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Arh2050 perfection to pathos   classical greek & hellenistic sculpture
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  • 1. Introduction  To  Art  History  I   Professor  Will  Adams  
  • 2. v  Early  Classical  Period,  ca.  480-­‐450  BCE:   Defeat  of  Persians,  Use  of  Bronze   Sculpture,  more  detail  in  sculpture   v  High  Classical  Period,  ca.  450-­‐400  BCE:   Parthenon  &  Erectheion,  Doric  and  Ionic   Orders,  Caryatids,  Canon  of  Polykleitos   v  Late  Classical  Period,  ca.  400-­‐323  BCE:   Sparta  beats  Athens,  Corinthian  Order,   ends  with  the  death  of  Alexander  the   Great;  Praxiteles  redefines  Polykleitos’   figures;  sculptures  are  created  with  a  more   360-­‐degree  interest   v  Hellenistic  Period,  ca.  323-­‐31  BCE  
  • 3. v  Greek  city-­‐states  banded   together  and  defeated  the   Persians  in  479  BCE   v  This  victory  gave  them  a   self-­‐confidence    that   accelerated  their  society   and  art.   v  Lasted  until  about  450  BCE   Kritios  Boy,  ca.  480  BCE  
  • 4. The  use  of   hollow-­‐casting   bronze   developed   toward  the  end   of  the  Archaic   Period     It  made  for  more   complex,  detail   poses.     Charioteer,  ca.   470  BCE,  Bronze  
  • 5. Using  bronze  allowed   such  an  extensive   study  of  the  anatomy   that  it  paved  the  way   for  the  achievements   of  the  Classical   period.   Riace  Warrior,  ca.   470-­‐460  BCE,  Bronze.     With  Copper  lips  and   nipples.  
  • 6. Balanced,  dynamic  poses  like  this   could  only  be  created  with  the   invention  of   contrapposto.   Contrapposto  is  the  standing  human   figure  poised  in  such  a  way  that  the   weight  rests  on  one  leg  (called  the   engaged  leg),  freeing  the  other  leg,   which  is  bent  at  the  knee.  With  the   weight  shift,  the  hips,  shoulders,  and   head  tilt,  suggesting  relaxation  with   the  subtle  internal  organic  movement   that  denotes  life.     Statue  of  Zeus,  from  the  sea  off  Cape   Artemision.  Greece,  ca.  460  -­‐  450  BCE  
  • 7. The  master  High  Classical  sculptor   Polykleitos  wrote  the  treatise  entitled   “Canon  of  Polykleitos”,  which  was  a  set  of   mathematical  rules  or  laws  for  creating   scale  in  human  sculptures.   Polykleitos  set  the  proportions  for  the   head  to  the  body  at  1:7.   Polykleitos,  Doryphoros,  c.  450-­‐440  BCE,   High  Classical  Greek   Doryphoros  means  ‘spear-­‐bearer’  in   Greek.  
  • 8. This  period  in  Greek  history   lasted  from  about  400-­‐330  BCE   During  this  time,  Sparta   defeated  Athens  in  the   Peloponnesian  War   Greek  Art  still  flourished  with   Ionic  order,  and  even   introduces  Corinthian  order  for   interiors.   The  Romans  would  later  copy   it  for  their  buildings.  
  • 9. The  Late  Classical  sculptor  Praxiteles   developed  even  more  extensive  rules   for  proportion  in  sculpture,  based  on   the  Canon  of  Polykleitos.   Praxiteles’  canon  differs  from   Polykleitos’  in  that  the  body  of  a   Praxitelian  figure  is  8  heads  tall  instead   of  7.   Praxiteles,  Hermes  &  Infant  Dionysus,   343  BCE,  Roman  copy  of  Late  Classical   Greek  bronze  
  • 10. 1   1   8   7   Polykleitos  (1:7)   Praxiteles  (1:8)  
  • 11. LATE CLASSICAL PERIOD Praxiteles   Aphrodite  Taking   A  Bath,  350  -­‐  340   BCE   Roman  copy  of   Late  Classical   Greek  bronze    
  • 12. Lysippos,  Apoxyomenos   (The  “Scraper”),  ca.  320   BCE,  Roman  copy  based  on   bronze  original   1    Canon  modified  to  1:9   9  
  • 13. Considered  the   period  between   the  death  of   Alexander  the   Great  (323  BCE)   and  the   beginnings  of   the  Roman   Empire  (146   BCE)     The  Alexander   Mosaic,  Roman   copy  of  Greek   original  mosaic,       Pompeii,  Italy   ca.  310    BCE  
  • 14. Captures   The  Ideal  &   Perfect   Individual   &  Specific   Heroic   Individual   Emotion   Serenity  &   Peace   Pathos  &   Melodrama  
  • 16. This  map   shows  how   Alexander   the  Great’s   kingdom  was   broken  down   after  his   death.   His  death   marked  the   beginning  of   the   Hellenistic   (or  “Greek-­‐ like”)  period.  
  • 17.  Reconstructed  West  façade  of  the  Altar  of  Zeus,  Pergamon,  Turkey;  ca.  175    BCE     This  monument  is  considered  by  many  to  be  the  most  famous  of  all  Hellenistic   sculptural  ensembles.     The  monument’s  west  façade  has  been  reconstructed  in  Berlin,  Germany.    
  • 18. All  around   the  platform   was  a   sculptured   frieze  almost   four  hundred   feet  long   populated  by   some  one   hundred   larger-­‐than-­‐ life  size   figures.     The  subject  is  the  battle  of  Zeus  and  the  gods  against  the  giants.   It  is  the  most  extensive  representation  Greek  artists  ever  attempted  of  that  epic  conflict   for  control  of  the  world.  
  • 19. Athena  Battling  Alkyoneos,   ca.  175    BCE,  Hellenistic     Describes  the  battle  between   gods  and  the  giants.   The  giants,  as  helpless  tools,   were  dragged  up  the  stairs  to   worship  the  gods   The  gods’  victory  over  the   giants  offers  a  parallel  to   Alexander  the  Great’s  defeat  of   the  Persians   Deeply  carved  figures  overlap   and  show  mastery  of  depth,   space,  drama  and  musculature    
  • 20.  Nike  of   Samothrace,    Samothrace,   Greece;  ca.  190     BCE   The  wind  sweeps   her  drapery.     Her  himation   bunches  in  thick   folds  around  her   right  leg,  and  her   chiton  is  pulled   tightly  across  her   abdomen  and  left   leg.    
  • 21. The  statues  theatrical   effect  was  amplified  by   its  setting.     This  sculpture  was  part   of  a  two-­‐tiered   fountain.       In  the  lower  basin  were   large  boulders.     The  fountain’s  flowing   water  created  the   illusion  of  rushing  waves   dashing  up  against  the   ship.       The  sound  of  splashing   water  added  an  to  the   sense  of  drama.       Art  and  nature  were   combined.  
  • 22.  Epigonos  (?),  Gallic  Chieftain  Killing  Himself  &  His   Wife,  ca.  230-­‐220    BCE     The  sculptor  carefully  studied  and  reproduced  the   distinctive  features  of  the  foreign  Gauls,  most  notably   their  long,  bushy  hair  and  mustaches  and  torques   (neck  bands)  they  frequently  wore.     Here,  the  chieftain  drives  a  sword  into  his  own  chest  after   having  already  killed  his  own  wife,  as  it  is  evident  that  he   prefers  suicide  to  surrender  and  an  indefinite  life  of   slavery.     In  the  best  Lysippan  tradition,  the  group  only  can  be  fully   appreciated  by  walking  around  it.      From  one  side  the   observer  sees  the  Gaul’s  intensely  expressive  face,  from   another  his  powerful  body,  and  from  a  third  the  woman’s   limp  and  almost  lifeless  body.    
  • 23. Dying  Gaul,    Pergamon,   Turkey;  ca.   230-­‐220    BCE     The  depiction  of   a  variety  of   ethnic  groups   was  a  new   concept  in   Greek  art  and   one  that  would   be  pushed   much  further   throughout  the   Hellenistic  age.       Again,  this  depiction  is  reflective  of  the  drama  seen  on  the  stages  of   the  Greek  amphitheaters  at  this  time.  
  • 24. The  Dying  Gaul  winces  in  pain   as  blood  pours  from  the  large   gash  in  his  chest.     The  concept  of  pathos  became   increasingly  popular  toward  the   end  of  the  history  of  Greek   sculpture.       The  musculature  was  rendered   in  an  exaggerated  manner.     Note  the  chest’s  tautness  and   the  left  leg’s  bulging  veins  -­‐   implying  that  the  unseen  hero   who  has  struck  down  this  noble   and  savage  foe  must  have  been   an  extraordinary  man.  
  • 25. Dying  Warrior,  c.  500  -­‐   490  BCE,    Archaic   Greek   Dying  Gaul,   ca.  230-­‐220    BCE,     Hellenistic  
  • 26. Aphrodite  of  Melos,  Melos,   Greece;  ca.  150-­‐125    BCE,   Hellenistic  Greek     This  demonstrates  that  the   “undressing”  of  Aphrodite  by   Praxiteles  had  become  the  norm   by  this  point  in  Greek  art,  but   Hellenistic  sculptors  went  beyond     the  Late  Classical  master  an   openly  explored  the  female  form’s   eroticism.  
  • 27. Her  left  hand  (separately  preserved)   holds  the  apple  Paris  awarded  her   when  he  judged  her  as  the  most   beautiful  goddess  of  all.     Her  right  hand  may  have  lightly   grasped  the  edge  of  her  drapery   near  the  left  hip  in  a  hallearted   attempt  to  keep  it  from  slipping   farther  down  her  body.  
  • 28. Sleeping  Saytr    (Barberini  Faun),  Rome,   Italy;  ca.  230-­‐220    BCE,  Hellenistic  Greek     Hellenistic  sculptors  often  portrayed  sleep.     This  concept  is  the  antithesis  of  the  Classical   ideals  of  rationality  and  discipline.     The  saytr,  a  follower  of  Dionysos,  has  had   too  much  wine  and  has  fallen  asleep.     It  is  not  surprising  that  when  Hellenistic   sculptors  began  to  explore  the  human  body’s   sexuality,  they  turned  their  attention  to   both  men  and  women.     Compare  the  sexuality  of  this  sculpture  with   that  of  the  early  Archaic  kouros  figures.  
  • 29. Seated  Boxer  (Terme  Boxer),  Rome,  Italy;   ca.  100-­‐50    BCE,  Hellenistic  Greek     Hellenistic  sculptors  often  rendered  the   common  theme  of  the  male  athlete  in  a  new   way.     This  boxer  is  not  a  victorious  young  athlete   with  a  perfect  face  and  body,  but  rather  a   heavily  battered,  defeated  veteran  whose   upward  gaze  may  have  been  directed  at  the   man  who  had  just  beaten  him.     This  boxer’s  broken  nose,  distorted  face,   bleeding  wounds  and  “cauliflower  ears”  add   the  sense  of  realism  that  the  Hellenistic  artists   sought.  
  • 30. Hellenistic  Greek   Seated  Boxer   Riace  Warrior   Early  Classical  Greek  
  • 31. Old  Market  Woman,  Rome,  Italy;  ca.  150-­‐100   BCE,  Roman  copy  of  Hellenistic  Greek  original     This  is  one  of  a  series  of  statues  of    old  men  and   women  from  the  lowest  rungs  of  the  social  order.     Shepherds,  fishermen,  and  drunken  beggars  are   common-­‐  the  kind  of  people  who  were  pictured   earlier  on  red-­‐figure  vases  but  never  before  were   thought  worthy  of  monumental  statuary.     Hellenistic  art    reflects  a  new  and  unstable  social   climate  in  Greece.     Social  instability  gave  way  to  the  depiction  of  a   much  wider  variety  of  physical  types,  including   different  ethnic  types.    
  • 32. The  woman  wears  a  thin  elegant   dress,  thong  sandals,  and  a   crown  of  Dionysiac  ivy  leaves.     She  may  be  dressed  for  a  festival   and  the  birds  and  basket  of  fruit   she  carries  might  be  offerings.     Her  garment  has  slipped  off  her   shoulder,  a  detail  often  seen  in   representations  of  old  women   that  hints  at  the  liberation  of  the   elderly  from  the  restrictions   imposed  on  women  of   childbearing  years.  
  • 33. Laocoön  &  His  Sons,  Rome,   Italy;  c.  75    CE,  Roman  copy  of   Hellenistic  Greek  original     A  Roman  poet  vividly  described   the  strangling  of  Laocoön  and  his   two  sons  by  sea  serpents  while   sacrificing  at  an  altar.     The  gods,  who  favored  the  Greeks   in  the  war  against  Troy,  sent  the   serpents  to  punish  Laocoön,  who   had  tried  to  warn  his  compatriots   about  the  danger  of  bringing  the   Greeks’  wooden  horse  within  the   walls  of  their  city.  
  • 34. Everything  about  this  piece   speaks  to  the  Hellenistic   ideal.     The  facial  expressions  are   exaggerated,  the  muscles   fully  flexed,  dramatic   movement  is  indicated,   and  strong  diagonals   dominate  the  composition.     The  major  emphasis  of  this   piece  is  the  pathos,  or   suffering,  Laocoön  and  his   sons  endured  for  defying   the  gods.