  buried  “as  it  was;”  the   victims  were  caught  completely  unaware.   § Pompeii  was  never  again  explored  since   ancient  times.  
  • 15. REALITIES §  Some  of  the  realities  about  Pompeii   include:   § The  eruption  did  not  occur  without   warning;  there  were  many  earthquakes  in   the  week  leading  up  to  the  eruption.   § Many  people  did  escape;  some  of  those   who  did  not  may  have  been  looters  or   were  simply  unwilling  to  leave.  
  • 16. THE PLASTER MOLDS §  Despite  these  misconceptions,  no  other   ancient  site  shows  what  an  ancient  city   may  have  been  like  better  than  Pompeii.   §  The  most  striking  example  of  this  is  the   plaster  molds  from  Pompeii.   §  In  1863,  Giuseppe  Fiorelli,  an  Italian   archaeologist,  invented  the  technique  of   the  plaster  molding.  
  • 17. THE PLASTER MOLDS §  Pompeii  was  buried  under  roughly  70  feet  of   volcanic  ash.   §  Fiorelli  realized  that,  by  pounding  on  the   ground,  he  could  identify  areas  which  were   hollow  below.   §  The  hollow  areas  were  once  filled  with   remains  -­‐  pottery,  bodies,  or  other  items  -­‐   that  had  long  since  decomposed,  leaving   negatives.  
  • 18. THE PLASTER MOLDS §  By  pouring  plaster  into  this  hollow  area,  the   plaster  would  dry  and  take  the  original   shape  of  what  once  laid  there.   §  Archaeologists  could  then  dig  around  the   plaster,  and  take  out  the  positive  model  of   what  was  once  actually  contained  there.   §  The  following  are  some  examples:  
  • 19. THE PLASTER MOLDS
  • 20. The Imperial Age §  Pompeii’s  new  citizens   erected  a  large  amphitheater.     §  It  is  the  earliest  such   structure  known  and  could   seat  some  twenty  thousand   spectators.     §  The  word  amphitheater   means  “double  theater”,  and   the  Roman  structures  closely   resemble  two  Greek  theaters   put  together,  although  the   Greeks  never  built   amphitheaters.     20Aerial  view  of  the  amphitheater,   Pompeii,  Italy,  c.  80  BCE  
  • 21. The Imperial Age §  Greek  theaters  were  placed   on  natural  hillsides,  but   supporting  an   amphitheater’s  continuous   elliptical  cavea  required   building  an  artificial   mountain,  and  only   concrete,  unknown  to  the   Greeks,  was  capable  of  such   a  job.   §  Barrel  vaults  also  form  the   tunnels  leading  to  the  stone   seats  of  the  arena.  
  • 22. The Imperial Age §  Arena  is  Latin  for  “sand”,   which  soaked  up  the   contestants’  blood.   §  Instead  of  the  refined   tragic  performances  that   would  have  taken  place  in   Classical  Greek  theaters,   the  amphitheaters  were   largely  used  to  stage   bloody  gladiatorial   combats.  
  • 23. The Imperial Age §  This  painting  that  is  found  on   the  wall  of  a  Pompeian  house   depicts  an  incident  that   occurred  in  the  amphitheater   in  59  CE.   §  A  brawl  broke  out  between  the   Pompeiians  and  their   neighbors,  the  Nucerians,   during  a  contest  between  the   two  towns.     §  The  fight  left  many  wounded   and  led  to  a  10  year  prohibition   against  such  events.   23 Brawl  in  the  Pompeii  Amphitheater   Pompeii,  Italy,  c.  60-­‐79  CE  
  • 24. The Imperial Age §  The  painting  shows  the   cloth  awning  (velarium)   that  could  be  rolled  down   from  the  top  of  the  cavea  to   shield  spectators  from   either  sun  or  rain.     §  It  also  has  the  distinctive   external  double  staircases   that  enabled  large  numbers   of  people  to  enter  and  exit   the  cavea  in  an  orderly   fashion.  
  • 25. DAILY LIFE IN POMPEII §  The  remains  of  certain  buildings  give  us  a   glimpse  of  what  daily  life  was  like  for  the   people  of  Pompeii.   §  Among  some  of  the  buildings  we  have   remains  of  are  shops,  baths,  and  homes.   §  Even  graffiti  on  the  walls  still  remains  in   certain  areas  of  Pompeii.  
  • 26. A PISTRINUM (BAKERY)
  • 27. THERMOPOLIUM ( FAST FOOD RESTAURANT)
  • 28. THERMAE (BATH)
  • 29. ROMAN HOUSES §  Because  of  its  inhabitants’  wealth,   Pompeii  also  has  some  of  the  most   magnificent  houses  in  Rome’s  history   §  Among  the  more  famous  homes  are:   §   The  Villa  of  the  Mysteries   §   The  House  of  the  Faun   §   The  House  of  the  Vettii  
  • 30. ROMAN HOUSES 30
  • 31. ROMAN HOUSES 31
  • 32. A VIRTUAL ROMAN DOMUS
  • 33. HOUSE TERMS TO KNOW §  Fauces:  The  narrow  entryway  from  the  street.   §  Atrium:  The  central  public  room  of  the  house,  just  inside  the   entryway;  it  usually  has  an  impluvium,  or  water  basin  at  its   center.   §  Cubiculum:  The  small,  painted-­‐but-­‐windowless  bedrooms  &   dressing  rooms  surrounding  the  atrium.   §  Tablinum:  The  homeowners’  office,  study,  or  greeting  area.     §  Peristyle:  The  open  courtyard  or  garden  surrounded  by  a   colonnade  at  the  back  of  the  house.   §  Triclinium:  The  dining  room,  located  off  the  peristyle.     §  Lararium:  A  shrine  to  the  Roman  household  gods,  usually   located  in  the  peristyle.  
  • 34. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE HOME §  Like    the  Greeks,  the  Romans  (and  Italians)  were  big   on  social  hierarchy.   §  The  plans  of  most  of  the  homes  differ  slightly  in  the   layout,  but  inevitably  are  designed  to  enable  the   visitor  to  see  into  the  home.     §  When  the  front  door  was  open  during  the  day,  a   passerby  could  see  directly  into  the  atrium,  then  the   tablinum,  which  lead  directly  into  the  peristyle.     §  The  more  gardens  and  courtyards  you  had,  the   greater  your  wealth  and  status.  
  • 35. ROMAN HOUSES §  One  of  the  best  preserved   houses  at  Pompeii  is  the  House   of  the  Vettii,  an  old  Pompeiian   house  remodeled  and   repainted  after  the  earthquake   of  62  CE.     §  This  photograph  was  taken  in   the  fauces.     §  It  shows  the  impluvium  in  the   center  of  the  atrium,  and  in  the   background,  the  peristyle   garden  with  its  marble  tables   and  mural  paintings.   35 Atrium  of  the  House  of  the  Vettii   Pompeii,  Italy,  rebuilt  62-­‐79  CE  
  • 36. ROMAN HOUSES §  The  house  was  owned  by   two  brothers,  Aulus   Vettius  Restitutus  and   Aulus  Vettius  Conviva,   probably  freedmen  who   had  made  their  fortune  as   merchants.   §  Their  wealth  enabled   them  to  purchase  and   furnish  houses  that  would   have  been  owned  only  by   patricians.  
  • 37. ROMAN HOME DECORATION §  These  houses  also  contain  a  number  of   magnificently  preserved  decorative   elements  in  the  form  of:     §   Frescoes:  Wall  paintings  created  by  painting   into  wet  plaster  to  create  a  bonded  image  &   wall.   §   Mosaics:  Images  created  from  tiny,  tiny   pieces  of  glass  or  tile  that  are  called   tessurae.  
  • 38. The Imperial Age §  The  majority  of  homes  in   Pompeii  were  decorated  with   muralistic  wall  paintings.   §  Especially  striking  is  how   some  of  the  figures  interact   across  the  corners  of  the   room.   §  Nothing  comparable  to  this   existed  in  Hellenistic  Greece.   §  Despite  the  presence  of   Dionysus,  satyrs,  and  other   figures  from  Greek   mythology,  this  is  a  Roman   design.   Dionysiac   Mystery  Frieze   Pompeii,  Italy,   c.  60-­‐50  BCE  
  • 39. FRESCOES FROM THE VILLA OF THE MYSTERIES
  • 40. FRESCOES FROM THE HOUSE OF THE VETII
  • 41. ALEXANDER THE GREAT MOSAIC FROM THE HOUSE OF THE FAUN
  • 42. DETAILS OF THE MOSAIC
  • 43. The Imperial Age §  Originally  formed  part  of  a  Fourth   Style  wall  of  an  exedra,  recessed  area   on  the  opening  of  the  atrium  of  a   Pompeiian  house.       §  Standard  attributes  of  Roman   marriage  portraits  are  displayed  here   with  the  man  holding  a  scroll  and  the   woman  holding  a  stylus  and  a  wax   writing  tablet.       §  These  portraits  suggested  high   education  even  if  it  wasn’t  true  of  the   subjects.   §  The  heads  are  individualized  to  the   subject’s  features,  not  simply   standard  types.       §  This  is  the  equivalent  of  modern   wedding  photographs.     43 Portrait  of  a  Husband  &  Wife;   Pompeii,Italy;  c.  70-­‐79  CE  
  • 44. §  Roman  painters’  interest  in   the  likeness  of  individual   people  was  matched  by  their   concern  for  recording  the   appearance  of  everyday   objects.   §  This  still  life  demonstrates   that  Roman  painters  sought   to  create  illusionistic  effects   while  depicting  small  objects.       §  Here  they  used  light  and   shade  with  attention  to   shadows  and  highlights.   Still-­‐Life  with  Peaches,  Fresco,   Herculaneum,  Italy;    AD  62-­‐79   The Imperial Age
  • 45. The Imperial Age §  The  illusion  created  here  is  the   furthest  advance  by  ancient   painters  in  representational   technique.       §  It  appears  that  this  artist   understood  that  the  look  of   things  is  a  function  of  light.    Also,   the  goal  was  to  paint  light  as  if  it   were  a  touchable  object  that   reflects  and  absorbs  it.   §  This  marks  the  furthest  advance   by  ancient  painters  in   representational  technique  and   wasn’t  seen  again  until  the  Dutch   still-­‐lifes  in  the  1700’s  CE.  
  • 46. Arch  of  Titus,  Rome,  Italy;  81  CE   The Imperial Age §  When  Vespasian’s  older  son,   Titus,  died  only  two  years  after   becoming  emperor,  his  younger   brother  Domitian,  took  over.   Domitian  made  this  arch  in   Titus’s  honor  on  the  Sacred   Way  leading  into  the   Republican  Forum  Romanum.   §  This  type  of  arch,  the  so-­‐called   triumphal  arch,  has  a  long   history  in  Roman  art  and   architecture,  beginning  in  the   second  century  B.C.  and   continuing  even  into  the  era  of   Christian  Roman  emperors.  
  • 47. The Imperial Age §  The  Roman  arches   celebrated  more  than  just   military  victories,  as  they   often  commemorated   events  such  as  building   roads  and  bridges.   §  This  arch  commemorates   Titus’  sack  of  Jerusalem   around  70  CE.       §  This  is  the  oldest  arch  of   its  kind.  
  • 48. The  Spoils  of  the  Temple  Relief  depicts  the  triumphal  parade  down  the  Sacred  Way   after  his  return  from  the  conquest  of  Judaea  at  the  end  of  the  Jewish  Wars  in  70  CE.       This  panel  contains  a  depiction  of  the  sacred  seven-­‐branched  menorah,  from  the   Temple  of  Jerusalem.   The Imperial Age
  • 49. The  Triumph  of  Titus  Relief  depicts  the  actual  triumphal  procession  with  the  toga-­‐ clad  Titus  in  the  chariot,  but  with  the  addition  of  allegorical  figures  (the  winged   Victory  riding  in  the  chariot  with  Titus  who  places  a  wreath  on  his  head,  the  goddess   Roma  leading  the  horses).  Because  the  reliefs  were  deeply  carved,  some  of  the   forward  heads  have  broken  off.   The Imperial Age
  • 50. The Imperial Age
  • 51. The High Imperial Age
  • 52. Portrait  Bust  of  Hadrian  as  General,    Tel  Shalem,  Israel;  c.  130-­‐138  CE   The High Imperial Age §  Hadrian  was  a  connoisseur   and  lover  of  all  the  arts,  as   well  as  an  author  and   architect.       §  There  are  more  existing   portraits  of  Hadrian  than  of   any  other  emperor,  except   Augustus.     §  Though  he  ruled  Rome  for   more  than  20  years,  he  is   depicted  in  portraits  as  a   mature  adult  who  never   ages.    
  • 53. The High Imperial Age §  Hadrian’s  portraits  more  closely   resemble  Greek  portraits  of   Pericles  than  those  of  any  Roman   emperor  before  him,  undoubtedly   his  likenesses  were  inspired  by   Classical  Greek  statuary.   §  Hadrian  wore  a  beard,  a  habit   that,  in  its  Roman  context,  must   be  viewed  as  a  Greek  affectation   (an  appearance  or  manner   assumed  or  put  on  as  a  show  or   pretense,  often  to  impress  others).     §  Beards  then  became  the  norm  for   all  subsequent  Roman  emperors   for  more  than  a  century  and  a  half.  Marble  Bust  of  Hadrian  Wearing  Military   Dress    Tivoli,  Italy;  c.  117  -­‐  118  CE  
  • 54. Pantheon     Rome,  Italy;  125-­‐128  CE   The High Imperial Age §  With  the  new  Emperor   Hadrian  in  power,  work  on   a  new  temple  dedicated  to   all  the  gods  began.   §  This  temple  became   known  as  the  Pantheon.   §  Excluding  the  use  of  an   eight  Corinthian  column   facade,  the  temple’s   design  was  completely   revolutionary  for  its  time.  
  • 55. The High Imperial Age
  • 56. The High Imperial Age
  • 57. The High Imperial Age
  • 58. The High Imperial Age §  The  dome  of  the  Pantheon   steadily  decreases  in   thickness  from  the  drum  to   the  apex,  and  is   constructed  from  pumice  &   Roman  concrete.     §  In  the  very  middle  there  is   an  opening  called  an  oculus   that  acts  as  a  skylight.   §  The  oculus  is  the  only   source  of  natural  lighting   for  the  building’s  interior.  
  • 59. The High Imperial Age §  The  oculus  measures  30  feet   in  diameter.   §  This  is  the  oldest  domed   building  in  the  world  that   still  has  its  original  roof.   §  From  this  indoor  photo  of   the  Pantheon  you  can  see   the  carved  panels  as  well  as   the  intense  light  that  the   oculus  provides  for  the  room.     §  These  decorative  panels  are   called  coffers,  and  serve  two   purposes.  
  • 60. The High Imperial Age Originally,  the  interior’s  niches  and  altars  contained  images  of  the   Roman  gods  and  goddesses.  However,  when  the  Pantheon  was   consecrated  as  a  Catholic  church  in  609  CE,  they  were  replaced  by  images   of  saints  and  those  buried  within  the  structure.  
  • 61. The High Imperial Age
  • 62. The High Imperial Age §  During  Hadrian’s  reign,  he   ordered  construction  of  a   monumental  stone  wall  to   keep  the  ‘barbaric’  Scots  and   Picts  from  invading  from  the   North.   §  This  74-­‐mile  stretch  across   Northern  England  is  known  as   Hadrian’s  Wall.   §  It  was  8-­‐10  feet  wide  and  20   feet  tall,  with  a  tower  located   at  every  mile  mark.     §  It  was  built  in  only  about  8   years,  from  122  –  130  CE!  
  • 63. The High Imperial Age
  • 64. The High Imperial Age
  • 65. Acta Est Fabula

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