Role of GIS in Health Care Management by Dr. Dipti Mukherji

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Presentation on Role of GIS in Health Care Management by Dr. Dipti Mukherji during Seminar on Spatial Dimensions on Health Care - Use of GIS in Health Studies Organised by CEHAT and University of Mumbai on 24th Sep 2010

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Role of GIS in Health Care Management by Dr. Dipti Mukherji

  1. 1. Role of GIS in Healthcare Management Dr. Dipti Mukharji Faculty Department of Geography, Mumbai
  2. 2. Geographic Information systems capture, store, update, transform, manipulate, analyse display all forms of geo-referenced data and information User Specific, Location Specific and Time Specific
  3. 3. The GIS technology offers- a better system in terms of methodology, technology, profession, business
  4. 4. GIS Tasks GIS essentially performs six processes or tasks. Input Manipulation Management Query and Analysis Visualization
  5. 5. Spatial data --- Maps , Imagery, Cadastral maps Non-spatial data Information
  6. 6. GIS System Life Cycle Plan Acquire Data Document Data Update Train Staff GIS Preserve Data System Analyze Data Distribute Data Make Maps
  7. 7. Components of a GIS Software People Hardware GIS Data Procedures
  8. 8. Jobs of GIS Analyst a) Classification b) Tabulation c) Mapping d) Statistical Analysis
  9. 9. Nature of Analysis 1) Graphical 2) Mapping……
  10. 10. Analysis Spatial Analysis
  11. 11. GIS and Cartography Cartography --- presentation GIS --- Analysis
  12. 12. Cartographic Grammar Effective Visualisation Grades, Shades, Classes
  13. 13. What Makes a Good Map?  How well does map communicate to audience?  What is the motive, intent, or goal of the map  Who will read the map?  Where will the map be used?  What data is available for the composition of the map?  What resources are available in terms of
  14. 14. Relevance of GIS Technology Thematic map (dynamic/static) handles efficiently large number of variables detect changes multivariate statistical analysis sieving of information.
  15. 15. Data Management necessary
  16. 16. Recent advances in Geographical Information and mapping technologies - created new opportunities – public health administration  enhanced planning, analysis, monitoring and management of health systems.
  17. 17. User asks generic spatial and temporal questions: a) Where is ? ----location b) What is?---- infomation c) What is the spatial relation?---pattern d) What is similar to?---spatial correlation e) Is there any change over time? f) What are the anomalies?– Deviations are equally important to understand new patterns
  18. 18. How to use a GIS for Spatial health Information 1. Mapping where things are 2. Mapping quantities 3. Mapping densities 4. Finding what’s inside 5. Finding what’s nearby 6. Mapping change
  19. 19. Operations at pre-mapping Stage  Selection of a proper base map  Scanning --- raster  Digitisation for vectorbase  Preparation of different files— Preparation of attribute data table  Geocoding  Linking of data for final preparation  Advantage of manipulation  Overlay operation  Query Building
  20. 20. The Origins of Spatial Analysis • By plotting each known cholera case on a street map • where the outbreak took place • Snow could see that the cases occurred almost entirely among those who lived near the Broad Street water pump.
  21. 21. This map is a digital recreation of Dr Snow’s hand-drawn map. The 1854 cholera deaths are displayed as small black circles. The grey polygon represents the former burial plot of plague victims. The Broad Street pump (shown in the centre of the map) proved to be the source of contaminated water, just as Snow had hypothesised
  22. 22. Spatial Health Information System— (SHIS)  classifies multifaceted, real-world data from disparate sources into map layers  each covering a single aspect of reality  linking these layers by spatially matching them, and querying and analysing them together to produce new information and hypotheses.  This can be considered one form of data-mining, and is especially useful in the context of aggregated health records.
  23. 23. planning, management and delivery of suitable health services determining healthcare needs of the target community and service catchment zones.
  24. 24. GIS can help to find the right site for PHC in a village, hospital locations alignment transportation network disease distribution and healthcare facilities and workforce blend client locations with health data Health related analysis
  25. 25.  GIS - assist in assessing resource allocation and accessibility (health services, schools, water points)  planning and targeting interventions, - simulating “what-if” scenarios before implementing them  forecasting epidemics, and monitoring diseases (surveillance) and interventions over time.  emergency dispatch systems.
  26. 26. GIS is essential --- required to support effective decision Maps ----Not to make simply the colourful maps Message in the maps should be readily interpretable in the mind of the decision makers in order to take appropriate decision based on such message New trends – interactive mapping
  27. 27. 3 Ms of Health GIS Mapping Measuring Monitoring and evaluation Modeling
  28. 28. Private Hospitals Public hospitals
  29. 29. Public Hospitals
  30. 30. Private Hospitals
  31. 31. Density of Population
  32. 32. Buffer creation
  33. 33. Query
  34. 34. Growth rate of Population And Public Hospital Buffer
  35. 35. GIS--- easy to handle large volume of data--- expertise required to perform certain operations --- A lot of pre-mapping input becomes necessary, although actual preparation of a map appears to be a 2 minute’s job.
  36. 36. Open Source and Web GIS A free and open source web-based GIS application portal for geocoding, geocode correction, address validation, and data capture. Client server Architecture to distributed ones Improves decision making process
  37. 37. Embedded GIS • within a standalone application • as a distributed application where each subsystem is running on different computers at different locations, - performing the overall functionality • as a pluggable software component that could be embedded within a business application.
  38. 38. The future of GIS Cloud Computing Access to online cloud-based services - built into ArcGIS software - users can directly tap into ready-to-use content from ArcGIS Online. This includes high-quality imagery, topographic maps, and street basemaps, as well as routing and geocoding services for North America and Europe.
  39. 39. Enterprise GIS and Open Source GIS The basic idea of an enterprise GIS is to address the needs of departments collectively instead of individually.
  40. 40. Harris County enterprise GIS teams support the overall GIS needs of the County
  41. 41. Thank You

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