Apparel manufacturing process
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Apparel manufacturing process

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Apparel manufacturing process Apparel manufacturing process Presentation Transcript

  • Khushboo Priyambada
  •  Garment manufacturing is an assembly- oriented activity with a great range of raw materials, product types, production volumes, supply chains, retail markets and associated technologies.  Companies range from small family business to multinationals.  The clothing industry is labour intensive industry.
  • Departments in garment manufacturing unit Merchandising department Sampling department Fabric store department Trims and accessories store department Spreading & Cutting department Sewing department Washing department Quality Assurance department Finishing & Packaging department Maintenance Department Finance and Accounts Department HR/Admin Department
  • Buyer- Supplier Meeting Production order placed Sampling BOM generation for po Pre production sample Fabric washing Raw material inspection Raw material procurement Production Shipment sample Finishing Packing Shipment
  • Receipt of the techpack BOM draft for sampling Pattern making Raw material procurement Raw material inspection BOM draft for production Getting the fit sample approved Fit sample making Getting approval on proto sample Proto sample development Approval sample development Order approved for production Getting approvals on size set samples Raw material procurement R aw material inspection Send shipment samples to the buyer Follow up with the production department Order file transferred to the production department Approval on pre production sample GPT/FPT to conform to standards Follow up with the production department till delivery
  • Internal & external communication Sampling Preparing internal order sheets Accessories & trims Preparing purchase orders Merchandiser Getting approvals on lab dips and bit looms Advising and assisting production and quality department Mediating production and quality departments Helping documentation Taking responsibility for inspections Giving shipping instructions and following shipment Source: http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/36/3516/merchandising-in-an-apparel-industry1.
  •  Getting clarifications about style details from merchandiser.  Checking pattern’s workability.  Preparation of different samples and getting the buyer’s approval.  Informing quality related problems, encountered during preparing samples, to QC.  Minimizing operations and consumption.
  • Design development • This is the first sample which is made for any style by most of the buyer. • Design development is either done by buyer or factory • The main purpose is to take the decision to proceed with the same line or not. Proto sample • Proto sample is developed at very initial stage and normally order is confirmed to the factory based on proto sample . • Proto sample is the rough interpretation of the enquiry done to acquaint the tailors with the style. • It is usually done on the substitute fabrics, and using accessories, what is available and then checked on the dress form. • The buyer may make the necessary changes pertaining to the fit, the drape, the style details etc. Fit sample • Fit sample is made and send to conform the fit of the garment on live models or on dummy and for approval of construction details. • The fabric used for fit sample production is the actual fabric which is going to be used for bulk production or sample yardage fabric is used. Photo shoot sample • In order to promote the new style in the market normally buyer asks for photo shoot sample. • Buyer uses this photo for marketing purpose either on catalogue or various media like, print, TV or websites to see the response of the consumer. Sales man / Marketing /Showroom sample • The main purpose of salesman sample is to collect the order from the retailers. • In Sales man sample actual accessory, actual fabric is used or sample yardage need to be used. • This sample also very important stage of sampling as the sales of buyer depends upon this sample presentation, look, feel of fabric is important. Source: http://www.textiletoday.com.bd/magazine/609
  • Size set sample • The main purpose of size set sample is to check the factory's capability to make the sample in all sizes • 1-2 samples (or quantity specified by buyer) of each size need to send to buyer. GPT sample (Garment Performance Test) • The main purpose of GPT is to perform the physical and chemical testing on garment to ensure the performance of the garment. • GPT Sample is sent to 3rd party inspection and results are sent to both factory as well as buyer. • The tests done on garments are: Shrinkage, Color Fastness, Seam performance etc. Pre- production sample • PP sample is considered to be a contract between the buyer and the factory. • It has to be made in original fabric and trims • Washing, embroidery and printing should match to actual. • PP Sample is the standard for production and bulk production garments should be identical to PP sample. • The factory can start the production of bulk garment only after the approval of preproduction sample. Wash sample • Wash sample is made and submitted to buyer for assessment of feel and handle of fabric after washing. TOP sample (Top of Production) • The top of production is sent to the buyer as soon initial pieces are come out of sewing line. • In TOP sample Buyer tries to evaluate the actual manufacturing of the style. • Buyer check whether bulk production is as per submitted sample or not. Shipment sample • Few buyers may ask for the shipment samples which factory needs to pull form the actual shipment and sent to buyer. • The main purpose of this sample is to assure buyer about the actual shipment dispatch. Source: http://www.textiletoday.com.bd/magazine/609
  • Functions of the fabric store department  Receive the fabric as per BOM  Fabric inspection (four point system)  Conduct fabric test (e.g. Shrinkage, colour fastness etc.)  Issue to the production department as per the requirement
  •  10% random inspection for sampling or lining or net fabric.  Inspection for production order fabric as per buyer’s requirement.  Perform GSM cutting.  Perform shrinkage test.  Check the fabric for the bowing or skewing.  Check fabric roll for the defects.  Allocate points to the defects.
  • Functions of the trims and accessories department  To receive incoming material.  To check material for attribute & variables.  To arrange the incoming material in allocated racks.  To issue trims as per BOM for sampling and production & other material as per requirement.  To maintain a record of incoming & outgoing material.
  • Spreading and cutting flow process Planning Spreading Cutting Preparation for sewing
  • Spreading and cutting flow process Spreads Planning Markers Production Manual Spreading Machine Manual Cutting Machine Preparation for sewing Ticketing Bundles
  • Planning Spreads Markers Production
  • It translates customer orders into cutting orders  minimize total production costs  meet deadlines  seek most effective use of labor, equipment, fabric and space
  •  Examining incoming orders and piece goods width and availability  Determining volume, size ratios, and sectioning procedures for marker making  Determining whether file markers are available or new ones are needed  Developing specifications for optimum marker making and fabric utilization  Determine most effective use of spreading and cutting equipment and personnel  Issuing orders for marker making, spreading and cutting
  • Cutting orders leads to Marker planning Lay planning
  •  The results of cut order planning are cutting orders that direct marker planning and cut planning.  The purpose of marker planning is to determine the most efficient combination of sizes and shades for each order and to produce the best fabric yield and equipment utilization.  One cutting order may require several markers to achieve optimum efficiency.  A lay is a stack of fabric plies that have been prepared for cutting.  Lay planning is the basis of managing cutting room labor and table space.  Spreading and cutting schedules are affected by:  table length,  type of equipment,  spread length,  spreading time and  cutting time.
  • Marker  is a diagram of a precise arrangement of pattern pieces for a specific style and the sizes to be cut from a single spread. Marker making  is the process of determining the most efficient layout of pattern pieces for a specified style, fabric, and distribution of sizes (requires time, skill and concentration)
  •  Marker making is a critical step in the manufacturing process.  By retaining strict control over this critical step, they keep the fabric consumption as low as possible.  It also ensures that the issues that affect quality will be given proper attention. These include placing patterns on grain, keeping patterns paired, and attending to details such as drill holes and notches.  Depending on the relative efficiency of each marker produced, the company may save or waste thousands of dollars a year. Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, “Pre-Assembly Processes – The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and Bundling”, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005
  • Markers types:  Blocks or Sections  Blocked or sectioned markers contain all of the pattern pieces for one style in one or two sizes.  Continuous  Block or section marker Continuous markers contain all the pattern pieces for all sizes included in a single cutting. Continuous marker
  • Markers types:  Open marker  Marker made with full pattern pieces.  Closed marker  Marker made with half garment parts pieces for laying along the folds of the tube (tubular knit). Closed marker
  • Marker making Manually produced Computerized marker making (CAD)
  • Manual marker  Created on marker paper or directly on fabric ply  Tracing by pencil or tailor’s chalk.  Time consuming.  Subject to errors. (pattern overlap, grain line, poor line definition, omission of pcs.)  Accuracy depends on individual’s skill.
  • Marker making Computerised marker  Accurate  Shortest response time.  Direct or digitized.  Manipulate images to determine best utilization. No overlapping/no omissions  Parameters (style #,size, etc.) for markers are entered into the computer.  Can be printed/recalled/modified.  Criteria can be set by technician. Can be used to determine fabric requirement.
  • Marker mode : Nap/ One/ Way  The Nap/ One/ Way marker (abbreviated N/O/W) is made with every pattern placed with the “down” direction of the pattern in the same direction.  This mode is necessary for fabrics that are asymmetric.  All patterns are placed on-grain, and in the “down” direction, which is usually toward the left edge (starting point where the legend is written).  The Nap/One/ Way marker is the highest quality but least efficient of the three nap directions for a marker. Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, “Pre-Assembly Processes – The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and Bundling”, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005
  • Marker mode : Nap/ Either/ Way  The Nap/ Either/ Way marker (abbreviated N/E/W) is made where there is no restriction of which way the pattern are oriented.  The patterns may be oriented either “down” or “up”, placed wherever they fit best, only making sure that the patterns are on-grain.  The Nap/ Either/ Way marker is usually the most efficient mode yielding the highest fabric utilization. Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, “Pre-Assembly Processes – The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and Bundling”, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005
  • Marker mode : Nap/ Up/& Down  The Nap/ Up/& Down marker (abbreviated N/U/D) is more efficient than the Nap/ One/ Way marker, but not as efficient as the Nap/ Either/ Way marker.  In order to get a better fit between the patterns, alternating sizes of patterns are oriented in opposite directions.  This method is yields moderately good fabric utilization, and good quality. Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, “Pre-Assembly Processes – The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and Bundling”, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005
  • Marker Efficiency Area of patterns in the marker plan X 100% Total area of the marker plan  It is determined for fabric utilization  Minimum waste Factors affecting marker efficiency  Fabric characteristics (fabric width, length of design repeat etc.)  Shape of Pattern pieces (large pieces – less flexibility)  Grain requirements
  •  Spreading is the processes of superimposing lengths of fabric on a spreading table cutting table or specially designed surface in preparation for the cutting process  Spread or lay is the total amount of fabric prepared for a single marker Requirement of spreading  Shade sorting of cloth pieces Spreading equipment  Spreading surfaces ( table, pin  Correct ply direction and adequate lay stability table, vacuum table)  Alignment of plies  Spreading machines  Correct ply tension  Elimination of fabric faults  Avoidance of distortion in the spread
  • Spreading equipment  Spreading surfaces ( table, pin table, vacuum table)  Spreading machines
  • Spreading Manual Machine
  •  In manual spreading, fabric is drawn from its package which, if it is a roll, may be supported by a frame and carried along the table where the end is secured by weights or by clamps.  The operators work back from the end, aligning the edges and ensuring that there is no tension and that there are no wrinkles.
  •  Spreading machines carry the piece of fabric from end to end of the spread, dispensing one ply at a time on the spread.  Spreading machines may include:  A motor to drive  A platform on which the operator rides  A ply cutting device with automatic catcher to hold the ends of ply in place  A ply counter  An alignment shifter actuated by photo electric edge guides  A turntable  A direct drive on the fabric support, synchronized with the speed of travel, to reduce or eliminate tension in the fabric being spread.
  • Nap one way & face one way spreading Nap either way & face to face spreading Spreading Mode Nap one-way face to face spreading Nap either way & face one way spreading
  • Spreading Mode: Nap one way & face one way spreading  Most common spreading method that can also be done manually.  Fabric roll is kept on a roller stand and fabric end is being pulled by two spreading operators (thus unwinding fabric from freely rotating roll) walking along both sides of cutting table.  While using machine, the lose end of fabric is being held by catcher and machine carries the rolls along table thus unwinding and spreading the fabric in the process.  Every layer has to start from same end thus spreading machine has to come back to starting position without spreading the fabric. This return movement of spreading machine is called as “dead heading” Nap one way Face one way Source: Prabir Jana, “Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products”, 2005
  • Spreading Mode: Nap either way & face to face spreading  The quickest spreading method while using spreading machine.  Difficult to achieve manually.  The machine carry the fabric roll while the end is being held in place by catcher, at layer end fabric is not cut just folded and held by another catcher while the fabric is being laid by the machine during it’s return movement also. Face to face Nap either way Source: Prabir Jana, “Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products”, 2005
  • Spreading Mode: Nap one-way face to face spreading  Most time consuming method of spreading.  The lose end of fabric is being held by catcher and machine carries the rolls along table thus unwinding and spreading the fabric in the process.  At layer end the fabric is being cut, turntable rotate the fabric roll by 180 degree and return back to starting position without.  Now from the starting end the second layer is being laid face to face. Face to face Nap one way Source: Prabir Jana, “Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products”, 2005
  • Spreading Mode: Nap either way & face one way spreading  The lose end of fabric is being held by catcher and machine carries the rolls along table thus unwinding and spreading the fabric in the process.  At layer end the fabric is being cut, turntable rotate the fabric roll by 180 degree and start spreading the second layer from the opposite end face one way. There is no dead heading by the machine in this spreading mode. Face one way Nap either way Source: Prabir Jana, “Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products”, 2005
  • Spreading costs  Labour cost  Fabric waste  Splicing loss  End loss  Width loss
  • Cutting Cutting Manual Scissors Machine Portable cutting knives Straight knife Round knife Stationary cutters Band knife Die cutting Servo cutting Plasma cutting Water jet cutting Laser cutting Position markers Notchers Drills and thread markers
  • Scissors
  • Portable cutting knives Power system Handle Sharpening Cutting blade Blade guard Up and down movement One way thrust as the circular blade makes contact with the fabric Round knife Base plate Straight knife
  • Portable cutting knives Straight knife Round knife  Vertical blade  Popular, light and fast.  Reciprocates up and down  Suitable only for cutting in straight lines  Corners and curves can be cut accurately or very gradual curves, in depths of  Most versatile and commonly used about 15cm  Blades length - 6 to 14 inches  Spread depth depends on blade length & adjustable height of the blade guard  Larger blade cuts up to 2" of soft or bulky material, or lower lays of harder material such as shirts  All of the pieces cut from a lay are  Small blade cuts single layer identical  A round blade contacts the spread at an angle; thus, the top ply is cut before the bottom ply
  • Stationary cutters: Band knife  Contains a narrow, sharpened, endless steel band  Fabric layers are guided by hand against the blade  Air cushion is provided below the fabric layers  Plies are stapled together to prevent slippage  Used for precision cutting to a depth of up to 300mm  Corners, tight curves and pointed incisions are cut precisely  Band knives are more accurate for small blocks or for shaving small amounts off pre-cut blocks
  • Stationary cutters: Servo cutting  Overhead servo motor  Adjustable speed  Suspension system that supports the knife perpendicular to the cutting table  Knife is mounted on a swivel arm  It combines vertical cutting and band knife cutting into one machine
  • Cutting Stationary cutters: Die cutting  Dies are pre – shaped metal outlines  Most accurate  Die cutting operation involves  Placement of fabric  Positioning the die on the fabric  Engaging the machine to press the die into the fabric  Used mainly for leather, coated and laminated materials  Areas where the same patterns are used over a long period, e.g. collar, pocket flaps
  • Cutting Stationary cutters: Plasma cutting  Cutting is achieved by means of a high velocity jet of high temperature ionized gas (argon)  Faster cutter of single plies  High engineering and cost issues  Problems – same as for laser cutting  Cutting is achieved by means of a high velocity jet of high temperature ionized gas (argon)  Faster cutter of single plies  High engineering and cost issues
  • Cutting Stationary cutters: Water jet cutting  Very high velocity, fine stream of water  High pressure jet acts as a solid tool, tears the fibers on impact  As the jet penetrates successive plies in a spread, the momentum decreases and cutting ability is reduced frayed edges  Wet edges, water spots, inconsistent cutting quality  Leather, plastic, vinyl  High equipment costs
  • Cutting Position markers: Notchers  Notches can be cut by straight knife too but accuracy is required  Specialized notching equipment provides greater accuracy because a guide lines up the notcher with the cut edge  Hot notcher consists of a heating element (blade) that slightly scorches the fibers adjacent to the notch (thermoplastic fibers)  Two types of notches:  Straight notch and V-notch
  • Cutting Position markers: Drills and thread markers  Drill mount consists of motor, base plate with a hole and spirit level  Used for reference markers needed away from the edge of a garment part, e.g. position of pockets, darts, etc.  A hole is drilled through the lay  Normally, drill is used cold, hole remains visible until the sewing operator comes to use it  Loose weave – hot drill is used which slightly scorches or fuse the edges of the hole  Hypodermic (or dye spot) drill – leaves small deposit of paint on each ply of fabric  ALL drill holes must eventually be concealed by the construction of the garment
  • Preparation for sewing Ticketing Bundles
  • Preparation for sewing Ticketing  Tickets carry details : style no, size, ply no, bundle no., date issued  Operations may be incorporated for payment purposes, control of work and facilitating quality control
  • Preparation for sewing Bundling  Small batches of garments move from one work station to another in a controlled way  Tens, dozens, 2 dozens, etc.  If ticketing is not done, a top ply labeling system is done Bundle ticket consists of :  Order no. 6015  Bundle no. 1430  Quantity 12  Style no. 3145  Size 12  Section collar
  • Cut parts received from the cutting room Bulk production begins In line inspection Ironing Rough checking Button-button hole/ bartack End line checking Final checking Measurement checking Tagging Packing Ex - factory QA audit by the buying house Production continues
  • Sewing department Production system Seams and stitches
  • Make through system Conventional bundle system Clump system Progressive bundle system Production system Flexible flow system Straight line system Synchro flow system Unit production system Modular manufacturing system
  • Production system: Make through system  It is the traditional method of manufacture in which an operator makes right through one garment at a time. Source: ApparelKey.com
  • Production system: Conventional bundle system  Sewing machines are arranged in lines.  The work flows from the central (store) area to the first machine, from the first machine back to the store, and then on to the next machine, and so forth.  A distributor stationed at the store is responsible for receiving and dispatching the work.  The work in progress is in the form of bundles.  These bundles may be put on to a tray, a box, or a bag, or the garment parts may be wrapped and tied. Source: ApparelKey.com
  • Production system: Clump system  A worker collects a clump of materials from the worktable and carries out the first operation.  After he has completed his part of the work, he returns it to the table.  A worker for the second operation then continues the work and so on.  The process is ' collection - work -return' continues until the whole garment has been assembled. Source: ApparelKey.com
  • Production system: Progressive bundle system  Sewing operations are laid out in sequence.  Each operator receives a bundle, does his work, reties the bundle and passes it to the next operator.  There is a storage facility such as rack, bin or table for storing the inter-process work between each operation.  The work is routed by means of tickets.  This system is the most widely used system in the garment industry today. It is used in shirt factories, jeans factories, jacket factories, etc. Source: ApparelKey.com
  • Production system: Flexible flow system  A section of sewing operators, each with a supply of work in a rack at the side, work at an engineered work place.  The machines are laid out in such a way that a flow of work can be planned using the correct number of operators in sequence.  For style A garments, the work distributed after operation 1 can be distributed to the two operators performing operation 2. On completion, the work from both workers is then sent to operator 3. After operation 3, the work is continued by the two operators performing operation 4 and so on.  When a new style is to be loaded on to the system, the number of operators needed for each operation must be planned in detail to ensure a balanced output. Source: ApparelKey.com
  • Production system: Straight line system  The manufacturing process is broken down into several operations, which take the same time to complete.  Groups of operators are required to handle only individual garments.  The garment parts pass from one operator to the next, until the garment has been completely made up by one group of operators.  The central distribution unit may be a fixed table or a a conveyor belt (its speed will be set to suit the cycle time). Source: ApparelKey.com
  • Production system: Synchro flow system  Garment parts of the same size and color are processed separately.  Different garment parts can be processed simultaneously for assembling.  At the same time, collars, sleeves, cuffs, pockets, etc., from other lines also go down a central line.  The different garment parts are then processed together to form completed garments. Source: ApparelKey.com
  • Production system: Unit production system  A unit production system (UPS) is a computer-controlled production line.  It is a type of line layout that uses an overhead transport system to move individual units from work-station to work station for assembly.  All the parts for a single garment are advanced through the production line together by means of a hanging carrier that travels along an overhead conveyor.  Production operations are completed without removing the parts from the carrier.  Automated materials handling replaces the traditional system of bundling, tying and untying, and manually moving garment parts.  Electronic data can be collected from workstations, which provides payroll and inventory data, immediate tracking of styles, and costing and performance data for prompt decision. Source: ApparelKey.com
  • Production system: Modular manufacturing system  Modular manufacturing groups operators into teams, or modules.  The team works on one/a few garment at a time instead of a bundle of garments.  The operators stand /sit at their stations and rotate to different machines as they work, becoming familiar with multiple steps in producing the garment. Source: ApparelKey.com
  • Seams and stitches
  • Thread-guides Thumb-nut screw Stitch regulator Take-up lever Tension discs/checkspring Needle bar Needle Reversing lever Throat plate Needle guard Presser foot Machine bed
  • Needle Bar Needle Throat plate Needle Eye Presser Foot Feed Dog
  • Stitch forming devices Stitch Device used Lock stitch Bobbin hook Chain stitch Looper Over lock Looper and spreader Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)
  • The bobbin of a lock stitch machine Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)
  • Machine beds Raised bed Flat bed Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)
  • Machine beds Cylinder bed Feed of arm Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)
  • Machine beds Post bed Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)
  •  Garments are shaped and formed in three ways:  materials molded to a form,  fabric pieces cut to shape and assembled by bonding, and  pieces cut to shape and sewn.  For the purpose of standardization of stitch and seam formations, the U.S government developed a guide that defines stitches and seams in current use. The United States Federal Stitch and Seam Specifications (Federal Standard 751a) were adopted in 1965.  The British Standard BS 3870: Schedule of Stitches, Seams, and Stitchings was also developed about the same time.  The Federal Standard 751a have been replaced by ASTM D 6193, Standards Related to Stitches and Seams. Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)
  • ASTM D 6193 gives the following definitions:  A stitch is the configuration of the interlacing of sewing thread in a specific repeated unit.  A seam is a line where two or more fabrics are joined.  A stitching consists of a series of stitches embodied in a material for ornamental purposes or finishing an edge or both. Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)
  • Seams  The basic function of a seam is to hold pieces of fabric together.  To perform its function correctly, the seam should have properties or characteristics closely allied to those of the fabrics being sewn.  The careful selection of the most appropriate seam, a suitable stitch type together with the correct thread and machine settings for the fabric and end-product is of paramount importance. Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)
  • Physical properties of seam  Strength: a seam must be strong. Strength is usually measured in two directions: across the seam (lateral or transverse strength) and along the seam (longitudinal strength).  Extensibility  Durability: A seam must be durable, long-lasting and not abrade or wear easily during everyday use of the garment  Security: a seam needs to be secure and not unravel during everyday use of the garment  Appearance properties: the ideal seam should join pieces of fabric in an unobtrusive and efficient manner with no discontinuity in physical properties or appearance.  Balance Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)
  • Classification of seams  Superimposed seam  Lap seam  Bound seam  Flat seam Superimposed seam  Edge finishing Bound seam Lap seam Edge finishing Flat seam Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)
  • Stitches Stitch properties  Stitch size has three dimensions: length, width, and depth.  Stitch length is specified as the number of stitches per inch (spi) and can be an indicator of quality. High spi means short stitches; low spi means long stitches. Generally, the greater the spi, the more the holding power and seam strength.  Stitch width refers to the horizontal span (bight) covered in the formation of one stitch or single line of stitching. Stitches that have width dimensions require multiple needles or lateral movement of thread carriers such as the needle bars, loopers or spreaders.  Stitch depth is the distance between the upper and lower surface of the stitch. It is a factor for blind stitches.
  • Stitch classification  Stitch classification is based on structure of the stitch and method of interlacing. Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)
  • Stitch classification 100 Class stitch: Single thread chain stitch  Using one needle thread and one blind looper Diagram Stitch class Thread count Typical uses 101 Class One thread Basting, or light construction 103 Class One thread Blind stitch for hemming 104 Class One thread Blind stitch for hemming Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/100cl.htm
  • Stitch classification 200 Class stitch: Single thread hand sewn stitch  Using one needle thread Diagram Stitch class Thread count Typical uses 202 Class One Thread Basting, tacking or repairs 205 Class One Thread Pick stitch - topstitching Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/200cl.htm
  • Stitch classification 300 Class stitch: Two or more thread lock stitch  Using Needle Thread(s) and One Bobbin Hook Thread Diagram Stitch class Thread count Typical uses 301 Class Two threads Seaming multiple plies 304 Class Two thread Zig-zag stitch; a stretch lockstitch 306 Class Two thread Blind stitch 315 Class Two threads Three step zig-zag Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/300cl.htm
  • Stitch classification 400 Class stitch: Multi-thread chain stitch  Using one or more needle threads and one or more looper threads Diagram Stitch class Thread count Typical uses 401 Class Two threads Seaming multiple plies with moderate stretch 404 Class Two threads Topstitching or seaming with stretch Three threads "Bottom cover stitch; a (greater) stretch chain stitch 406 Class Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/400cl.htm
  • Stitch classification 500 Class Stitch: Multi-thread over edge chain stitch  Using needle thread(s) and looper thread(s) Diagram Stitch class Thread count Typical uses 501 Class One thread One needle over edge stitch for serging / “blanket stitch" 502 Class Two thread One needle over edge stitch for serging 503 Class Two thread Over edge stitch for serging with crossover on edge of fabric 504 Class Three thread Over edge stitch for serging and light seaming Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/500cl.htm
  • Stitch classification 500 Class Stitch: Multi-thread over edge chain stitch  Using needle thread(s) and looper thread(s) Diagram Stitch class Thread count Typical uses 512 Class Four Thread Mock safety stitch for seaming with wide bite and greater stretch for knits 514 Class Four Thread Over edge stitch for seaming with wide bite and greater stretch for knits 515 Class Four Thread True safety stitch for seaming with good stretch for wovens and knits 516 Class Five Thread True safety stitch for seaming with good stretch for wovens and knits Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/500cl.htm
  • Stitch classification 600 Class Stitch: Multi-thread cover stitches Diagram Stitch class Thread count Typical uses 602 Class Four thread Cover stitch or seaming knits 605 Class Five thread Cover stitch 607 Class Six thread Wide cover stitch Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/600cl.htm
  • Responsibilities of quality department  To impart quality in the product.  To ensure that the product has achieved the quality parameters of buyers.  To restrict the defects entering into the final product.  Main function of quality department is to carry out inspection.  Inspection can be defined as the visual examination or review of raw materials, partially finished components of the garments and completely finished garments in relation to some standards, specifications, or requirements, as well as measuring the garments to check if they meet the required measurements. Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Principle of inspection (inspection loop) Inspection Correction of defects Determination of causes of defects Detection of defects Feedback of these defects to appropriate personnel Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • How much to inspect ?  No inspection  100% inspection  Spot checking- inspecting random shipments  Arbitrary sampling-10% sampling  Statistical sampling or acceptance sampling-flexibility with regard to the amount of inspection to be performed Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Inspection terms  Sample: A sample consists of one or more units of a product drawn from a lot or batch, the units of the sample being selected at random without regards to their quality. The number of units of a product in the sample is the sample size.  Lot or batch: Means ‘Inspection lot’ or ‘Inspection Batch’, that is a collection of units of a product from which a sample is to be drawn and inspected.  Lot or batch size: The lot or batch size is the number of units of a product in a lot or batch  Percent defective = Number of defectives 100 Number of units inspected Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Identification of defects  Major Defect: A defect that, if conspicuous on the finished product, would cause the item to be second.  Minor Defect: A defect that would not cause the product to be termed as a second either because of severity or location.  Second: A ‘Second’ is a garment with a conspicuous defect that affects the saleability or serviceability of the item. Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Spreading defects Possible Pattern Defects:  Pattern parts missing  Skimpy marking  Mixed parts  Generous marking  Patterns not facing in the correct direction  Marker too wide on napped fabrics  Not  Patterns not all facing in the same enough knife clearance freedom direction on a one-way fabric   Mismatched checks and stripes Patterns not aligned with respect to the  Notches and drill marks omitted, fabric grain  indistinct, or misplaced Line definition poor Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Cutting defects  Frayed edges  Fuzzy, ragged or serrated edges  Ply-to-ply fusion  Single-edge fusion  Pattern precision- Under-cut, Over-cut  Notches  Drills Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Sewing defects  Needle Damage  Pleated seams  Feed Damage  Wrong stitch density  Skipped stitches  Uneven stitch density  Thread breaks  Staggered stitch  Broken stitches  Improperly formed stitches  Seam grin  Oil spots or stains  Seam pucker Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Seaming defects  Incorrect or uneven width of inlay  Irregular or incorrect shape of sewing line  Insecure back stitching  Twisted seam  Mismatched checks or stripes  Mismatched seam  Extraneous part caught in a seam, an unrelated piece showing through the seam  Reversed garment part  Blind stitching showing on the face side  Wrong seam or stitch type used  Wrong shade of thread used Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Assembly defects  Finished components nor correct to size or shape or not symmetrical.  Finished garment not to size  Parts, components, closures or features omitted  Components or features wrongly positioned or misaligned  Interlining incorrectly positioned  Lining too full, too tight, showing below the bottom of the garment, twisted,  Garment parts cockling, pleated, twisted, showing bubbles and fullness  Garment parts shaded  Parts in one-way fabrics in wrong direction  Mismatched trimming Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Checks for final inspection  Open seams  Snaps, fasteners, buttons  Skipped stitches  Labels  Cracked stitches  Elastic  Stitches/inch  Measurements  Uneven seams  Mends or repairs  Crooked, puckered, curled, pleated seams  Stripe  Needle and feed cuts  Hems  Unclipped threads and Long ends  Trim  Raw edge  Broken needle  Distortion Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • AQL: Accepted quality level  The AQL is the maximum percent defective that, for the purpose of sampling inspection can be considered satisfactory as a process average.  The AQL is a designated value of percent defective that the customer indicates will be accepted most of the time by the acceptance sampling procedures to be used. Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • AQL: Accepted quality level Sample size code letters Lot or Batch Size Sample size code letter 2 to 8 A 9 to 15 B 16 to 25 C 26 to 50 D 51 to 90 E 91 to 150 F 151 to 280 G 281 to 500 H 501 to 1200 J 1201 to 3200 K 3201 to 10000 L 10001 to 35000 M
  • AQL: Accepted quality level Sampling Plans Sample Size Code Letter Sample Size Acceptable Quality Level 2.5 4 6.5 Ac Re Ac Re Ac 10 Re Ac Re A 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 B 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 C 5 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 D 8 0 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 E 13 1 2 1 2 2 3 3 4 F 20 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 G 32 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 H 50 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 J 80 5 6 7 8 10 11 14 15 K 125 7 8 10 11 14 15 21 22 L 200 10 11 14 15 21 22 21 22 M 315 14 15 21 22 21 22 21 22
  •  Finishing is the last stage of garment production where garment gets its final look.  In this department each garment undergoes different finishing processes.  It undergoes for quality check for several number of time which sets the garment free from defects.  Buyer specifications and instructions are strictly maintained. Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Operations performed at finishing stage  Thread cutting: Uncut threads affect the presentation of finished and packed garments. Therefore, it is necessary to cut and trim the loose and uncut threads.  Stain removal: Removal of the following type of stains: Oil, yellow, black and paint spots, stains due to color bleeding, ink, rust, tracing marks, yellow stains, and hard stains  Seam ironing: Ironing of garments using steam ironing tables with vacuum boards.  Final finishing: The entire garment is finished using various finishing equipments. Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Operations performed at finishing stage  Tagging and packing: The pass pieces are brought to the tagging and packing section. It is the responsibility of the packing supervisors to provide the tagging operators with the appropriate price and brand tags. He also instructs the tagging operator as to where and how the tag has to be placed. The most important thing to be kept in mind while placing the tag is to match the size mentioned on the main label and the size on tag. The step after the tagging is to pack the garments as per the specification of the buyer. Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Operations performed at finishing stage Presentation checking and cartoon packing It is very important to check the packed garments for presentation. Checkers check the packed garments for the following things:  Poly bags are as per specification.  Tags and price stickers are as per specification.  Packing is secured or not if specified.  Poly bags should not be soiled and torn.  Hangers are there or not if specified.  Garment has been folded as per specification etc. Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, “ Managing quality in apparel products”
  • Operations performed at finishing stage Presentation checking and cartoon packing Once, checking is done they send the garments for the carton packing. The following things are kept in mind during carton packing:  Number of garments to be packed in one carton.  Ratio asked for example S:M:L=2:1:1  Packing the garments in the cartons as per specified.  Closing the cartons with cello tape.  Sealing the cartons with plastic cord.  Writing on carton information like: Store or buyer name, buyer's address, ratio, net weight of the carton etc.