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    Syracuse fce workshop part 2 Syracuse fce workshop part 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Celebrating 46 Years of the Adult Education and Literacy System (AELS) of the United States of America Our Nation’s Third Branch of Public Education1966 2012 A.E.L.S./U.S.A. Serving America’s Adult Learners in 2012
    • Constructing Pathways and Bridges to 21st Century OpportunitiesScientific Research Underpinning Career Pathways Education Tom Sticht International Consultant in Adult Education
    • Constructing Pathways and Bridges to 21st Century Opportunities Workshop Schedule9:00-10:30am: Part 1-A: Contemporary Issues Calling Renewed Attention to FCE andWorkforce Development; Part 1-B: Evidence for FCE From Professional Wisdom10:30-10:45am: Break10:45-12:00pm: Part 2: Scientific Research Underpinning Career Pathways Education12:00-12:30pm Lunch12:30-1:45pm Part 3: Workforce Development Beyond the National Workplace LiteracyProgram (NWLP)1:45-2:00: Break2:00-3:30pm Part 4: Contemporary Projects on Contextualizing and IntegratingProgram Design and Engaging Employers and Employees
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Two perspectives providing evidence for the efficacy of functional policies and practices Professional Wisdom Scientific Research Leading to the NWLP
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective A Contemporary (2010) Concern With Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy2010WorkFORCE Education and Training WorkPLACE Education and Training
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective First Generation Scientific Research: 1966 to 19871966-75 FCE & Workplace Literacy: TheFunctional Literacy (FLIT) ProgramWorkplace Literacy For Transitioning NewHires Into Employment1983-86 FCE & Workplace Literacy: TheExperimental Functional Skills Program(XFSP) Workplace Literacy for HelpingEmployees Gain Upward Mobility in TheirEmployment1983-87 FCE & Sectoral Training:Vocational English as a Second Language(VESL) Workforce education in a communitycollege electronics course
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Professional Wisdom in Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy Civil Rights Act of 1964SeptimaPoinsetteClark and “War on Poverty” Economic Opportunity Act ofthe Voting Rights Act 1964Citizenship of 1965Schools
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific PerspectiveTwo Key Events Leading to Scientific Research Base for Contemporary Projects ForTransitioning Your Students to Career Pathways , Postsecondary, and Workforce Education “War on Poverty” Scientific Research Economic Opportunity Act of Leading to 1964 Instructional Principles for Career Pathways,In this March 16, 1961 photo, Transitions toU.S. President John F. PostsecondaryKennedy sits in his favorite Education, androcking chair War in Vietnam DoD’s Project 100,000 in the Workforcein his office during a meetingwith Secretary of Defense War on Poverty EducationRobert McNamara and VicePresident Lyndon B. Johnson.
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Research Perspective Adult Basic Education in the United States in The War on Poverty of the 1960s Project 100,000 And The Functional Robert Strange McNamara Literacy (FLIT)Secretary of Defense for Presidents Program Kennedy & Johnson
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Fighting the War on Poverty and the War in Vietnam Project 100,000 men came from the 10th to 30th percentiles on the AFQT.
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Fighting the War on Poverty and the War in VietnamProject 100,000 planning committee made recommendations for how to designinstruction for the New Standards men. The Military Training “Pipeline” Basic Military Training Job Training Job Station
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Fighting the War on Poverty and the War in VietnamProject 100,000 planning committee made recommendations for how to designinstruction for the New Standards men. The Military Training “Pipeline” Basic Military Training Job Training Job Station
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Fighting the War on Poverty and the War in VietnamProject 100,000 planning committee made recommendations for how to designinstruction for the New Standards men. The Military Training “Pipeline” Basic Military Training Job Training Job Station
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Fighting the War on Poverty and the War in VietnamProject 100,000 planning committee made recommendations for how to designinstruction for the New Standards men. The Military Training “Pipeline” Basic Military Training Job Training Job Station
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Fighting the War on Poverty and the War in VietnamProject 100,000 planning committee made recommendations for how to designinstruction for the New Standards men. The Military Training “Pipeline” Basic Military Training Job Training Job Station
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific PerspectiveResearch on developing integrated literacy andoccupational education for Project 100,000 and otherless literate personnel in the Vietnam WarPresidio of Monterey 1967-76
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Functional Context Education in Workplace Literacy: Research Evidence 1967-Present The U. S. Army’s Functional Literacy (FLIT) program integrating reading skills and job skills education and training. 1967-1976
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976 Job Analysis of Literacy Demands Evaluation of Military Literacy Programs Develop/Implement/Evaluate Integrated (Contextualized/ Embedded ) Job & Literacy Skills Programs For Six Occupations
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976 Job Analysis of Literacy Demands
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976 Job Analysis of Literacy Demands Relationship of reading level to hands-on job sample test performance Relationship of reading level to paper-and-pencil job knowledge test performance
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976 Job Analysis of Literacy DemandsAnalysis of job and job-training reading demandsidentified reading-to-doand reading-to-learntasks.Reading-to-do tasksemphasize short-term,working memoryReading-to-learn tasksemphasize long-termmemory’s knowledgebase
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976High school and Job Analysis of Literacy Demands Analysis of high school and job and job-training reading demands identified reading-to-do and reading-to-learn tasks. Reading-to-do tasks emphasize short-term, working memory Reading-to-learn tasks emphasize long-term memory’s knowledge base
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976 Job Analysis of Literacy Demands Conclusions from job analyses: Reading strongly related to job performance Job-related reading mostly reading-to-do Job-learning reading includes both reading- to-do and reading-to-learn Grade level targets for jobs range between 7th to 9th grade
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976Evaluation of Army Literacy Programs Army Preparatory Training Goal: 5th Grade Reading Not Matched to 7-9th Grade Levels From Job Literacy Analyses Goal: Improve Job Reading Skills Used General Reading Test to Assess Reading Gains Not Job-Related Reading Tests Pre-High School Curriculum Not Job-Related Curriculum
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976 Evaluation of Army Literacy ProgramsGoal: Improve Job Reading SkillsUsed General Reading Test to Assess ReadingGains Not Job-Related Reading Tests
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976Evaluation of Army Literacy Programs Goal: Improve Job Reading Skills FLIT team developed job- related reading task tests to assess job- related reading gains
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976Evaluation of Army Literacy Programs Goal: Improve Job Reading Skills General Literacy Program made 0.7 grade level gain in general reading after adjusting for regression effects and 0.5 grade level gain in job-related reading
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976Evaluation of Army Literacy Programs Conclusions from evaluation of Army literacy programs: Reading skills assessed using general reading tests, not job-related tests Goal of achieving 5th grade level reading too low Gains in job-related reading low Instruction not job-related
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976 Job Analysis of Literacy Demands Evaluation of Military Literacy Programs Develop/Implement/Evaluate Integrated (Contextualized/ Embedded ) Job & Literacy Skills Programs For Six Occupations
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace LiteracyTeaching Workplace Literacy in The U. S. Army’s Functional Literacy (FLIT)program integrating reading skills and job skills education and training.Workplace Literacy For TransitioningNew Hires Into Employment
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy Learning Theories: Associationism; Behaviorism Module approach similar to pathways concept of “stacked” success indicators.
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Constructivism Whole Language 2011SUPPORTING GENERATION OFCONTENT AND REASONINGInterventions are needed that encourage thelearner to actively generate language, content,and patterns of reasoning rather than passivelyprocessing the material delivered by the learningenvironment. Learning is enhanced whenlearners have to organize the informationthemselves and exert cognitive effort duringacquisition or retrieval. …. Encouraging learnersto engage in deeper levels of thinking andreasoning is especially helpful to adults needingto develop these skills for education, work, andother purposes involving complex materials andtasks. (p. 4-9)
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Constructivism Whole Language SUPPORTING GENERATION OF CONTENT AND REASONING Encouraging learners to engage in deeper levels of thinking and reasoning is especially helpful to adults needing to develop these skills for education, work, and other purposes involving complex materials and tasks. (p. 4-9)
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Constructivism Whole LanguageSUPPORTING GENERATION OFCONTENT AND REASONINGEncouraging learners to engage indeeper levels of thinking andreasoning is especially helpful toadults needing to develop these skillsfor education, work, and otherpurposes involving complex materialsand tasks. (p. 4-9)
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Constructivism Whole Language
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Constructivism Whole Language
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Constructivism Whole Language
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Constructivism Whole Language
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Constructivism Whole Language
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Constructivism Whole Language 2011 Information is encoded and remembered better when it is delivered in multiple modes (verbal and pictorial), sensory modalities (auditory and visual), or media (computers and lectures) than when delivered in only a single mode, modality, or medium (….For example, it is effective to combine graphics with text, graphics with spoken descriptions, speech sounds with printed words, and other combinations of modalities. Graphic depictions with spoken descriptions are particularly effective for subject matter in science and technology…. Multiple codes provide richer and more varied representations that allow more memory retrieval routes. (abridged from p. 4-5)
    • The Functional Literacy R & D ProgramModes of Representation Linguistic - Written Input
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program RetranLinguistic - Written Input Iconic Output
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program RetranLinguistic - Written Input Schematic Output
    • The Functional Literacy R & D ProgramLinguistic - Written Input Schematic Output
    • The Functional Literacy R & D ProgramLinguistic - Written Input Iconic Output
    • The Functional Literacy R & D ProgramLinguistic - Written Input Schematic Output
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Evaluation of Learning Gains In FLIT and General Literacy Program
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Evaluation of Learning Gains In FLIT and General Literacy Program
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Evaluation of Learning Gains In FLIT and General Literacy Program
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program Retention of literacy skills. 97 FLIT students were followed-up eight weeks later and retested. 40 percent (4 months) of general literacy gain was retained. 80 percent of job-related reading gain was retained Thus, job-linked literacy training was (1) more effective in increasing job reading skill, and (2) this gain was retained better as the students applied what they had learned in the literacy program to their job technical skills training.
    • The Functional Literacy R & D Program 1967-1976Some significant aspects of the FLIT workfor the scientific, evidence-based emphasisfacing the adult literacy education field:(1) took the context into account in determining how to teach reading,(2) used a treatment/comparison group method in evaluating our experimentalcurriculum,(3) developed assessment instruments that measured whether students werelearning what we were teaching, that is, the job-related reading task tests,(4) used the same general literacy tests that the adult educators were using tomeasure generalization beyond job-related literacy in the form of gains in general literacy,(5) replicated the program five times in other locations in the U. S. using different teachersto demonstrate that it was the curriculum and not the R & D team that made theimprovements in job-related reading occur.(6) there was an external, independent evaluation of the program.
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective First Generation Scientific Research: 1966 to 1987 1966-75 FCE & Workplace Literacy: The Functional Literacy (FLIT) Program Workplace Literacy For Transitioning New Hires Into Employment 1983-86 FCE & Workplace Literacy: The Experimental Functional Skills Program (XFSP) Workplace Literacy for Helping Employees Gain Upward Mobility in Their Employment 1983-87 FCE & Sectoral Training: Vocational English as a Second Language (VESL) Workforce education in a community college electronics course
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific PerspectiveIn 1983 the Chief of Navy Education & Training(CNET) initiated R & D to develop job-relatedreading and math programs for Navy personnelin San Diego, CA. Workplace Literacy for Helping Employees Gain Upward Mobility in Their Employment in the U. S. Navy
    • The U. S. Navy’s Experimental Functional Skills Program (XFSP) 1983-1986Workplace Literacy forHelping Employees GainUpward Mobility in TheirEmployment in the U. S.Navy
    • The U. S. Navy’s Experimental Functional Skills Program (XFSP) 1983-1986Workplace Literacy for HelpingEmployees Gain Upward Mobilityin Their Employment in the U. S.Navy
    • The U. S. Navy’s Experimental Functional Skills Program (XFSP) ApproachWorkplaceLiteracy forHelpingEmployeesGain UpwardMobility inTheirEmploymentin the U. S.Navy
    • The U. S. Navy’s ExperimentalFunctional Skills Program (XFSP) TeachersAn Integrated CommunicationsTechnology Approach 1983-1986 Books Peers Computers
    • The U. S. Navy’s Experimental Functional Skills Program (XFSP) An Integrated Communications Technology Approach 1983-1986Workplace Literacy for HelpingEmployees Gain Upward Mobility in TeachersTheir Employment in the U. S. Navy Books Peers Computers
    • The U. S. Navy’s Experimental Functional Skills Program (XFSP)Collaborative learning work station facilitatedpeer instructionPeers working together help to develop “soft”skills of teamwork and oracy skills of speakingand listeningWorkplaceLiteracy forHelpingEmployees GainUpward Mobilityin TheirEmployment inthe U. S. Navy
    • The U. S. Navy’s Experimental Functional Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy Skills Program (XFSP) Workplace Literacy for Helping Employees Gain Upward Mobility in Their Employment in the U. S. Computer As Educational Tool NavyFCE-Used authoring tool to incorporate work-related content from the Navy Knowledge BasebookUsed games to make drill and practice exercisesinterestingProvided opportunity for individualizedinstruction and practice of job and career tasksProvided experience in working with computersPermitted teacher to work with other learners onan individual basis
    • The U. S. Navy’s Experimental Functional Skills Program (XFSP)Experimental Functional SkillsProgram (XFSP) with contextualizedinstruction in Navy-related contentmade greater gains in reading skillson job-related knowledge and skillassessments.
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective First Generation Scientific Research: 1966 to 1987 1966-75 FCE & Workplace Literacy: The Functional Literacy (FLIT) Program Workplace Literacy For Transitioning New Hires Into Employment 1983-86 FCE & Workplace Literacy: The Experimental Functional Skills Program (XFSP) Workplace Literacy for Helping Employees Gain Upward Mobility in Their Employment 1983-87 FCE & Sectoral Training: Vocational English as a Second Language (VESL) Workforce education in a community college electronics course
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Sectoral Training in the San Diego Community College District Division of Continuing Education
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective First Generation Scientific Research: 1966 to 1987 Sectoral Training in the San Diego Community College District Division of Continuing Education
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Sectoral Training in the San Diego Community College District Division of Continuing Education
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific PerspectiveSome significant aspects of the first generation researchprograms for the scientific, evidence-based emphasis facing the adultliteracy education field:(1) They took the context into account in determining how to teach reading,math, or ESL(2) They used a treatment/comparison group method in evaluating programs(3) They developed assessment instruments that measured both general and job-related literacy to measure generalization beyond job-related literacy in the form of gains in general literacy(4) They replicated the contextualized, integrated program approach in multiple locationsin the U. S. using different teachers to demonstrate that it was the curriculum and not the R& D team that made the improvements in job-related reading occur(5) There was an external, independent evaluation of the FLIT program
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific PerspectiveGordon Berlin, President of MDRC wasearlier Deputy Director of the FordFoundation’s Urban Poverty program and aproject officer in the U.S. Department ofLabor’s Employment and Training In 1982, at the suggestion of RobertAdministration. McNamara, a member of the Board of Directors of the Ford Foundation, the Urban Poverty office of the Ford Foundation, headed by Gordon Berlin, initiated research on how the military has gone about training and utilizing “low aptitude,” “functionally illiterate,” or “at risk” youth and adults, especially during Project 100,000. It was thought that this was information that might be used to help low-skilled youth and adults get training to increase their employability. Gordon Berlin
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific PerspectiveIn 1983, at the request of Gordon Berlin from the FordFoundation, the Applied Behavioral & Cognitive Sciences,Inc. was established in Point Loma, San Diego, Californiato conduct research on policy and methods that the militaryused to train low-skilled personnel. Objectives: >Determine how well the Project 100,000 personnel performed >Identify training guidance and methods for training low-skilled personnel
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective Cast-off Youth (COY) 1983-87 Reviewed 50 Years of Military R & D on Vocational Education & Training Literacy Education & Training Formulated Functional Context Education Principles 1987 Developed Prototype Integrated Electronics & Basic Skills Training Program Applying FCE Disseminated Functional Context Education R & D
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective 2011 1987 Functional ContextTo summarize, research suggests Educationthat if adults are enrolled in adult Principleseducation courses …and they cometo believe that the courses areuseful, important, interesting, andworth their time…they will bemore likely to persist with learning.(p. 5-16)It is critical to keep in mind that newknowledge is built on and interpretedin light of existing knowledge. (p. 4-8)
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific Perspective 2011 FCE Principles 1987Contextualized Instruction (abridged)The contextualization of skills is defined here as aninstructional approach that creates explicit connectionsbetween the teaching of reading and writing andinstruction in an academic discipline or content area[Contextualization] work tends to converge on thethemes of (1) teaching skills with direct reference toreal-world events and practices …and (2) instruction in the basic skills needed in contentcourses …In some cases, contextualization occursthrough the merging of basic skills and subject-matterinstruction. (p. 3-18)
    • Functional Context Education and Workplace Literacy in Scientific PerspectiveFLIT XFSP COY National Workplace Literacy Program1967-76 1983-86 1983-87 (NWLP) 1988-92 "The workplace literacy movement evolved $60 million 1988-92 directly from Thomas Stichts analysis of literacy demands in the military which found that using job-specific materials improved job performance more than using general academic materials....In a functional context-oriented program, instructional materials are drawn from actual work materials."--- Mark Kutner, Renee Sherman & Lenore Webb (1991, May). A Review of the National Workplace Literacy U. S. Department of EducationOffice of Vocational and Adult Education Program. Report prepared for the U.S. Department ofDivision of Adult Education and Literacy Education, Washington, DC: Pelavin Associates, pp. Washington, DC 20202-7240 May 1992 14,22.
    • Constructing Pathways and Bridges to 21st Century Opportunities Constructing Pathways and Bridges to 21st Century Opportunities Workshop Schedule Coming Up Next 12:00-12:30pm Lunch Followed By:12:30-1:45pm Part 3: Workforce Development Beyond theNational Workplace Literacy Program (NWLP)1:45-2:00: Break2:00-3:30pm Part 4: Contemporary Projects on Contextualizing and IntegratingProgram Design and Engaging Employers and Employees