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The Crowd as Source: Collective Intelligence

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These slides were created for the course: …

These slides were created for the course:
Comm 350R Social Media
Dr. Matthew J. Kushin
Department of Communication
Utah Valley University

For more on the course see:
http://profkushinsocial.wordpress.com

For more about the professor, see:
http://profkushin.wordpress.com
or @mjkushin on Twitter

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  • Does this concept work?Are individuals rationale? Or do we sometimes make decisions based on emotion? Do we really take into consideration all the possible ways of doing things? Or do we have our biases? Milton: Speaking against against censorship in 17th century EnglandIdea is: What company has the best idea – the best method – for making pizza.We could decide ourselves if we expose ourselves to all the pizza in town. Then asked that place how they cook their pizza. In our mind, that’d be the best way to make pizza around town.In effect, we can weigh our options: What’s the best pizza in the Utah Valley? Ex: Idea is: What company has the best idea – the best method – for making pizza.We could decide ourselves if we expose ourselves to all the pizza in town. Then asked that place how they cook their pizza. In our mind, that’d be the best way to make pizza around town.
  • Don’t do “wood v. brick” example.What if the majority of people agree 1 thing, and they’re wrong?John Stuart Mill also had a concept “tyranny of the majority” Even in self-ruling society, the ruling majority exercises authority over a minorityHarm principle – your freedom goes so far as it doesn’t cause harm to othersEnglandOn Liberty – foundation for much democratic political thought today. State should have limited control over peopleIndividuals should be free to live how they choose
  • We could decide ourselves if we expose ourselves to all the pizza in town. Then asked that place how they cook their pizza. In our mind, that’d be the best way to make pizza around town.They’d likely do the best business too
  • If a friend asks us each what’s the best pizza & you & I argue about the best pizza – theoretically the person with the better idea will win out. Our friend can determine which is best.
  • DO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:Does this concept work?What are problems with this ideal of marketplace of ideas?2) Are individuals rationale? Or do we sometimes make decisions based on emotion? 3) Do we really take into consideration all the possible ways of doing things? Or do we have our biases? 4) What if the majority of people agree 1 thing, and they’re wrong?John Stuart Mill also had a concept “tyranny of the majority” Even in self-ruling society, the ruling majority exercises authority over a minorityHarm principle – your freedom goes so far as it doesn’t cause harm to othersWould Mill say the media should give access to ALL opinions?
  • We’re not satisfied with the pizza options. We want to create our own – but each of us knows little about pizza making. Together we maybe could do it.
  • Let’s say you have this open marketplace – in spirit of Mill & those guys – that is open to everyone.In fact, you can make it smart. You can tap into it. That’s what social media is like.Standing on a stone doesn’t let us see very far.But when we have a lot of stones, we can stack them up and see further.
  • And so, there is a need to get more trained journalists, etc., onto social media to deal with some of the falsities, etc.
  • I greatly enjoyed talking with you all today.Go get some pizza -
  • Is this exploitation?Is capitalism “out of ideas”?
  • Negative – Chevy ads: consumers make mockery ads criticizing Tahoe’s low gas mileage & climate changeDorritos ad contest – 2 brothers – 2009 Superbowl – Best Ad, beat out Anheiser Busch .
  • Transcript

    • 1. Social Media CourseDr. Matthew J. Kushin
      Assistant Professor
      Department of Communication
      Utah Valley University
      profkushin.wordpress.com
      mkushin@uvu.edu
      @mjkushin
    • 2. The Crowd As Source: Collective intelligence
      Dr. Matthew J. Kushin
      Course: profkushinsocial.wordpress.com
    • 3. “Marketplace of Ideas”
      The merit of an idea is tested in the competition of the market
    • 4. Origins of Marketplace of Ideas
      John Milton (17th century)
      freedom of expression
      Assumes: People are Rational
      Individual has ability to reason what is good/bad, right/wrong, true/false
      We reason best when we have open access to the range of ideas
    • 5. Origins of Marketplace of Ideas
      John Stuart Mill On Liberty (1859)
      Shouldn’t suppress opinions
      A lot of wrong ideas needed to arrive at the correct one
      People should be allowed to air false opinions
      If a new opinion is right individuals can adopt it
      If it is wrong, they see further reason why the old opinion is right
    • 6. Pizza
      What’s the best pizza in town?
      What company in the Utah Valley has the
      best idea – the best method – for making pizza?
    • 7. John Milton continued
      Arguments:
      “self righting process”
      the person with the better idea will win out.
      Interference is not needed
      The truth (right/wrong, best way of doing something) will emerge from competing ideas
    • 8. Connection to Media
      How does what Mill & Milton advocated relate
      to the traditional news media (the press)?
      Freedom of the press- extension of individual’s right to freedom of expression
      From censorship
      According to this perspective:
      • Media responsibility –
      • 9. Media has responsibility to showcase market of ideas
    • Limitations
      What are problems with this ideal of marketplace of ideas?
    • 10. Marketplace of Ideas
      Weakness:
      Cost of entry –
      What it costs to get your idea heard in the marketplace of ideas
    • 11. Mass media v. Social media
      Operated by a few
      Operated by many
      Social media
      overcomes the cost of entry
      In its purest form:
      ability of ALL (with access) to contribute their opinions
    • 12. Could we create our own pizza?
    • 13. Social Media creates
      • Social media communities - Common open marketplace where all may contribute their knowledge
      Collective intelligence
      AKA: Wisdom of the Crowds
      Combined knowledge when many people contribute
      Like a group of brains
      ¹(Jenkins, Clinton, Purushotma, Robison, & Weigel, 2006; Tapscott & Williams, 2006)
    • 14. Collective Intelligence
      Social media – ability to pool knowledge of many people
      Voluntary
      Open
      More contributors = greater collective intelligence
    • 15. Competing media
      Mainstream media relies on
      Expert knowledge
      Professional journalists
      Sources’ credibility & authority
      Politicians, government officials, lawyers, doctors, law enforcement
      Social media relies on
      Collective intelligence in an openmarketplace of ideas
    • 16. Concept summary
      Marketplace of Ideas
      Everyone with something to contribute may
      Humans are rational
      The “truth” will emerge from these contributions
      Collective Intelligence
      Combined knowledge when many people contribute
      Social Media
      Collective intelligence in an open marketplace of ideas
    • 17. Experiment Activity
      Purpose:
      Test whether collective intelligence in an open marketplace of ideas (social media) can compete with expert knowledge (mainstream media) at determining the truth
      Problem:
      What is the true measurement?
    • 18. Experiment Activity
      Expert knowledge
      Carpenter
      Tool:
      Collective Intelligence
      Measurement estimates of the class
      The average of the class equals the consensus
      Tool:
      ?
      ?
    • 19. Instructions
      Each student:
      1) Figure out how you could measure the height of a classroom chair using something available to you now
      Use an object as a reference
      Example: How does the object’s measurement relate to your height?
      In Pairs:
      1) Discuss each member’s idea for measuring object
      2) Settle on
      how group will measure object
      3) Measure object
    • 20. Crowdsourcing
    • 21. “A PROBLEM SHARED, IS A PROBLEM SOLVED” -unknown
    • 22. Crowdsourcing
      If
      we have collective intelligence (CI)
      CI occurs in online spaces
      E.g., Twitter, Wikipedia, Facebook
      Then
      How can we tap this mass brain and use it for our benefit?
    • 23. Crowdsourcing is just that!
      Funneling collective intelligence to solve a problem
    • 24. How do we leverage individuals in the media industries?
      Can we leverage them for the collective good?
    • 25. Well – some general examples may help us think about that!
    • 26. In Action
      Company has problem needs solved
      Broadcast problem online to a base of users
      Crowd asked to submit solutions
      Best solutions win reward
      Company owns solutions & profits from them
    • 27. Corporate Benefits:
      Low cost or free labor
      Low risk
      Unlimited pool of talent
    • 28. Effect
      Consumer becomes involved in the cycle of production, producing the product he/she is then sold.
    • 29. Crowdsourcing Example 1
      Users vote on best designs
      Threadless prints winning shirts
      User t-shirt designs submitted to Threadless
      Shirts are sold back to Users
    • 30. Crowdsourcing Example 2
      • User-generated Ads
      • 31. Goal: Create a buzz online about product via contest and enthusiasm among brand loyalists.
      Doritos Crowdsourced
      Won 2009 Superbowl – Best Ad, beat out Anheiser Busch
    • 32. Be On Time Online!
      Next class’s: won’t be a normal lecture
      At normal class time next class be online for a VERY TIMELY assignment
      Will be posted under announcements.
      I encourage you to do the Module material “learning” section prior to next class