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  • 1. Introduction of Interaction Example of community A second- growth birch forest There are many kinds of species interactions in communities, all of which affectspecies diversity. Predation, parasitism, and herbivores are interactions in which onespecies benefits at the expense of another. Competition involves a mutually negativeinteraction among species. Mutualism involves an interaction in which both species derivebenefit. Plants and animals live on all parts of the earth. Each organism lives whereconditions are the most suitable for its own specific needs. Organism within an area interactswith one another and also with their environment. Interactions among organisms stronglyinfluence the behaviour and ecology of organisms. The interactions are defined as whetherthey are beneficial, harmful or neutral. Mutualistic relationships areinteractions which invokeboth plant and animal are benefiting. Mutualism is very common in pollination. Antagonisticinteractions are usually harmful. In fact, one of the challenging questions in community ecology is whether the web ofinteractions in a community is controlled primarily by resources or by top predators. Humanactivities are changing the abundance of resources in the environment, which in turnchanges the types and strengths of interactions among species in communities. Ultimately,these changes could alter species interaction and patterns of species diversity.Description of Honeybee Scientific Name: Apismellifera Linnaeus Order: Hymenoptera Common Name: Honey bee Honey bees are somewhat variable in color but are some shade of black, brown orbrown intermixed with yellow. They have dense hairs on the pronotum and sparser hair onthe abdomen. Microscopically, at least some of the body hairs of bees (Apoidea) are 1
  • 2. branched (pumose). The abdomen often appears banded. Larvae are legless grubs, white incolor. Honey bees are the only bee in the genus Apis in Texas. Honey bees have severalvarieties or races and have been bred for honey production, temperament and resistance todisease. These varieties may be recognized to some extent by color and size. However,cross breeding may take place in the wild, so queens from commercial breeders shouldalways be purchased to re-queen colonies. Africanized honey bees or “killer bees” cannoteasily be differentiated from commercial varieties and require measuring several bees from acolony and comparing measurements. There are several other bees including bumblebeesand leaf cutting bees that also collect pollen and nectar. There is a species of stingless waspthat occurs in South Texas that produces honey much like bees. When honey bees interactwith wild native bees, they are up to five times more efficient in pollinating sunflowers thannative bees are not present, according to a new study by a pair of researchers at theUniversity of California, Berkeley, and UC Davis. Honey bee, Apismellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidea), colony with queen.Life Cycle: Honey bees are social insects. There are three castes of bees: queens, whichproduce eggs; drones or males, which mate with queen; and, workers, which are all non-reproducing females. The queen lays eggs singly in hexagonal cells of the comb. Larvaehatch from eggs in 3 to 4 days and are fed by worker bees and develop through severalstages (instars) in the cells. Cells are capped by worker bees when the larva pupates.Queen and drones (that develop from unfertilized eggs) are larger than workers and requireenlarged cells to develop. Queens complete development in 15Description of Sunflower Sunflowers are a native plant of North America originally domesticated by NativeAmericans. Sunflowers are still grown for human consumption, although their seed also arecrushed for oil and used in birdseed. The plant is also grown as an ornamental and is knownfor its large yellow flowers displayed on tall stalks. Sunflowers are grown by gardeners and 2
  • 3. farmers in many parts of the United States. Sunflowers are the flower that most honey beesalways visited. This is because sunflower have plentiful of pollen that can attractive honeybees to get the pollen.Interaction of Honey bees and FlowerBees are actually very essential to the way the ecosystem works. Let me tell you why; honey bees interact with sunflower for pollen . Bees are an excellent example of symbiosis known as mutualism. Mutualism is theassociation between unlike organisms that is beneficial to both. Bees cant survive withoutthe flowers and the flowers existence depends on the bees. For the bees, the pollen and nectar from many flowers is an important source of fats,proteins, vitamins, and minerals. The nectar is a source of energy. Bees gradually switchedfrom eating other insects to flowers as their source of food. With the passage of time, beeshave become completely dependent on flowers as a food source. As bees travel from one blossom to another, pollen clings to their fuzzy bodies. It isthen transferred to the other flowers of the same species. This pollinates or fertilizes theplant. Plants then can produce their own fruits and seeds. Many animals and insects that spread pollen have disappeared from the land as ithas been destroyed. The honey bee has taken over as the main pollinator of these flowers.Scientists believe that over the years bees have helped create the wild variety of flowers thatexist today by spreading the pollen. The honey bee is the primary source of pollination forapproximately one-quarter of all crops.The benefits for sunflower: PollinationInsects and flowering plants both benefit from symbiosis. Two basic needs of these organisms are met through symbiotic relationships:nutrition and reproduction. Many species of bees, flies, butterflies and moths rely on thenectar produced by flowers for food. The plants that produce these flowers cannot reproducewithout the transfer of pollen by the insects. 3
  • 4. The survival of both the insects and the flowering plants is dependent on the successof their symbiosis. The benefits of symbiosis are only realized when both species provide ameans to meet each others needs.As the bee flies from flower to flower, the pollen grainsare transferred onto the stigma. This helps the flowers make seeds, and fruit trees make fruit.The insects orhoneybees also help the flower. The insects do help, by picking up pollen. Pollen is theyellow or orange powder that makes us sneeze in the spring. Bees travel from flower toflower, collecting nectar (which is later converted to honey), and in the process they pick uppollen grains.The benefit for Honeybees: HoneyWe can descript the relationship between a flower and a bee as Mutualism, which is itself atype of Symbiosis. The honeybee’s gets pollen from the flower therefore transferring pollen to anotherflower which creates the flower to pollinate, as the bee is flying from flower to flower, itscollecting food to make honey for its food and in the process they pick up pollen grains.Thebees collect the pollen by rubbing against the anther. The pollen is collected on the hindlegs, in dense hairs referred to as a pollen basket.Honeybees gather pollen in specialpockets and bring it back to the hive, where it becomes honey. Honey is the food for thecolony. Since the colonys queen is constantly reproducing, a great deal of honey is neededto feed new generations Sunflowers are the flower that can attract honeybees most. This is becausesunflower is a good producer of nectar or pollen; bees will be attracted to it regardless ofcolour. Besides that, bees cannot see ultraviolet wavelengths so colors in the blue and violetspectrum are attractive.Honeybees like sunflower for make their food. It drinks the sweetjuice in the pollen of flower which it is called nectar. The nectar is very sweet and bees usethe nectar to make honey. Honey comes from Honeybees and flowers.Besides flower forfood and the colour and shape is that the smell. Flowers smell so good. Most flowers smellgood. 4
  • 5. How do bees make honey? Honey bees collect pollen and nectar in the spring when most flower and plants arebloom. They use their long, tube like tongues like straws (called proboscis) to suck thenectar out of the flowers and they store it in their stomachs and carry it to the beehive. Whileinside the bee’s stomach for about half an hour, the nectar mixes with the protein andenzyme produced by the bees, converting the nectar into honey. The bee then drop honeysinto the beeswax comb, which are hexagonal cells made of wax produced by the bees, andrepeat the process until the combs are full. To prepare for long-term storage, the bees fan their wings to evaporate and thickenthe honey (note: nectar is 80% water and honey is about 14-18% water). When this is done,the bees cap the honeycomb with wax and move on to the next empty comb, starting all overagain. So, in a nutshell, the honey we eat is flower nectar that honey bees have collected,regurgitated and dehydrated to enhance its nutritional properties.How the interaction of both living thing benefit to mankind?HoneyFood or drink flavour Honey is an excellent sweetener: Sugar can be substituted with honey in many foodand drinks. Honey contains about 69% and fructose enabling it to be used as asweetener.There are abundant honeys out there. Honey is such a versatile ingredient incooking and has such a distinctive flavour that it brings a magical touch to almost all foods,example cakes, pastries, homemade cookies, barbecue meats, desserts, puddings, saladdressing. Different countries and cultures use honey differently in their food and cooking. Inwestern countries, people seem to use more honey as a spread in their bread and haveplenty of honey recipes for baking, whereas people in eastern countries seem to do less ofthat and mostly prefer to go for just a refreshing chilled honey drink – honey mixed with icy 5
  • 6. water. Generally, the younger generations do not seem to appreciate the benefits of honeyas much as the older folks.For health Honey is an energy source: Honey is also used by many as a source of energy as itprovides about 64 calories per tablespoon. Sugars in honey can be easily converted intoglucose by even the most sensitive stomach and it can give you about 50 calories in onetablespoon. Honey also facilities in maintaining blood sugar level, muscle recuperation andglycogen restoration after a workout. Honey is a source of vitamins and minerals: Honey contains more than 180 differentsubstances with complex interrelations which makes artificial production of honeyimpossible. Honey is excellent source of vitamins because it is probably the only food thatnever expired. Honey is high in vitamin C, in a variety of B vitamins and also A1, D, and Evitamins.Among trace-elements-the most important elements identified in dark color honeys-are iron, copper, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, magnesium, sodium, calcium, iodine,chlorine, zinc and high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.Skin care Concoct your own favourite beauty treats at home using honey pampering, anti-agingskin care masks that give your skin the nourishing and relaxing effect. The beauty ofhomemade face masks is the fresh raw ingredients are used and no additives andpreservatives are added. Honey is a great natural anti-aging skin care product. The naturalhealing agent contains an enzyme called glucose oxidase, that when combined with water,produces hydrogen peroxide, a mild antiseptic. In addition to the glucose oxidase enzyme, honey also contains antioxidant andflavonoids that may function as antibacterial agents. Honey is also a great naturalmoisturizer for dry and parched skin without making it oily. Honey provides a calming effectwithout irritating the skin, and helps replenish necessary skin moisture, especially during thewinter months. This is why the golden liquid is such a popular anti-aging skin care ingredientin many commercial moisturizing products including cleansers, creams, shampoos, showergels, and conditioners. And because it’s so gentle, it is suitable for sensitive skin and babycare products.Medicine 6
  • 7. Honey has antibacterial and antifungal properties: Honey has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties and hence it can be used as a natural antiseptic. Honey has a distinctbactericidal power which is mainly due to its hygroscopic property. Honey dropped into theeyes was supposed to have cured inflammations and other ailments of the eyelids. Honey is an antioxidants source: Honey contains nutraceuticals, which are effective inremoving free radicals from our body. As a result, our body immunity is improved. Honeycontains antioxidants, powerful compounds which fight free radicals and reverse ageing. Honey can cure children night cough One of the better known health benefits of honey isthat it is able to help treat sore throats. Thanks to its antimicrobial properties, honey not onlysoothes throats but can also kill certain bacteria that cause the infection. Honey can cure acne conditions A 2008 study conducted by University of Amsterdaminvestigated the antibacterial capability of medical grade honey (Revamil). Honey is one ofthe best natural acne fighting ingredients. This is because honey actually kills the bacteriumthat causes acne.Honey also has anti-inflammatory properties. It treats the inflammationassociated with acne and calms the skin.Honey also soothes the skin and nourishes itproviding a healthy glow to the skin. Honey can cure insomnia According to Michael Mclnnes of the Royal pharmaceuticalSociety, eating a tablespoon or two of honey at bedtime can improve sleep quality withoutcausing weight gain.Hair Honey is useful for hair- dermatitis and dandruff treatment Honey is a natural conditionerfor hair. Traditional use of honey on hair has been widely known throughout the ages. A2001 study conducted by the Dubai Specialised Medical Centre discovered that honey maybe used to treat scaling, itching and hair loss. It can add to conditioners, rinses andpomades. Saloon that using Honey for hair treatmentAllergies 7
  • 8. Honey is a treatment for allergies it seem odd, because pollen often triggersallergies, but pollen in the honey usually has the opposite effect. Recent studies show thatraw honey is an excellent treatment for 90% of all allergies.Reference 8
  • 9.  Read more: Relationship between Plants & Animal | eHow.com - http://www.ehow.com/facts_5472760_relationships-between-plants- animals.html#ixzz1lbvGmji9 Read more: Description of Honeybee | ehow.com - http://www.ehow.com/facts_5397248_description-honey- bee.html#ixzz1lbwKVNEk Read more: Description of Flower | eHow.com - http://www.ehow.com/about_5484519_description- flowers.html#ixzz1lcKdZ1Od Symbiosis between flower and insect - http://www.ehow.com/about_6133139_symbiosis-flowers-insects.html The benefit of honey to mankind - http://benefitsofhoneyblog.com/20-things-you-didnt-know-about-honey- bees/ Other reference - http://www.geochembio.com/biology/organisms/honeybee/ - http://informedfarmers.com/livestock/honey-bees/ - http://711extravaganza.blogspot.com/2011/04/ode-to-honey-bees- homemade-face-mask.html(Ode to Honey Bees: Homemade Face Mask) 9