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Ast161art
 

Ast161art

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    Ast161art Ast161art Presentation Transcript

    • Looking South from Syene Egypt Latitude: 24º N Scorpius Looking South from Athens Greece Latitude: 38º N Scorpius
    • Earth Shadow during Lunar Eclipse Multiple Exposure Photograph
    • Cyrene Tropic of Cancer Syene Alexandria
    • Syene Alexandria Earth 7 14 / 60 º Sunlight
    • North Pole South Pole Equator
    • South Pole North Pole Equator
    • Meridian North Pole South Pole Equator
    • South Pole North Pole Meridian Equator
    • South Celestial Pole North Celestial Pole Celestial Sphere Celestial Equator
    • SCP NCP Celestial Meridian CEq Declination
    • Local Sky N W E S Horizon Zenith
    • SCP NCP CEq Z Below the Horizon N S E W Visible Half of the Sky
    • Measuring Latitude Horizon Latitude N W E S NCP CEq Zenith
    • N S W E Z NCP Equator Z NCP N S W E 40º N Latitude Z NCP North Pole
    • Zenith W E S N NCP CEq Never Sets Above Horizon for 12 h Above Horizon for > 12 h Above Horizon for < 12 h Never Rises
    • SCP NCP Obliquity of the Ecliptic CEq Ecliptic ~23.5º
    •  
    • SCP NCP CEq Winter Solstice Summer Solstice Ecliptic
    • SCP NCP CEq Winter Solstice Summer Solstice Vernal Equinox Autumnal Equinox Ecliptic
    • W E S N NCP Summer Solstice Vernal & Autumnal Equinoxes Winter Solstice Z CEq
    • W E S N NCP CEq Summer Solstice Vernal & Autumnal Equinoxes Winter Solstice Z
    • December March June September
    • Equinoxes: March 20 & Sept. 22 Northern Spring/Fall Southern Fall/Spring
    • December 21: Winter Solstice Northern Winter Southern Summer
    • June 21: Summer Solstice Northern Summer Southern Winter
    • 1 KW/m 2 1 KW/m 2 1 m 2 2 m 2
    • 2000 Dec 21: Winter Solstice 2001 June 21: Summer Solstice 2001 Mar 20: Vernal Equinox 2001 Sept 22: Autumnal Equinox Winter Summer Summer Winter Spring Autumn Autumn Spring
    • Draco Ursa Minor Cepheus Thuban Polaris 2000 AD 2700 BC
    • Precession of the Equinoxes
    • Moon at Perigee Moon at Apogee
    • New Moon Full Moon Waning Crescent Last Quarter Waning Gibbous Waxing Gibbous Waxing Crescent First Quarter
    • Moonrise & Moonset at 1 st Quarter Sunset Sunrise Midnight Moonset Noon Moonrise
    • Moonrise & Moonset at Full Moon Sunset Moonrise Moonrise Sunrise Midnight Noon
    • Moonrise & Moonset at Last Quarter Sunset Sunrise Midnight Moonrise Noon Moonset
    • Sidereal vs. Synodic Months New Moon T=0 d T=27.3 d (Sidereal) T=29.5 d (Synodic)
    • Penumbra Sun Earth Umbra
    • Sunlight Uneclipsed Moon Penumbral Eclipse Total Lunar Eclipse Partial Lunar Eclipse
    • Total Lunar Eclipse (Note the ruddy scattered sunlight) Partial Lunar Eclipse
    • Moon Earth Sunlight Umbra Penumbra
    • SCP NCP CEq Ecliptic 4th 1st 2nd 3rd Cross-Quarter Days Winter Solstice Summer Solstice Vernal Equinox Autumnal Equinox
    • Solar & Sidereal Days T=0 h Not to Scale Noon T=23 h 56 m 04 s (Sidereal Day) T=24 h (Solar day) Noon
    • Earth Inferior Conjunction Superior Conjunction
    • Earth Maximum Eastern Elongation Maximum Western Elongation
    • Conjunction Opposition Earth
    • Opposition Conjunction Earth Eastern Quadrature Western Quadrature
    • Mars Retrograde Motion in 1994/95 1995 Jan 2 1995 Mar 24 1994 Sept 24 1995 July 4
    • Saturn & Jupiter 4/1999 - 6/2000 Saturn Jupiter Mars 11/1998-10/1999 Venus 6-11/1999 Mercury 10-12/1999
    • SCP NCP Celestial Sphere (Daily E-W Motion) Ecliptic Sphere (Annual W-E Motion 23.5º tilt) Planetary Spheres (Retrograde Motions)
    • Less Time More Time Not to Scale First Quarter Last Quarter
    • Earth Deferent Epicycle
    • Earth Equant Center
    • Ptolemaic System Saturn Mars Jupiter Sun Mercury Venus Earth
    • Earth Venus Mercury Sun Solar System Mars Jupiter Saturn
    • Earth Mars Retrograde Motion
    • Venus Maximum Eastern Elongation 1 AU D Venus 46º
    • F 1 F 2 Semimajor Axis Center
    • T=0 d Equal Areas in Equal Times T=10 d T=0 d T=10 d
    • Jan 10 Jan 11 Jan 12 Jan 13 Jan 19 Jan 18 Jan 15 Jan 16
    • Io Europa Ganymede Callisto
    • Copernican System Ptolemaic System 3 3 4 4 2 2 1 1 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
    • Falling Apple : Changing Speed (gets faster as it falls) Same Direction (always falls down)
    • Ball Swung around on a String : Same Speed, (in uniform circular motion) Changing Direction (swinging around the circle)
    • Donut Swung around on a String Force Acceleration
    • Equal and Opposite Force from the Table Net Force is Zero, No Net Motion Force = (apple’s mass)  (acceleration due to gravity)
    • M 1 M 2 d M 1 M 2 2d M 1 M 2 d/2
    • 2M 1 M 2 d M 1 M 2 d 2M 1 2M 2 d
    •  
    • Conic Section Curves Parabola Hyperbola Circle Ellipse
    • Parabola v = v E Hyperbola v>v E Ellipse v C <v<v E Circle v = v C Ellipse v<v C
    • Columbus, Ohio 40º N: 1280 km/h Arctic Circle 66.5º N: 666 km/h Equator 1670 km/h
    •  
    • 6 hours later Towards Sirius
    • Frequency (f) (# waves/second) Wavelength (  ) Speed (c)
    • B=1 B=1/9 B=1/4 d=1 d=2 d=3
    • Doppler Effect in Sound High Pitch (short waves) Low Pitch (long waves)
    • Half-Life = 35 sec T=0 s 0 popped 16 unpopped T=35 s 8 popped 8 unpopped
    • Hot Gas Faster Average Speeds Cool Gas Slow Average Speeds
    • Prisms disperse light into its component colors Prism Spectrum White Light
    • Continuum Source Continuous Spectrum Absorption-line Spectrum Emission-line Spectrum Cloud of Hydrogen Gas
    • Hydrogen Helium Oxygen Neon Iron
    • Continuum Source Cloud of Hydrogen Gas Lamp Light Absorbed by Hydrogen Atoms in the Cloud Lamp emits light at all energies
    • Energy Level Diagram of 1 H Continuum n=1 (Ground State) n=3 (2 nd excited state) n=2 (1 st excited state) n=4 n=5 n= 
    • Larger Jump = More Energy = Bluer Wavelength n=1 (Ground State) n=3 (2 nd excited state) n=2 (1 st excited state) n=4 n=5 n=3  2 6  2 5  2 4  2 n=6
    • Photons of all other energies (wavelengths) are ignored and pass on by unabsorbed. n=1 (Ground State) n=3 (2 nd excited state) n=2 (1 st excited state) n=4 n=5 n=2  3 2  6 2  5 2  4 n=6
    • Spectrum of a Fluorescent Light Mercury
    • Lens Retina Collecting Area
    • Simple Refracting Telescope Objective Lens Secondary Lens (Eyepiece) Focus
    • Primary Mirror Prime Focus Secondary Mirror Cassegrain Focus
    • 4.5 Billion Years Ago 238 U 206 Pb 235 U 207 Pb 238 U 206 Pb 235 U 207 Pb Today 1 half-life 6.3 half-lives 50% left 1.2% left
    • Seismic Station Lower Mantle Core Upper Mantle Crust Seismic Station P-waves Surface Waves S waves P & S waves Earthquake!
    • Two Faces of the Moon Near Side Far Side Maria Impact Basin Cratered Highlands
    • Apollo and Luna Landing Sites A12 A14 A15 A17 A11 A16 L24 L20 L16
    • Mars Earth Venus Mercury Pluto Neptune Uranus Saturn Jupiter
    • Pluto Ecliptic
    • Molecular Hydrogen Metallic Hydrogen Jupiter Interior “ Ice” Rock
    • Molecular Hydrogen Metallic Hydrogen “ Ice” Saturn Interior Rock
    • Interiors of Uranus & Neptune Uranus Neptune Rocky Cores Slushy “ Ice”Mantles Molecular Hydrogen
    • Metallic Hydrogen Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Earth
    • S S P P Star’s spectrum shifts redward Star’s spectrum shifts blueward