Social Media CourseDr. Matthew J. Kushin<br />Assistant Professor<br />Department of Communication<br />Utah Valley Univer...
The Crowd As Source: Collective intelligence<br />Dr. Matthew J. Kushin<br />Course: profkushinsocial.wordpress.com<br />
“Marketplace of Ideas”<br />The merit of an idea is tested in the competition of the market<br />
Origins of Marketplace of Ideas<br />John Milton (17th century)<br />freedom of expression<br />Assumes: People are Ration...
Origins of Marketplace of Ideas<br />John Stuart Mill On Liberty (1859)<br />Shouldn’t suppress opinions<br />A lot of wro...
Pizza<br />What’s the best pizza in town?<br />What company in the Utah Valley has the <br />best idea – the best method –...
John Milton continued<br />Arguments:<br />“self righting process”<br />the person with the better idea will win out.<br /...
Connection to Media<br />How does what Mill & Milton advocated relate <br />to the traditional news media (the press)?<br ...
Media has responsibility to showcase market of ideas</li></li></ul><li>Limitations<br />What are problems with this ideal ...
Marketplace of Ideas<br />Weakness: <br />Cost of entry –<br />What it costs to get your idea heard in the marketplace of ...
 Mass media	    v.	Social media<br />Operated by a few<br />Operated by many<br />Social media <br />overcomes the cost of...
Could we create our own pizza?<br />
Social Media creates<br /><ul><li>Social media communities - Common open marketplace where all may contribute their knowle...
Collective Intelligence<br />Social media – ability to pool knowledge of many people<br />Voluntary<br />Open<br />More co...
Competing media<br />Mainstream media relies on<br />Expert knowledge<br />Professional journalists<br />Sources’ credibil...
Concept summary<br />Marketplace of Ideas<br />Everyone with something to contribute may<br />Humans are rational<br />The...
Experiment Activity<br />Purpose:<br />Test whether collective intelligence in an open marketplace of ideas (social media)...
Experiment Activity<br />Expert knowledge<br />Carpenter<br />Tool:<br />Collective Intelligence<br />Measurement estimate...
Instructions<br />Each student:<br />1) Figure out how you could measure the height of a classroom chair using something a...
Crowdsourcing<br />
“A PROBLEM SHARED, IS A PROBLEM SOLVED” -unknown<br />
Crowdsourcing<br />If <br />we have collective intelligence (CI)<br />CI occurs in online spaces<br />E.g., Twitter, Wikip...
Crowdsourcing is just that!<br />Funneling collective intelligence to solve a problem<br />
How do we leverage individuals in the media industries? <br />Can we leverage them for the collective good?<br />
Well – some general examples may help us think about that!<br />
In Action<br />Company has problem needs solved<br />Broadcast problem online to a base of users<br />Crowd asked to submi...
Corporate Benefits:<br />Low cost or free labor<br />Low risk<br />Unlimited pool of talent<br />
Effect<br />Consumer becomes involved in the cycle of production, producing the product he/she is then sold.<br />
Crowdsourcing Example 1<br />Users vote on best designs<br />Threadless prints winning shirts<br />User t-shirt designs su...
Crowdsourcing Example 2<br /><ul><li>User-generated Ads
Goal: Create a buzz online about product via contest and enthusiasm among brand loyalists.</li></ul>Doritos Crowdsourced<b...
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The Crowd as Source: Collective Intelligence

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These slides were created for the course:
Comm 350R Social Media
Dr. Matthew J. Kushin
Department of Communication
Utah Valley University

For more on the course see:
http://profkushinsocial.wordpress.com

For more about the professor, see:
http://profkushin.wordpress.com
or @mjkushin on Twitter

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  • Does this concept work?Are individuals rationale? Or do we sometimes make decisions based on emotion? Do we really take into consideration all the possible ways of doing things? Or do we have our biases? Milton: Speaking against against censorship in 17th century EnglandIdea is: What company has the best idea – the best method – for making pizza.We could decide ourselves if we expose ourselves to all the pizza in town. Then asked that place how they cook their pizza. In our mind, that’d be the best way to make pizza around town.In effect, we can weigh our options: What’s the best pizza in the Utah Valley? Ex: Idea is: What company has the best idea – the best method – for making pizza.We could decide ourselves if we expose ourselves to all the pizza in town. Then asked that place how they cook their pizza. In our mind, that’d be the best way to make pizza around town.
  • Don’t do “wood v. brick” example.What if the majority of people agree 1 thing, and they’re wrong?John Stuart Mill also had a concept “tyranny of the majority” Even in self-ruling society, the ruling majority exercises authority over a minorityHarm principle – your freedom goes so far as it doesn’t cause harm to othersEnglandOn Liberty – foundation for much democratic political thought today. State should have limited control over peopleIndividuals should be free to live how they choose
  • We could decide ourselves if we expose ourselves to all the pizza in town. Then asked that place how they cook their pizza. In our mind, that’d be the best way to make pizza around town.They’d likely do the best business too
  • If a friend asks us each what’s the best pizza &amp; you &amp; I argue about the best pizza – theoretically the person with the better idea will win out. Our friend can determine which is best.
  • DO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:Does this concept work?What are problems with this ideal of marketplace of ideas?2) Are individuals rationale? Or do we sometimes make decisions based on emotion? 3) Do we really take into consideration all the possible ways of doing things? Or do we have our biases? 4) What if the majority of people agree 1 thing, and they’re wrong?John Stuart Mill also had a concept “tyranny of the majority” Even in self-ruling society, the ruling majority exercises authority over a minorityHarm principle – your freedom goes so far as it doesn’t cause harm to othersWould Mill say the media should give access to ALL opinions?
  • We’re not satisfied with the pizza options. We want to create our own – but each of us knows little about pizza making. Together we maybe could do it.
  • Let’s say you have this open marketplace – in spirit of Mill &amp; those guys – that is open to everyone.In fact, you can make it smart. You can tap into it. That’s what social media is like.Standing on a stone doesn’t let us see very far.But when we have a lot of stones, we can stack them up and see further.
  • And so, there is a need to get more trained journalists, etc., onto social media to deal with some of the falsities, etc.
  • I greatly enjoyed talking with you all today.Go get some pizza -
  • Is this exploitation?Is capitalism “out of ideas”?
  • Negative – Chevy ads: consumers make mockery ads criticizing Tahoe’s low gas mileage &amp; climate changeDorritos ad contest – 2 brothers – 2009 Superbowl – Best Ad, beat out Anheiser Busch .
  • The Crowd as Source: Collective Intelligence

    1. 1. Social Media CourseDr. Matthew J. Kushin<br />Assistant Professor<br />Department of Communication<br />Utah Valley University<br />profkushin.wordpress.com<br />mkushin@uvu.edu<br />@mjkushin<br />
    2. 2. The Crowd As Source: Collective intelligence<br />Dr. Matthew J. Kushin<br />Course: profkushinsocial.wordpress.com<br />
    3. 3. “Marketplace of Ideas”<br />The merit of an idea is tested in the competition of the market<br />
    4. 4. Origins of Marketplace of Ideas<br />John Milton (17th century)<br />freedom of expression<br />Assumes: People are Rational<br />Individual has ability to reason what is good/bad, right/wrong, true/false<br />We reason best when we have open access to the range of ideas<br />
    5. 5. Origins of Marketplace of Ideas<br />John Stuart Mill On Liberty (1859)<br />Shouldn’t suppress opinions<br />A lot of wrong ideas needed to arrive at the correct one<br />People should be allowed to air false opinions<br />If a new opinion is right individuals can adopt it<br />If it is wrong, they see further reason why the old opinion is right<br />
    6. 6. Pizza<br />What’s the best pizza in town?<br />What company in the Utah Valley has the <br />best idea – the best method – for making pizza?<br />
    7. 7. John Milton continued<br />Arguments:<br />“self righting process”<br />the person with the better idea will win out.<br />Interference is not needed <br />The truth (right/wrong, best way of doing something) will emerge from competing ideas<br />
    8. 8. Connection to Media<br />How does what Mill & Milton advocated relate <br />to the traditional news media (the press)?<br />Freedom of the press- extension of individual’s right to freedom of expression<br />From censorship <br />According to this perspective:<br /><ul><li>Media responsibility –
    9. 9. Media has responsibility to showcase market of ideas</li></li></ul><li>Limitations<br />What are problems with this ideal of marketplace of ideas?<br />
    10. 10. Marketplace of Ideas<br />Weakness: <br />Cost of entry –<br />What it costs to get your idea heard in the marketplace of ideas<br />
    11. 11. Mass media v. Social media<br />Operated by a few<br />Operated by many<br />Social media <br />overcomes the cost of entry<br />In its purest form:<br />ability of ALL (with access) to contribute their opinions<br />
    12. 12. Could we create our own pizza?<br />
    13. 13. Social Media creates<br /><ul><li>Social media communities - Common open marketplace where all may contribute their knowledge</li></ul>Collective intelligence<br />AKA: Wisdom of the Crowds<br />Combined knowledge when many people contribute<br />Like a group of brains<br />¹(Jenkins, Clinton, Purushotma, Robison, & Weigel, 2006; Tapscott & Williams, 2006)<br />
    14. 14. Collective Intelligence<br />Social media – ability to pool knowledge of many people<br />Voluntary<br />Open<br />More contributors = greater collective intelligence<br />
    15. 15. Competing media<br />Mainstream media relies on<br />Expert knowledge<br />Professional journalists<br />Sources’ credibility & authority<br />Politicians, government officials, lawyers, doctors, law enforcement<br />Social media relies on<br />Collective intelligence in an openmarketplace of ideas<br />
    16. 16. Concept summary<br />Marketplace of Ideas<br />Everyone with something to contribute may<br />Humans are rational<br />The “truth” will emerge from these contributions<br />Collective Intelligence<br />Combined knowledge when many people contribute<br />Social Media<br />Collective intelligence in an open marketplace of ideas<br />
    17. 17. Experiment Activity<br />Purpose:<br />Test whether collective intelligence in an open marketplace of ideas (social media) can compete with expert knowledge (mainstream media) at determining the truth<br />Problem:<br />What is the true measurement?<br />
    18. 18. Experiment Activity<br />Expert knowledge<br />Carpenter<br />Tool:<br />Collective Intelligence<br />Measurement estimates of the class<br />The average of the class equals the consensus<br />Tool: <br />?<br />?<br />
    19. 19. Instructions<br />Each student:<br />1) Figure out how you could measure the height of a classroom chair using something available to you now<br />Use an object as a reference<br />Example: How does the object’s measurement relate to your height?<br />In Pairs:<br />1) Discuss each member’s idea for measuring object<br />2) Settle on <br />how group will measure object <br />3) Measure object<br />
    20. 20. Crowdsourcing<br />
    21. 21. “A PROBLEM SHARED, IS A PROBLEM SOLVED” -unknown<br />
    22. 22. Crowdsourcing<br />If <br />we have collective intelligence (CI)<br />CI occurs in online spaces<br />E.g., Twitter, Wikipedia, Facebook<br />Then<br />How can we tap this mass brain and use it for our benefit?<br />
    23. 23. Crowdsourcing is just that!<br />Funneling collective intelligence to solve a problem<br />
    24. 24. How do we leverage individuals in the media industries? <br />Can we leverage them for the collective good?<br />
    25. 25. Well – some general examples may help us think about that!<br />
    26. 26. In Action<br />Company has problem needs solved<br />Broadcast problem online to a base of users<br />Crowd asked to submit solutions<br />Best solutions win reward<br />Company owns solutions & profits from them<br />
    27. 27. Corporate Benefits:<br />Low cost or free labor<br />Low risk<br />Unlimited pool of talent<br />
    28. 28. Effect<br />Consumer becomes involved in the cycle of production, producing the product he/she is then sold.<br />
    29. 29. Crowdsourcing Example 1<br />Users vote on best designs<br />Threadless prints winning shirts<br />User t-shirt designs submitted to Threadless<br />Shirts are sold back to Users<br />
    30. 30. Crowdsourcing Example 2<br /><ul><li>User-generated Ads
    31. 31. Goal: Create a buzz online about product via contest and enthusiasm among brand loyalists.</li></ul>Doritos Crowdsourced<br />Won 2009 Superbowl – Best Ad, beat out Anheiser Busch <br />
    32. 32. Be On Time Online!<br />Next class’s: won’t be a normal lecture<br />At normal class time next class be online for a VERY TIMELY assignment<br />Will be posted under announcements.<br />I encourage you to do the Module material “learning” section prior to next class<br />

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