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ROOT & STEM MORPHOLOGY
 

ROOT & STEM MORPHOLOGY

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INCLUDING MODIFICATIONS

INCLUDING MODIFICATIONS

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    ROOT & STEM MORPHOLOGY ROOT & STEM MORPHOLOGY Presentation Transcript

    • Root & stEMmoRPHOLOGY
      (including MODIFICATIONS)
      Made by-
      V.V.S.S.PREETI
      Sr. MEDICON -1
      Roll no- 33
    • WHAT IS MORPHOLOGY?
      Morphology is the study of –
      External features of plants,
      Arrangement,
      Relationship
      Of organs.
      The underground part of flowering plant is the root system while the portion above the ground forms the shoot system.
      Plant has vegetative and reproductive organs
    • Vegetative Organs
      Roots
      Stems
      Leaves
    • THE ROOT
      LOCATION- grows underground
      TYPES OF ROOTS-
      1) Primary- formed directly from axis of embryo plant.
      2) Lateral- arises from primary.
    • TYPES OF ROOT SYSTEMSG
    • Function of roots
      Anchor the plant
      Absorb water and minerals from soil
      Storage
    • Fig. 38.21
    • STORAGE ROOTS
      SWOLLEN ADVENTIOUS ROOTS
      SWOLLEN TAP roots
      FUSIFORM-eg:raddish
      NAPIFORM-eg:beetroot
      CONICAL -eg;carrot
      • FASICULATED-eg asparagus
      • NODULATED -eg: ginger
      • MONILIFORM-eg: grasses
      • Sweet potato
    • PROP ROOTS
      IN BANYAN TREE,
      Branches give off roots that grow into the soil & support the branches
    • STILT ROOTS
      IN SCREWPINE short roots grow obliquely downward from near base of stem
    • CLIMBING ROOTS
      IN climbers like PEPPER & BETEL NUT,
      adventitious roots are formed at nodes which help in climbing.
    • EPIPHYTIC ROOTS
      IN VANDA,
      Base of tissue grows spongy tissue termed velamen that absorbs moisture from the air
    • CONTRAC TILE ROOTS
      IN COLACASIA,
      They posses roots that contract so underground roots are kept at proper levels.
    • FLOATING ROOTS
      IN JUSSIAEA
      roots are white, spongy filled with air.
      Help plants to float
    • BREATHING ROOTS
      IN
      AVICENNIA,
      Roots grow into vertical branches that have openings called
      Pneumetaphores
      for root aeration.
    • REORODUCTIVE ROOTS
      Exposed roots of MURRAYA
      Have adventitious buds which grow into new plants.
    • PARASITIC ROOTS
      IN CUSCUTA
      Haustoria
      Penetrate into host stem & enter vascular bundles which absorb materials.
    • ASSIMILATORY ROOTS
      IN
      TRAPA,
      Adventious roots with chlorophyllous tissue capable of photosynthesis.
    • FOLIAR ROOTS
      IN
      BRYOPHYLLUM
      Roots arise from lamina, petiole,veins
    • TUBERCULAR ROOTS
      IN
      SWEET POTATO
      Lateral roots are swollen &
      Without definite shape.
    • THE STEM
      The stem grows erect
      & lifts the leaves , exposing them to sunlight.it also conducts materials from roots to leaves. Based on nature of stem,plants are divided into herbs,shrubs & trees
    • Function of Stems
      support leaves to maximize light absorption
      part of conduit for transport of water, minerals, and organic solutes
      storage
    • UNDERGROUND MODIFICATIONS OF STEM
      • BULB
      Dry scale leaves,
      Tunicated,
      Stem is small reduced & disk shaped.
      • RHIZOMES
      Grows horizontally,
      Elongated.stem nature is evident from CATAPHYLLS.
    • AMORPHOPHYLLUS
      POTATO
      • STEM TUBER
      In potato,
      An aerial branch grows downward &stores food
      • CORM
      In amorphophyllus
      Stem is massive,swollen,
      Held in position by contractile roots
    • SUBARIEL MODIFICATIONS FOR VEGETATIVE PROPOGATION
      • RUNNER
      In Strawberry
      Axillary buds from lowest leaves give rise to modified branches.
      • STOLON
      They grow upwards
      Like ordinary branches & arch down to meet soil.
      STOLON
    • EICHHORNIA
      MENTHA arvensis
      • SUCKER
      In mentha
      It goes up & forms a daughter plant after striking root
      • OFFSET
      It is shorter & thicker
      Found in aquatic plants
      SUCKER
      OFFSET
    • ARIEL MODIFICATIONS OF STEM
      • TENDRILS
      IN grapes
      Axillary bud is modified into tendrils.
      • CLADOPHYLL /
      PHYLLOCLADE
      The entire shoot is flattend & leaf like.
    • BULBIL
      CLADODE
      • CLADODE
      Branch of a single internode which is flattened to stimulate a leaf like.
      • BULBIL
      INDIOSCOREA It is a modified floral bud which becomes vegetative.
      ACACIA
      DIOSCOREA
    • THE END
      THANK YOU!