Ch 1 Basics And Background
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Ch 1 Basics And Background

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    Ch 1 Basics And Background Ch 1 Basics And Background Presentation Transcript

    • Basics and Background Introduction to Moral Theorizing
    • Moral Issues and Dilemmas
      • Moral issues are those that raise normative questions:
        • Rights
        • Welfare
        • Character (type of person we should strive to become)
      • Normative = questions of value
      • Moral dilemmas = conflicts of values
    • Moral Philosophy
      • Meta-ethics – attempts to determine what makes moral claims true/false.
        • How are moral claims justified?
        • What are we doing when we share moral judgments?
        • What is the status of a moral claim?
        • Does not involve making moral judgments.
    • Moral Philosophy (continued)
      • Normative Ethics – The study of the concepts involved in practical reasoning:
        • Theories of good/evil
        • Theories of moral obligations
        • Theories of which types of actions are morally permissible.
      • Does make moral judgments.
    • Moral Philosophy (continued)
      • Practical Ethics (Applied Ethics) – The subject that applies ethics to actual practical problems.
        • Attempts to resolve specific moral issues.
        • Examines concrete cases.
    • Reflective Equilibrium
      • Provides an account of what we are doing when we engage in moral deliberation.
      • Two major activities:
        • Getting clear on our intuitions/considered judgments.
        • Determining principles to explain why actions are right/wrong.
    • Initial Situation Yields Principle. Principles Compared with Considered Judgments. Principles Match Judgment ? Done Considered Judgments Shared Conditions of the Initial Situation. Revise Judge. ? Figure 1. Method of R. E.
    • What Morality is Not
      • Conventional Morality vs. Reflective Morality – Reflective morality does not grant to any set of moral principles a privileged status.
      • Morality vs. Law – it does not follow from the fact that something has been instantiated in the law, that it is morally correct.
      • Morality vs. Prudence – we cannot reduce morality to self-interest (or in its more refined version, rational self interest).
      • Morality vs. Economics – morality is not always cost effective.
      • Morality vs. Religion – Morality makes its final appeal to reason and not to faith.
      • Morality vs. Authority – the fact that an authority commands an action does not entail that the action is morally appropriate.
      • Morality vs. Opinion/Bias/Taste – For the most part, opinions, tastes, and biases are morally neutral.
    • Structure of a Moral Argument
      • Major premise – General moral principle
      • Minor premise – Factual claim
      • Conclusion – Derivative moral judgment
      • Example (p.15):
        • 1. That which is unnatural is immoral. (GMP)
        • 2. Homosexual behavior is unnatural. (FC)
        • 3. Therefore, homosexual behavior is immoral (DMJ)
    • Evaluating Moral Judgments
      • Conceptual Confusions/Ambiguities in the General Moral Principle.
      • Problems with the factual link.
      • 1. Taking a normative judgment to be a factual judgment.
      • 2. Factual claim may in fact be false.
      • Unacceptable Implication of the GMP
      • Consistency Problems
    • Two Types of Moral Principles
      • Teleological Principles – principles that look at the consequences of actions to determine their moral permissibility or impermissibility.
      • Deontological Principles – principles that focus on an agent’s duties. (Duty-based ethic)