The Galveston Plan

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Student Museum Exhibit for American Jewish History class.

Student Museum Exhibit for American Jewish History class.

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  • 1. The Galveston MovementThe Galveston Movement program operated Under Schiff plan Galveston would be the point ofbetween 1907 and 1914; the purpose of this entry for the immigrants coming to America because ofmovement was to relocate Jews fleeing the the North German Llyod steamship offered regularpogroms in Russia and Eastern Europe. Jacob H. service from Bremen, Germany to Galveston, Texas.Schiff designed the program that could support Galveston had a railroad system that went into therelocating up to two million immigrants into different areas of the “Hinterland” of America, theAmerica over the next decade or two. In the past proposed area to relocate the Jewish immigrants. Theimmigrants coming to America had gone through “Hinterland” of America is the area between thethe seaports of Atlantic seaports (like New York). Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains.This plan was to eliminate more emigration intothe already over populated, unhealthy livingconditions, the Jews have already put a burden onthe cities for support, and congested communitiesof the Atlanta seaport cities. In the 1890’s a fewdifferent organization tried the “removal” of Jewsfrom these cities into small towns but the attemptfailed. Background S.S. Chemnitz Aug. 18, 1913 Galveston Port Courtesy of Steamship Historical Society Courtesy of Galveston County historical Museum, Gift of Judith Edworthy Wray
  • 2. The Galveston MovementSchiff created the Jewish Immigrants’Information Bureau (JIBB), to prepare for thearrival of the Jewish immigrants coming intoGalveston; it was established to "organize an Rabbi Henry Cohen wantedimmigration office in connection with the to help the Jews immigratingmovement which we are endeavoring to to America by meeting withinaugurate for diverting a part of the Russian. the ships that came intoJewish immigration through the gulf ports. . . ." Galveston and helping direct(Best, page 51) under this committee with the new immigrants to newheadquarters located in New York; managed by homes in the interior land ofDavid M. Bressler, a social worker. America. Rabbi HenryHumanitarian services would meet with the ships Cohen sent scout’s out toat Galveston docks and helped the new find new home and jobs forimmigrants through processing into the America these new immigrants andand relocating the immigrants to their new home tried to relocate them near orwas ran by Rabbi Henry Cohen of the temple by already establishedBnai Israel located in Galveston. Jewish communities. Rabbi Henry Cohen, second from left Background S.S. Chemnitz Aug. 18, 1913 Galveston Port Greeting immigrant arriving in Galveston, Courtesy of Steamship Historical Society Texas Courtesy of Wendellhowe.blogspot.com
  • 3. The Galveston MovementThe Jewish Territorial The person that put this planOrganization (ITO) located in into motion was JacobRussia lead by Jewish writer Schiff; Schiff supported thisIsrael Zangwill and managed program by donating almostby Dr. Jochelmann. The ITO $500,000 of his personalhandled the transportation as money. The Jewishfar as Bremen, Germany and Colonization Society (ICA),placing the immigrants on the association to assist Jews inNorth German Lloyd depressed economicsteamships destined for the circumstances or countries ofGulf ports. In Eastern Europe persecution to emigrate andthe Jewish Colonization settle elsewhere inSociety (ICA) had formed to productive employment,assist Jews to new lands; only financed by Baron Mauricea small percentage came to Above Left: Above Right: de Hirsch who assisted EastAmerica most of immigrants Jacob Schiff Baron Maurice de Hirsch European. If it was not forwere relocated to Argentina. Courtesy of tmt.urj.net Courtesy of wn.com these two men financiallyThe ICA in Eastern Europe supporting the Jews manywas financed by Baron more lives would have beMaurice de Hirsch. slaughtered, if not for these two men. Background S.S. Chemnitz Aug. 18, 1913 Galveston Port Courtesy of Steamship Historical Society
  • 4. The Galveston MovementThe Jewish immigrant coming to America would have toface new challenges then previous immigrants faced, withthe hopes of eliminating some of the issues previousimmigrants faced. The Jewish immigrants that wentthrough the Atlantic seaports are living in large Jewishcommunities where they have the Jewish community forsupport. The Jewish immigrants coming to Americathrough Galveston had to face new challenges thatinvolved their religious beliefs; being located in smallertowns and not having the support of the Jewishcommunity. Under the Galveston plan it gave Jews thechance to incorporate their way of life and their religiousbeliefs into non-Jewish societies. One of the biggestissues was that Jews might be required to work onSaturday’s, for Jews Saturday is their Sabbath day. Background S.S. Chemnitz Aug. 18, 1913 Galveston Port Courtesy of loc.gov Courtesy of Steamship Historical Society
  • 5. The Galveston MovementOn September 30, 1914 the Galveston Movement wasofficial announced that it had ended. The movement wasa success and also a failure, under these plan 10,000Jewish immigrants were placed over an eight yearperiod, but under this plan they hoped to relocate twomillion immigrants over a decade or two. Relocating theJewish immigrants into the “Hinterland” of America wasa valuable experience, the knowledge that was gainplanning and carrying out such a large plan can work.There were a few reasons why the movement did notfulfill their original goals. They need to improveconditions on the North German Llyod steamships, asthe passages were treated like cattle. The ITO inGermany was sending immigrants that did not meethealth standards set forth in the immigrant laws andgovernment regulations. Zangwill worried that the ITO’simage might get ruined by the failure of the GalvestonMovement. Background S.S. Chemnitz Aug. 18, 1913 Galveston Port Immigrants on a Steamship heading to Galveston, Texas Courtesy of Steamship Historical Society Courtesy of mitrasites.com
  • 6. The Galveston Movement Works Cited"10 Minutes of Torah - 350 Years of Jews in America." Redirect. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2012. <http://tmt.urj.net/archives/2socialaction/082305.htm>.1914. "Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)." Jewish Virtual Library - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2012. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0011_0_10128.html>.Best, Gary Dean. "Jacob H. Schiffs Galveston Movement: An Experiment In Immigrant Deflection, 1907-1914." American Jewish archives SP (1978): 43-79. http://americanjewisharchives.org. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. Background S.S. Chemnitz Aug. 18, 1913 Galveston Port Courtesy of Steamship Historical Society
  • 7. The Galveston Movement Work Cited ContinuedBill. "Baron De Forest." World News. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2012. <http://wn.com/Baron_de_Forest>."Checklist of Objects (From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America, A Library of Congress Exhibition)." Library of Congress Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-checklist.html>."Dr. Wendell A. Howe: First Citizen of Texas." Dr. Wendell A. Howe. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2012. <http://wendellhowe.blogspot.com/2011/09/first-citizen-of-texas.html>."Galveston Plan." Jewish Virtual Library - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0007_0_07030.html>. Background S.S. Chemnitz Aug. 18, 1913 Galveston Port Courtesy of Steamship Historical Society
  • 8. The Galveston Movement Word Cited ContinuedHENRY, RABBI. "immigration/galveston." museum-of-family-history. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. <http://www.museumoffamilyhistory.com/imm-galveston.htm>."History of The Jews In Galveston Texas." Mitra Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2012. <http://images.mitrasites.com/history-of-the-jews-in-galveston-texas.html>."Jewish – Blog - Real Estate - You + Dallas." You + Dallas - Dallas Media. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2012. <http://www.youplusdallas.com/cityblog/real-estate/tag/jewish/>. Background S.S. Chemnitz Aug. 18, 1913 Galveston Port Courtesy of Steamship Historical Society
  • 9. The Galveston Movement Word Cited ContinuedSchiff, Jacob. "The Galveston Movement - My Jewish Learning." Judaism & Jewish Life - My Jewish Learning. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Modern_History/1700- 1914/Emigration/To_America/The_Galveston_Movement.shtml>."The Galveston Movement." The Berdichev Revival. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2012. <http://www.berdichev.org/the_galveston_movement.html>. Background S.S. Chemnitz Aug. 18, 1913 Galveston Port Courtesy of Steamship Historical Society