Ch 2 Professions And Professionalization


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Ch 2 Professions And Professionalization

  1. 1. Professions and Professionalization What is a Profession? What is an Emerging Profession?
  2. 2. Necessary Features of a Profession (Bayles) <ul><li>Extensive training </li></ul><ul><li>Training involves significant intellectual component </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an important service to society </li></ul>
  3. 3. Additional Features of a Profession (Bayles) <ul><li>Process of certification or licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Fair level of autonomy in his/her work </li></ul>
  4. 4. Distinctions Among Kinds of Professions Scholarly Professions 1. University instructor, researcher 2. Salary 3. No inter-personal aspect Consulting Professions 1. Law, medicine, architecture 2. Fee – for – service 3. Act on behalf of the individual 3 Salient Features 1. Provides important services 2. Monopolizes the service provided 3. Lacks significant public control
  5. 5. Moral Challenges of the Consulting Professions In Liberal Society <ul><li>Professions provide an important if not essential service </li></ul><ul><li>Professions monopolize the services they provide </li></ul><ul><li>Professions subject to little public control </li></ul>
  6. 6. Emerging Professions (Barber) <ul><li>Four essential attributes of a Profession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of generalized and systematic knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professions are oriented to community interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professionals are part of organizations with established codes of ethical conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professions have systems of rewards which are primarily symbolic </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Role of the University <ul><li>Used to transfer the basic systematic knowledge that is the basis of professional performance </li></ul><ul><li>Used to keep individuals up to date with the latest developments in the profession </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for full-time research to be done </li></ul><ul><li>“ The university professional school is a moral watchdog for its profession”(37) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Emerging or Marginal Profession <ul><li>Have some or all the elements of established professions, but to a lesser degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Are normally pushed forward by an elite minority that have all the aspects of a professional. </li></ul><ul><li>Often inadequate codes of ethics are established in an attempt to legitimate an activity as a profession. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts are made to institutionalize the occupation in a university setting. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Professional Privilege <ul><li>Professionals do not have a right to practice but are granted the privilege to practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Right = sound claim that one be permitted to act without interference. </li></ul><ul><li>Privilege = a permission to perform certain actions provided specific conditions are fulfilled. </li></ul>
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