## * * 07/16/96 “You may be disappointed to learn that there is no magic formula or clever tricks to make someone a great presenter. There is no such thing as a born brain surgeon any more than a born presenter, but I can provide some guidelines. A newspaper survey revealed Death to be number seven in a list of fears people have in their mind, whereas Public Speaking was number one! “So why are we more frightened about Public Speaking than Death?! Well, we are in good company. A certain amount of fear is actually necessary as it produces adrenaline which enhances your presentation. What are we frightened about? (Ask group and list on a flip chart) Possible answers could be: Fear that you will make a fool of yourself, and the only way to overcome that fear is to prepare and practice as this removes fear of the unknown.
## * * 07/16/96 It is important to have some kind of written prompt. Notes jog the memory and help maintain a flow of ideas. They also help control and structure the presentation enabling a logical and coherent flow while keeping to the time plan. It is often useful to learn the first and last paragraph in full. The rest of the notes should be written in the form of headings and subheadings on cards, on one side only and numbered. Highlighting or underlining your notes may help remind you of important points.
## * * 07/16/96 A quote from Mark Twain: “It usually takes no more than three weeks to prepare a good impromptu speech” We will look in detail at what you need to do to prepare thoroughly. You then need to practice out loud until you’re sick of it, and you’re then ready to make a great presentation! Remember - you know your subject, your audience will be glad it’s not them presenting and they are unlikely to heckle or walk out and it will end!
## * * 07/16/96 Even if you don’t feel confident, you will want to control your nerves, take some deep breaths and have a glass of water at hand. Don’t forget to smile, however nervous you feel - it will help you relax and appear to have warmth. Check your posture - stand straight, feet slightly apart, with your cards in your hands. You can sit down if it is an informal presentation, but you lose control. Check your bad habits - playing with your hair, or for men playing with money in your pockets. The rules for eye contact are to look at your audience extensively, glance around at the beginning and end of sentences and look at faces, not bodies. Don’t fix on the friendly face or ignore the scowling or disinterested one.
## * * 07/16/96 Dress: Appearance can have a big impact on the way people respond to you. Remember the following - consider the audience, a business suit is generally acceptable but may be too formal for some audiences, personal grooming conveys respect for oneself and the audience, dress for comfort, check yourself in a mirror prior to going into the presentation. Posture: You need to be aware of the meanings of posture when presenting - Nervousness/Restlessness - pacing about, Formality - standing behind a lectern or desk, Informality - sitting in a chair or perched on a desk, Confidence - standing up straight, feet slightly apart Facial Expression: Facial expression can give an inaccurate message and therefore needs to be carefully managed. The emotions that are easily distinguishable are happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, disgust/contempt and interest. Try to develop your facial expressions to help you convey emotion and attitude in your presentation.
## * * 07/16/96 By varying your voice it is possible to stimulate and increase the attention of the audience. The way in which the voice is used can completely change the meaning of a phrase or sentence. Th voice can effectively be controlled and used in the following ways: Volume, Pitch and Speed.
## * * 07/16/96 Voice: By varying the voice it is possible to stimulate and increase the attention of the audience. The way in which the voice is used can completely change the meaning of a phrase or sentence. The voice can effectively be controlled and used in the following ways - pitch, tone, intonation, speed, pause, volume and accent.
## * * 07/16/96 Many speakers when they start out tend to be static, delivering their presentation from behind a lectern. Often, nervous speakers move about too much to use up their nervous energy. The appropriate type and amount of movement conveys confidence to the audience. In addition it involves the audience in the presentation and gains attention.
## * * 07/16/96 Movement can control the mood of the audience. If you want to energise the audience you can use faster paced, bolder and more dynamic movements. To make a serious point, you can remain relatively still and simply use eye contact with each member of the audience to emphasise your point. Try and match your movements to the energy level and mood of the audience.
## * * 07/16/96 Gesture: These can be used in three ways; to support verbal communication, to contradict verbal communication, to be independent of verbal communication. Gestures to avoid are; hands in pockets, tapping, waving a pointer or ruler, toying with an item, fiddling with clothing or loose change.
## * * 07/16/96 Eye Contact: The rules are as follows; look at your audience extensively at the start, glance around at the beginning and end of sentences, look at peoples faces not bodies, don’t fix on just one person, don’t miss anyone out.
## * * 07/16/96 The amount of eye contact you employ sends different signals to the audience. Avoiding eye contact with an individual can suggest humility or even a lack of confidence. Too much eye contact with an individual can suggest domination or even aggression.
## * * 07/16/96 The tendency can be for a nervous speaker to avoid eye contact with a decision maker through feeling intimidated by their perceived importance. However, the individual you should be most keen to influence in a presentation is the decision maker. Consequently this person should receive most eye contact. In this way they will feel that the presentation is particularly directed towards them and they should involved and important. The bullet points above describe how you should allocate eye contact depending on the nature of the audience. The general rule is that the key influencers/ decision makers should receive most eye contact. If everyone in the audience is of equal status/influence, then eye contact should be proportioned equally.
## * * 07/16/96 Even the most experienced presenter can feel nervous - in fact a degree of nervous energy will allow you to give your best performance. However it is desirable to control some of the signs of nervousness. The following actions may help you: Dry Mouth - Biting the sides of the tongues gently causes saliva to flow. Have a glass of water. Too Much Saliva - Put the tip of your tongues on the hard ridge behind the top teeth and breath through the mouth. This dries the saliva without drying the mouth. Tight Throat - Learn to yawn with your mouth closed. Short of Breath - Put your arm across the lower part of your abdomen applying a little pressure. Breathe out and then in again slowly. Butterflies - Tense the muscles of the abdomen, relax and repeat. Facial Tension - Smile! Drying Up - Look at your notes and collect your thoughts. Repeat what you’ve just said to give you time. the most common time to dry up is when you get to complex names or facts - make notes!
## * * 07/16/96 This is a summary slide that describes the key to effective presentations.
## * * 07/16/96 Use short, sharp sentences and simple words. (Write these words on a flip chart: facilitate, demonstrate and duplicate - ask group what words can be used instead) Use humour carefully. Not everyone may appreciate your jokes The same goes for cliches and catch phrases. The audience may not understand them. The audience will relate more readily to your key/learning points if you can illustrate them with examples from real life, e.g. anecdotes. Rhetorical questions are those that you ask but don’t require an answer. They are used to gain the attention of an audience. Remember the power of silence, and pause occasionally.
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## * * 07/16/96 Presentations are more effective if they feature interaction with the audience. The use of questions is the best way to gain input and involvement with individuals in the audience. This can also be a very useful means to gain valuable information from the audience. The key element is to prepare questions in advance: - what information to gather? - who to ask to gain the information? - how are they likely to respond? - how will you react to the anticipated responses?
## * * 07/16/96 Show this slide and get the group to give examples of each type of question and note them on the flip chart. Encourage participants to note examples on page 34 of their manuals. Examples : Open: How often do you see these doctors? How would you go about identifying his needs? Given the same situation, how would you have done differently? Closed: Will you consider using that approach? Redirected: An interesting point, what are your views? Rhetorical: I agree, you must feel that way as well. Leading: This presents us with a choice, which would you prefer?
## * * 07/16/96 The tips in the bullet points will help to maintain the attention and focus of the audience. It is important to ensure that the audience aren’t distracted from your key communication points. For this reason it is best not to hand out objects for people to inspect or read. While they are inspecting the object, they aren’t listening to your presentation.
## * * 07/16/96 These four role-play briefs can be used during presentations given by delegates during the presentation skills course. It is suggested that these are included no earlier than day 2 once delegates feel more confident about presenting. You may decide to divide the group (depending on it’s size) and put just one or two roles in each group. You may allocate one or two roles to several presentations to the whole group. Your decision should be based on how each delegate has performed and how much time you can dedicate to this exercise. Number 1: Dr. Quiet During the presentation, you should say nothing at all. Look interested, but if the presenter tries to gain eye contact, look away. Do not answer any questions that may be directed at the group as a whole. If you are asked any questions directly, give very short, if possible, one word answers. Do not make any comment on the presentation or challenge what is being said. Number 2: Dr. Disagreeable The individual you are role-playing is someone who thinks that what is being said is incorrect or is not understood or is generally disinterested. You need to decide which you will choose. You should interrupt the presenter (not too much), challenge what is being said and suggest that your point of view is more valid. Do not over play as this will disrupt the group, keep it realistic. If the presenter handles the situation well, reduce or stop your interruptions.
## * * 07/16/96 Show this slide and introduce a syndicate session. Divide the group into 4 teams (if possible) and get each to address why audience members may act in these ways at a meeting. Also get them to think how they would deal with each type and consider the consequences of those actions. Give 30 minutes for this and use the following 4 slides to confirm each groups findings. There is space in the participant workbook to make notes on pages 35 & 36
## * * 07/16/96 Explain each point on the slide after the group have given their feedback.
## * * 07/16/96 Repeat as for previous slide.
## * * 07/16/96 As previous slide.
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## * * 07/16/96 Always try to visit the room where you are making the presentation in advance and check the size, seating and room layout,sockets, equipment, and ensure that you rearrange the room if you feel people may be unable to see/hear/participate. Think about a strategic place to put a display table, and it’s often an idea to present near the entrance to stop people slipping out! If you are responsible for refreshments, make sure you always confirm the caterer, or if buying food, allow plenty of time to do so. When do you eat - before or after the presentation?
## * * 07/16/96 We have prepared thoroughly, and now it’s the big day! Make sure you start on time and remember it is unacceptable to overrun. So that’s preparation - the other part is practice! Practice 1: Each delegate should now prepare a 5 minute presentation to be given to the group. They may choose their own topic. Feedback forms are available on pages 41 - 43 these may be photocopied.) By picking a topic where you may feel emotional, we usually see your natural presentation style. Let’s feedback on our natural presentation style before we look at how to refine it. Practice 2: Trainer should now focus on job specific context training at sales team meeting. Delegates will be required to use presentation skills learned to train his/ her team of Sales Representatives on specific performance deficiency.
## * * 07/16/96 Before showing this slide, split delegates into 4 groups, and ask them to refer to page __ of the workbook and do the workshop on the Dos, and Don’ts of presentation.
## * * 07/16/96 This is a summary slide that incorporates the key ingredients of an effective presentation.
Tips for presentations
“The mind is a wonderful thing………It starts working the moment you areborn, and never stops ……….Until you get up to speak in public!!”Presentation Skills
Presentation: DefinitionSomething presented : asa : a symbol or image that representssomethingb : something offered or givenc: an immediate object of perception,cognition, or memory
What is Communication?Nonverbal Communication-body language-eye contact
Effective CommunicationPreparationresearch -non-researchformat -speak on what you know-Notes- outline main points-note cards vs. full sized paper
Use Cards - tie/numberUse headings/subheadingsBullet pointsColour code/shorthandUnderline/indentWrite out first/last sentence in fullMemorise introductionRehearseUse large visible printingMaking Notes
DressPostureFacial ExpressionVoiceMovementGestureEye ContactBody Language
VolumeVolumePitchPitchSpeedSpeed MumblingMumbling Voice dropVoice drop Too highToo high Too lowToo low MonotonousMonotonous HesitancyHesitancy GabblingGabblingVoice
Voice ControlPause and paceuse pause to add emphasis and dramapace should be slower than normal, but varyaccording to moodEmphasissay adjectives as they soundVolumelouder than normallarger audiences, more modulation requiredVoice
Movement - why does it improve theeffectiveness of your delivery?Relaxes the speaker and the audienceGains attentionInvolves the audienceImproves emphasis and eye contactMovement
Movement - it is crucial to your delivery that youchoreograph it as every part of the room has adifferent relationship with the speaker -examples…..Start your presentation close to the audience1st slide/ overhead - stand stillMove to the screen to emphasise side/ overheadChange energy level to match/ control moodControlled movementstop talking - stop eye contactstart talking/ start eye contactMovement
Gestures - why use them?Emphasise a pointInvolve the audienceVisual expressionAnimationDemonstrates comfortHow much to use?depends on the audience size and makeupA little for conservative audiencesA lot for large, dynamic audiencesGestures
EYE CONTACT STRATEGIESLess than the other = HumilitySame as the other = We are the sameConstructive = Builds relationship(same then increasing)More than the other = Dominate other/ strengthof convictionEye Contact
Eye Contact - Directing ItDecision makerreceives most eye contact - 60%share the remainder equallyKey influencershare the majority of eye contactBy roleallocate by job function/ statusEveryone is equalproportion eye contact equallyEye Contact
Things You Shouldn’tDoRead directly from notesRead directly fromscreenTurn back on audienceSlouch, hands in pocketsNo um, ah, you know’sNo nervous gesturesTalk too fast,Talk too quietly
Things You ShouldDoEye contactCan glance atnotesAppropriategesturesRhetoricalquestions toinvolveaudience
Dry mouth: bite side of the tongue, sip waterToo much saliva: breath through mouthTight throat: yawn with your mouth closedShort of breath: apply pressure on lowerabdomenButterflies: tense & relax muscles of abdomenDrying Up: look at your note, repeat what youhave just saidGesturesPracticeControlling Nerves
Ten Successful TipsControl the “Butterflies”Know the room- become familiarwith the place of presentationKnow the audience- greet or chatwith the audience before hand. It’seasier to speak to friends than tostrangersKnow your material-increasednervousness is due to un-preparedness
Control the “Butterflies”Relaxation- relax entire body bystretching and breathing so as toease the tensionVisualize giving your speech-Visualize yourself giving yourspeech from start to finish. Byvisualizing yourself successful, youwill be successful
Control the “Butterflies”People want you to succeed-theaudience is there to see yousucceed not to failDon’t apologize-by mentioning yournervousness or apologizing, you’llonly be calling the audience’sattention to mistakes
Control the “Butterflies”Concentrate on your message-notthe medium. Focus on themessage you are trying to conveyand not on your anxietiesTurn nervousness into positiveenergy-nervousness increasesadrenaline, transform it into vitalityand enthusiasm
Control the “Butterflies”Gain experience-experience buildsconfidence, which is key toeffective public speaking
“The key to effective presentations isto manage the relationshipbetween yourself and the audienceso that a good rapport is developedwith them”Presentation Skills
Short sharp paragraphsShort sharp paragraphsSimple wordsSimple wordsRepeat key phrases for effectRepeat key phrases for effectRepeat key phrases for effectRepeat key phrases for effectAvoid catch phrasesAvoid catch phrasesHumourHumourAnecdotes: real-life examplesAnecdotes: real-life examplesRhetorical questions: don’tRhetorical questions: don’trequire answersrequire answersPresentation Skills
YOUDo not use the media to hide youThe audience came to see youThe media should enhance the presentation, notBE the presentationIf all you are going to do is read from the slidesor overheads, then just send them the slidesRemember, only you can prevent“Death by PowerPoint”
Questions??End your presentation with a simple questionslide to:Invite your audience to ask questionsProvide a visual aid during question periodAvoid ending a presentation abruptly
Questioning - Effectively UsedAchieves..Engages audience attentionEstablishes better 2 way communicationObtains required informationChecks for understandingChecks for agreementHow to Prepare Questions ……Prepare key questions ahead of timePlan the timing of questionsBe alert to situations that require unplannedquestions?Use of Questions
ASK QUESTIONSASK QUESTIONSOpen ended - to find outOpen ended - to find outinformationinformationClosed - to gain commitmentClosed - to gain commitmentRedirected - to involve groupRedirected - to involve groupRhetorical - to control groupRhetorical - to control groupLeading - to give alternativeLeading - to give alternativechoicechoiceInitiate A Discussion
Switch off the overhead or light projectorTurn flipcharts to a blank pageErase any unwanted writing from theblackboard or whiteboardShow any objects referred to and thencover them upTips For Enhancing Discussion
Four Types:Dr QuietDr DisagreeableDr Side ConversationDr TalkativeParticipants
Side ConversationsSide ConversationsQuiet/ShyQuiet/ShyTalkativeTalkativeDisagreeableDisagreeableWHY?WHY?Keep Control - Tactics
SIDE CONVERSATIONSIDE CONVERSATIONAsk to “share” their ideaRestate a point & ask for their opinionCheck if there is a problem“Should we include your point in thediscussion?”BE DIPLOMATIC & ASSERTIVEBE DIPLOMATIC & ASSERTIVEKeep Control - Tactics
QUIET/SHY PARTICIPANTQUIET/SHY PARTICIPANTSimple questionsEye contactRecognise & encourage anycontributionsAsk a question & inviteeveryones opinion in turnKeep Control - Tactics
TALKATIVETALKATIVERemind everyone of time limitsSummarise point & ask forcomments from groupAddress questions to otherparticipantsRefocus on objectives/agendaKeep Control - Tactics
DISAGREEABLEParaphrase comments, and recap theirposition in objective termsFind merit in one of their remarksRespond to their comment, not theattackThrow their opinion out to the groupAnswer their questions simply andfactuallyKeep Control - Tactics
Scientific Presentation1) Prepare your material carefully and logically. Tell astory. The story should have four parts:(a) Introduction (b) Method (c) Results(d) Conclusion/Summary."Tellem what you are going to tellem.Tellem. Then tellem what you toldem."
Scientific Presentation2) Practice your talk3) Dont put in too much material4) Avoid equations5) Have only a few conclusion points
Scientific Presentation6) Talk to the audience not to the screen7) Avoid making distracting sounds like “uuuhhh” and “mmm”8) Polish your graphics9) Use humor if possible, but don’t gooverboard10) Check your viewgraphs before you give thetalk11) Switch off your cell phones if possible.
Scientific Presentation12) Be personable in taking questions.First, repeat the question.If you dont know the answer then say "I dontknow, I will have to look into that."If the questioner disagrees with you and it lookslike there will be an argument then defuse thesituation.Never insult the questioner ( S/he may havecontacts you don’t know about!13) Thank you Slide
Size of roomSize of room Tables andTables andchairschairs SocketsSockets LightsLights EquipmentEquipment Display tableDisplay table EntranceEntranceCheck :Check :Presentation Checklist
30 minutes before30 minutes beforeArrange table & chairsArrange table & chairsSet up equipmentSet up equipmentCateringCateringDisplayDisplayStart PromptlyStart PromptlyFinish on TimeFinish on TimePresentation Day & Practice
HandoutsPassing out Handouts:Can pass it out during presentationIf flow interrupted, pass out before start If more than one, can give out “package”Avoid passing around objects (“I will walkaround with it”)
Summary: Dos and Don’ts of PresentationDon’t gesticulate wildlyDo speak distinctlyDo vary your speed and pitchDo look at your audienceDon’t use jargon, slang and superfluous wordsDo pause after important pointsDo watch the timeDo speak with conviction and enthusiasmDo be natural and sincereDo try to simileDon’t use jokes unless they are really funny and relevant
Know your audienceKnow the occasionKnow your speaking environmentPin down your topicBrain stormResearchPrepare a rough draft of your presentationTransfer your presentation to mental/ written notesPractice ...To overcome nervousness!Summary
Now is the time to deliver yourwhole presentation to the groupusing all of the deliverytechniques we have discussed.