life cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave (i.e., from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling).
A Biological process for the production of Riboflavin Team Riboflavulous Team 1 members Priyesh Waghmare Yixue Chen Rebecca Milburn Madhunika Padmanabha Sharath Sathyan
Outline: Introduction Market Chemical Vs biological method Environmental impact Main process Waste treatment Mass balance Merits of our system Future prospects
Introduction to riboflavin (1) Riboflavin ( vitamin B2) Molecular formula C17H20N4O Yellow-orange Sparingly soluble in water Forms crystals in <30ºC water Light-sensitive
Introduction to riboflavin (2) Precursor of Co-enzymes - flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) - flavin mononucleotide Deficiency results in metabolic and skin disorders Riboflavin is mainly used as a food supplement for both human and animals.
Market World demand is estimated to be at 6,000 tons p.a. Major producers are Roche, BASF and China’s Hubei Guangji Pharmaceutical Feed-grade (80% ) sells at US $30/kg pharmaceutical-grade (98%) sells at US $50/kg.
Chemical v/s Biological ProcessChemical Process Biological Process Glucose K arabonate Feed + Water Ca arabonate +Innoculum Ca ribonate Ribonolactone Ribose Ribitylxylidine Riboflavin Phenylazo Riboflavin
Riboflavin production (Biological process) Our design involves a single-step biological process Recombinant Bacillus subtilis is a gram positive, aerobic bactiera that converts glucose directly into riboflavin Recombinant B.subtilus can yield up to 16g/L riboflavin in 48hours Riboflavin is sparingly soluble and forms crystals in the fermentation broth Bacillus subtilis is much small than the produced riboflavin particles, making downstream purification easier
Life cycle assessment (LCA) of Riboflavin ProductionType of process Chemical BiologicalRaw materials (%) 100 150Non-renewable raw 100 25materials(%)Energy(%) 100 90Emissions of VOCs(%) 100 50Emissions to water(%) 100 33 (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development., 2001) The biological method uses mainly renewable resources Less amounts of energy used in biological method Air and water are contaminated to a lesser degree by the biological process
Waste Treatment – HCL gas • HCL gas emitted in the process is removed by scrubbers. • In the packed tower, HCL gas flows upward through a packed bed (provides close gas-liquid contact) while the scrubbing liquid flows downward by gravity over the packing. • The internal components of the tower consist of a packing support plate, a packed bed, a liquid distributor and a mist eliminator.
Waste Treatment – Biomass waste Biodegradable organic waste is collected and put into an anaerobic digestion tank The material is broken down by bacteria in the absence of oxygen Biogas product is cleaned, compressed and sent to a CHP plant Solid digestate is also produced and can be used as fertilizer
Used Charcoal- Thermal regeneration process Adsorbent drying at approximately 105 °C Desorption and decomposition at 500–900°C under an inert atmosphere Residual organic gasification by carbon dioxide at 800°C
Mass Balance Spent Biomass 4.7Feed (3.3) Nitrogen 22.6Inoculums (5) Oxygen 5.2 FermentationWater 2.5 CO2 3.65 98.55 Differential Air 30 Centrifugation Water 84.5 Waste Water 7.35All Measurements in tones Impure Riboflavin Crystals 2
Differential Centrifugation: Foodec decanter centrifuges focus on Hygiene Reliability Easy access User friendly Low noise levelAlfa Laval Foodec decantercentrifuges - used forpharmaceutical applications thatcomply with strict sanitaryregulations.
Sizing & Cost: Fodec 800 Capacity Depends on application G-force max 3243 Bowl material Duplex stainless steel Other weight AISI 316 parts Weight Kg 13000 (28860 lbs) Installed Power kW 132-250 (140- 330Hp) Sound Pressure dB(A) re.20lpa 89 Level Cost 30,000 US Dollars
Downstream Processing Equipments: Candle filter System: •Particulate removal system. •Ceramic Filters •Cyclones •Residues up to 1ppm removed Candle Filter System:Stirred Tank Fermenter:•Coiled tube for Heating & cooling•Uniform mixing•Better fermentation•Defoamer Stirred Tank Fermenter:
Merits of our system A simple one-step biological process Bacillus subtilis requires a relatively unrefined growth conditions No harmful chemicals used in process >90% culture medium recycle >90% hydrochloric acid recycle Used biomass recycling as nutrients Energy recycling system in place Large storage tank in place to make full usage of downstream process equipment
Future Prospects To genetically modify bacillus subtilis to create a strain that has a higher product yield (>16g/L) To replace part of the glucose feed with cheaper organic residues like rotten potatoes/oranges To develop a process for purification of pharma- grade riboflavin with fewer steps