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1. human environments rural urban


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  • Source: pg 114-118
  • Uranium has the potential to be a highly dangerous substance when not treated in the proper manner, remaining radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. Uranium mining in Kakadu could permanently damage the environment in Kakadu, as well as the sacred Aboriginal sites which have been part of the local culture for tens of thousands of years
  • Picture a rural environment, and urban environment; what images come to mind? What social, historic, economic, environmental, political, physical, technological factors shape the environment? Facilities: shelter , food, transport etc. Services: farming, shops, schools, banks, health centres, roads
  • Before slide:What terms are used to describe settlements? Can you put them in order?
  • Picture a rural environment, and urban environment; what images come to mind? What social, historic, economic, environmental, political, physical, technological factors shape the environment? Pictured: Barossa Valley, S.A (Wikicommons)
  • Cotton farming, AustraliaRice farming, Laos Pineapple farm, Philippines
  • The rural–urban fringe, also known as the outskirts or the urban hinterland, can be described as the "landscape interface between town and country”, or also as the transition zone where urban and rural uses mix and often clash
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1. HUMAN ENVIRONMENTS:RURAL & URBANKey Knowledge:• Definition of rural and urban environments• Classification of rural and urban environments using avariety of media1Source: pg 114-118
    • 2. WHAT IS A HUMAN ENVIRONMENT?• A human environment is a place where activities areconducted by humans, and features are built and/or modifiedby humans.2
    • 3. NEW YORK (USA)
    • 4. KAKADU URANIUM MINE, N.T (AUSTRALIA)Australia is home to around 40% of the world’s uranium reserves and currently supplies around 20% of theglobal market.From 2000 to 2005 nearly 50,000 metric tonnes of Uranium oxide were exported from Australia to elevendifferent countries. This brought over A$2.1 billion dollars to the Aust. economy4
    • 5. SOLAR POWER TOWER, SEVILLE (SPAIN)Towers receive the focused sunlight from mirrors. Flat, movable mirrors focus the suns rays upon a collectortower (the target).Concentrated solar thermal is seen as one viable solution for renewable, pollution free energy.The heat produced, heats saltwater, turns turbines and produce electricity.5
    • 6. FAVELA, RIO DE JANIERO (BRAZIL)• Favelas were the place where former slaves with no land ownership and no options for work lived. Over the years,many freed black slaves moved in.• Most modern favelas appeared in the 1970s, due to rural exodus, when many people left rural areas of Brazil andmoved to cities.• Residences are built without permission or a license and are often disorganised, without numbered streets,sanitation networks, electricity, a telephone service or plumbing. In recent years favelas have been troubled bydrug-related crime and gang warfare. 6
    • 7. RURAL & URBAN ENVIRONMENTSTHINK PAIR SHARE• Write down a definition of rural and urban environments• Write down as many examples of each of these environments• What are basic facilities that humans need?• What are basic services that should be accessible in humanenvrionments?7
    • 8. 8
    • 9. OBERWIL IN WALDKIRCH, ST. GALLEN, (SWITZERLAND)An example of a hamlet9
    • 10. A SETTLEMENT HIERARCHYType of Settlement Population DescriptionConurbation 3-10 million A group of large cities and theirsuburbsMetropolis/Metropolitan area1-3 million A large city and its suburbsLarge city 300,000 to 1 million A city with a large populationand many services; usuallycapital citiesCity 100,000 to 300,000 Abundant servicesTown 1000 to 100,000 Few servicesVillage 100 to 1000 Limited servicesHamlet 10 to 100 0 services likelyIsolated dwelling Less than 10 1-2 buildings and families10URBANRURAL
    • 11. Regions located outside cities and towns with a low populationdensity, few buildings/homes and limited businesses/services.Agriculture is the primary industry in most rural areas, although otherhuman activities may include forestry, tourism, mining, fishing.Settlements: hamlets, villages, townsRural regions differ because of geographic characteristics• Relief• Climate• Human activities• Social characteristics e.g. culture, wealth11RURAL ENVIRONMENTS
    • 12. TYPES OF AGRICULTURE• Compare the following terms using pg. 115– Arable farms and Pastoral farms– Intensive farming and Extensive farming– Subsistence farming and Commercial farming• Arable farms: grow crops e.g. sugar canes, pineapples, cotton• Pastoral farms: rear animals e.g. lambs, dairying cows, llamas• Intensive farming: farms with a high level of input such as labour, fertilisersand pesticides to achieve a high output (yield per hectare)• Extensive farming: farms with a low level of input and output per hectare, e.g.cattle station• Subsistence farming: farming family consumes what is produced and anysurplus is sold or bartered.• Commercial farming: farms that sell a majority of their produce12Cotton farming, Australia Rice farming, Laos Pineapple farm, Philippines
    • 13. SUBSISTENCE FARMING IN TIBET (CHINA)Tibet is the highest region on earth, with an average elevation of 4,900 metres.The economy of Tibet is dominated by subsistence agriculture; due to limited arable land, the primaryoccupation of the Tibetan Plateau is raising livestock, such as sheep, cattle, yaks, camels and dzo.13
    • 14. EXTENSIVE VS. INTENSIVE FARMING (AUSTRALIA)Extensive cattle farming in inland AustraliaIntensive cattle farming in well-watered pastures in Australia14
    • 15. URBAN ENVIRONMENTS• Regions located in a town, city, metropolitan area orconurbation with a population greater than 1000 peopleABS• Urban environments are generally non-agricultural, and haveabundant services such as education, healthcare, publictransport, entertainment and retail.15
    • 16. PATTERNS OF GLOBAL URBANISATIONSource:: (Fig 6.4) Textbook pg. 116Describe the locations of the earth’s highest and lowest levels of urbanisation16
    • 17. 17PUSH/ PULL FACTORS
    • 18. Push factors• Reasons for people to leaverural regionsPull factors• Reasons that attract peopleto cities18• What push and pull factors can you think of for rural-urban migration?• Ben’s push/pull activity
    • 19. MIGRATION TO URBAN (OR RURAL) ENVIRONMENTSPush factors• Industrialisation has reducedthe need for farm labourers• Declining rural services• Unemployment• Low commodity prices• Debt• Poverty• Drought or bushfire orflooding• Salinity• Crop failure, Food shortage,famine• High crime• War/ conflictPull factors• More job opportunities• Opportunity to increase income• Higher standard of living• Access to education• Access to housing• More services• Improved living standards• Better health services• Wider lifestyle opportunities• Good climate• More fertile land• Improved safety• Political stability• Reduced risk of natural hazards19
    • 20. ACTIVITIES1. Find examples of subsistence and commercial agriculture, and intensive and extensivefarming; and present in Pinterest. Include the product farmed and location in yourdescription.2. Repeat question 1 for a town, city, megacity, metropolis and conurbation.3. Refer to figure 6.3 (also on next slide)a) What are the main agricultural types found in Africa? How do they differ to the ones in NorthAmerica, both in type and scale?b) Apart from Africa, where else is shifting cultivation found?c) Which country’s land use combinations are most like Australia’s4. Refer to figure 6.4a) Describe the location of high, moderate and low percentages of populations living in urban areas.b) If earth’s population becomes more urbanised, which continents are likely to see more change?c) Compare Australia’s level of urbanisation with its nearest northern neighbours5. What land uses might you expect to find at a rural-urban fringe? How might the social,economic and environmental characteristics of this fringe area differ to an urbanenvironment?6. Create a map on Google Earth with the worlds megacities (population: over 10M):Lagos, London, Moscow, Istanbul, Cairo, Tehran, Karachi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Dacca,Guangzhou, Manila, Jakarta, Beijing, Shanghai, Isaka, Tokyo, Los Angeles, New York,Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires20