(1) china's demographics and policies
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  • China in 10 minutes.
  • Organise by exam questions/ topicsDiamond ranking
  • Further data:http://www.indexmundi.com/china/demographics_profile.html
  • It is bordered by more countries (15) than any other country: North Korea, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Myanmar (Burma), Laos and Vietnam.
  • Modern China: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Chinese_historyhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-13017882
  • Communism: communist party governed, no class, no money- used food vouchers, no state divisionsCommunist states: Russia, eastern Europe: Romania, led to cold war (sustained state of tension) 1947-1991) War of no military action, but possession of nuclear weapons (Proxy war: spacerace)During Mao’s rule, the Chinese Communist Party seized control of all media in the country and used it to promote Mao, his political strategy, and the party.Some of Mao’s first and most controversial political campaigns included land reform, in which the government regulated land distribution and use and slaughtered countless landlords, and suppression of all “counter-revolutionaries.”A 1976 estimate by the U.S. State Department placed the number killed during these campaigns, most often in public executions, at a minimum of 1.8 million.
  • http://www.gapminder.org/labs/gapminder-china/#$majorMode=chart$is;shi=t;ly=2003;lb=f;il=t;fs=11;al=100;stl=t;st=t;nsl=t;se=t$wst;tts=C$ts;sp=4.0174193548387;ti=1999$zpv;v=0$inc_x;mmid=XCOORDS;iid=pp59adS3CHWfKPVb7dEexFA;by=ind$inc_y;mmid=YCOORDS;iid=rvalNLkeEs-y9Tp1T-SZb0g;by=ind$inc_s;uniValue=20;iid=pp59adS3CHWfpIxpjegY4bw;by=ind$inc_c;uniValue=255;gid=CATID1;by=grp$map_x;scale=log;dataMin=83;dataMax=101655$map_y;scale=lin;dataMin=8.8;dataMax=83$map_s;sma=1;smi=1$cd;bd=0$inds=i81_p001953azaz;modified=80
  • 1949-2003
  • Government employees can receive an extra month salary each year until their child turns 14The New England Journal of Medicine estimated that more than 87% of China’s married women use contraception (compared to about one third in other developing countries).
  • A notable exception was made after the devastating 8.0 magnitude earthquake in Sichuan province in May 2008. Of the nearly 70,000 people killed, an estimated 10,000 were children. Parents who lost their only child were legally allowed to have another child (similar exceptions are made in the case of deceased or seriously disabled children).Though not technically “exceptions,” there are other ways of circumventing the policy. For instance, wealthy parents can simply pay a hefty fine to legally register and raise their second or third child. Many other parents simply lie—secretly giving birth to multiple children and then sending them to live with relatives in the country (usually passing them off as nieces and nephews).
  • As recently as 1965, Chinese women were bearing an average of six children. Today, that figure is down to 1.5 because of China’s One-Child Policy. [ National Geographic cover “Population 7 billion” Jan. 2011 ]http://www.chinability.com/Population.htm
  • By 2020, China will have 30-40 million more young men (under 19 years old) than young women, according to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS). By 2020, “China faces the prospect of having the equivalent of the whole young male population of America, or almost twice that of Europe’s three largest countries, with little prospect of marriage, untethered to a home of their own and without the stake in society that marriage and children provide.”[The Economist “The worldwide war on baby girls” March 4, 2010; CASS ]By 2020, one in five young men in China will be brideless due to the “chronic shortage of potential spouses”, according to CASS. In the 20-39 age group, there will be 22 million more men than women....which is the equivalent of 10 cities the size of Houston populated exclusively by young males. [Newsweek “Men Without Women” March 6, 2011 ]
  • In the 1970s, the government declared a population "state of emergency," began implementing forced sterilizations in the nation's poorest regions, and even rewarded medical workers who performed the most operations. The national focus on sterilization hindered women's acceptance of family planning, as many considered birth control an all-or-nothing proposition and chose to forgo it entirely.The country's most recent approach to population issues focuses on the advancement of women economically, academically, and socially, as independent women are more likely to have small families. Indian public information campaigns are also working to counter favoritism for boys, a deeply ingrained tradition that drives couples to have more children.http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/population-campaign.html

(1) china's demographics and policies Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Key knowledge:  Distribution and composition of China’s population  Natural and human activities which affect China’s demography  Positive and negative impacts of changes in China’s population  Importance of factors that affects China’s current demography.  Government, Non Government Organisations (NGO’s) and people’s responses to China’s population  Global perspectives and management of China’s population  Effectiveness of population management policies  Future/projected patterns of China’s population  Factors which affect the future development of China’s population
  • 2. Population: Over 1.3 Billion World‟s most populous country (almost 20% of global population) Age structure: Ageing 0-14: 16% 15-64: 75% 65+: 9% Population growth rate: 0.6% Birth rate: 13‰ Death rate: 7‰ Sex ratio: 120 males for every 100 females Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths per 1000 Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74 years male: 72 years female: 77 years Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman POPULATION COMPOSITION Source: Population Reference Bureau, 2012 36% live below $2 per day
  • 3. • Even though China is the world's most populous country, much of its land is near uninhabitable. • The western half of the country is mostly desert. • The central and southern portion of the country is covered with rugged mountains and the northeast is heavily forested and bitterly cold in the winter. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
  • 4. NATURAL AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES WHICH AFFECT CHINA‟S DEMOGRAPHY A SERIOUSLY BRIEF HISTORY OF CHINA & CHINESE CULTURE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IqdV5EfByg • China saw the rise and fall of many dynasties from 1700 BC to the 1800’s • How did China become so strong? • Isolation from the west for centuries made them rely on their own resources for survival • A strong army and construction of the Great Wall of China (built: 1364 to 1644 AD) • Wealth built from the Silk Road e.g. sold valuables such as silk, tea, porcelain, pearls. (ideas and Busshism)
  • 5. •1949 Chairman Mao’s Communist Party took control of China- founding father of PRC/communist revolutionary/ leader of chinese revolution •Population ~0.5 Billion already •a large population was considered beneficial for political and economic strength, and no attempts were made to lower birth rates* (birth control banned) •Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) use China’s population to convert from agricultural to industrialised through communism. •Great Chinese Famine**- widespread food shortages caused by floods/drought, population increase, moving too many from farming to the steel industry (and other communist policies) •Said to have caused 15 million excess deaths from starvation (temporary decrease in population) •Educated tortured, youth brainwashed, travel limited, propoganda •Cultural Revolution (1966-76) • Improvements in public-health access, cleaner water and better food supplies led to a rapidly decreasing death rate= Rapid population growth •Population reaches 800 million*** = widespread shortages = Massive leap backwards
  • 6. http://www.gapminder.org/world/ List the natural and human causes to changes in health and income in China? • Natural • Drought and floods contributed to the Great Chinese Famine • Little fertile land available for farming (western half desert; central and southern regions mountainous and cold ) • Human: • 15 million deaths from starvation (Great Chinese Famine) • Loss of private ownership, no class • Cultural revolution resulted in baby boom due to improvements in living standards
  • 7. •1970’s “Late Long Few”: Voluntary Family planning campaign •Late marriage: with the minimum legal age raised to 22 years for men and 20 for women; •Longer: couples were encouraged to allow at least a four-year gap after the first child before having another baby. •Fewer children. – it was suggested that urban families should be limited to two children, and rural families to three children Contraception, together with abortion and sterilisation was, and still is, freely available. It worked. Decline in fertility from 6 births per woman to 3.
  • 8. * ―A larger population means greater manpower...the force of 600 million liberated people is tens of thousands of times stronger than a nuclear explosion.‖ Communist Youth League ** CAN CHINA FEED ITSELF? On August 1949, U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson authored the China White Paper, in which he expressed his doubts about China’s ability to feed itself. He wrote: “The first problem which every Chinese government has had to face is that of feeding its population. So far, none have succeeded.” In direct response to this, a defiant Mao retorted: “Even if China’s population multiplies many times, she is fully capable of finding a solution; the solution is production.” He also famously stated that a large population is “a very good thing ... Of all things in the world, people are the most precious.”
  • 9. During Mao Zedong's rule the population policy of China was “the more people, the stronger we are”, leading to overpopulation and a series of famines. When Deng Xiaoping took power in 1978, his new policies focused on strengthening China's economy, and he saw overpopulation as a block to economic development.
  • 10. •1976:Mao dies. Deng enters (until 1997 due to disease) •Aim: A richer China by reducing population & introducing market economy. •While birth rates continued to fall, the population was still growing at around 15 million a year. •A potential baby boom from children born during the 1960s prompted a mandatory form of family planning… •1979 One Child Policy to further curb population growth •Formalised as the Marriage Law of 1980, it aimed to limit China’s population to 1.2 billion by 2000. •1986-90 China’s ―Open door policy‖ opens the country to foreign investment; developing a market economy and private sector; 1992 IMF ranks China as third largest economy.
  • 11. SUMMARY • Since 1949, when the Chinese Communist Party took power, the Chinese population has risen by around 850 million. Growth rates varied considerably in the intervening years, often as a reaction to, or as an indirect result of, government policies. • Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) – famine and deaths • Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)- population boost • ―Late, long, few‖ (1970’s)- voluntary; fertility rates fell from 6 to 3 • ―One-Child Policy‖ (1979)/ ―Marriage Law‖ (1980)- mandatory;
  • 12. Summary: China’s birth and death rates from 1939 to 2003 Great leap forward (1958-61) One Child Policy (1979- now) Late, Long, Few, (1970) Cultural revolution (1966-76)
  • 13. • Aim: to limit China’s population to 1.2 billion by 2000, to improve the social, economic and environmental development of the country. • Originally designed to last 20 to 30 years • Official permission was required to marry and to endeavour to conceive a child. • In the early years, late-term abortions were common, and the enforcement of the policy was draconian. … things get draconian, population control becomes mandatory THE ONE CHILD POLICY (1979) Formalised as the Marriage Law of 1980
  • 14. 2002 POPULATION POLICY
  • 15. Article 8 The State gives rewards to organisations and individuals that have scored outstanding achievements in the population programme and family planning. POPULATION and FAMILY PLANNING LAW Article 18 The State maintains its current policy for reproduction, encouraging late marriage and childbearing and advocating one child per couple. Article 19 Family planning shall be practised chiefly by means of contraception. Article 22 Discrimination against, maltreatment and abandonment of baby girls are prohibited.
  • 16. Article 23 The State rewards couples who practise family planning. POPULATION and FAMILY PLANNING LAW Article 27 The State shall issue to a couple who volunteer to have only one child in their lifetime a “Certificate of Honour for Single-Child Parents”. Couples who are issued the said certificate shall enjoy rewards. Article 35 Use of ultrasonography or other techniques to identify foetal gender for non-medical purposes is strictly prohibited. Sex-selective pregnancy termination for non-medical purposes is strictly prohibited.
  • 17. Article 41 Citizens who give birth to babies not in compliance with the provisions of Article 18 of this Law shall pay a social maintenance fee prescribed by law. POPULATION and FAMILY PLANNING LAW Article 47 This Law shall go into effect as of September 1, 2002. 中华人民共和国 Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó People‟s Republic of China
  • 18. MARRIAGE LAW OF THE PEOPLE‟S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 2002 POPULATION POLICY
  • 19. Article 6 In order to get married, the man shall not be younger than 22 years old and the woman shall not be younger than 20. Late marriage and late child birth shall be encouraged. Article 16 Both husband and wife shall be under the obligation of following the policy of birth control. MARRIAGE LAW
  • 20. HOW IS THE POLICY ENFORCED? INCENTIVES DISINCENTIVES • ―Certificate of Honor for Single-Child Parents‖ and preferential treatment for • health care • housing • school enrolment • Increased salary • Future job assignment • Family Planning Commission of China (NPFPC) offered free contraceptives. • Large fines imposed • If unpaid: • seizing property • demotions/ job dismissal • Children unenroled • Forced sterilization or abortion —are relatively rare, but were widespread.
  • 21. • Ethnic minorities: Couples can have more than one child if they are a part of one of China’s minority ethnic groups, if the child is severely disabled and if the family line is threatened. • When both parents are only children, they can also have two children of their own. • Rural residents: All but one of China’s provinces now allows a second child to rural couples if the first child is a girl. • Shanghai, which has recorded a natural decrease among its official residents, now permits two children per couple. EXCEPTIONS TO THE POLICY
  • 22. THE PEOPLE’S RESPONSE TO THE POLICY • General approval by the majority • Propoganda and incentives have also influenced the population
  • 23. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 24. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA „Modern mother‟ statue, Shanghai
  • 25. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 26. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 27. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 28. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 29. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 30. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 31. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 32. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 33. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 34. FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 35. “Everyone is responsible for the success of the One-Child Policy” FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 36. “Have one child, one only and raise him wisely for the good of society.” FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 37. “Seriously control the population growth, work hard to make the birth rate stable” FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 38. “Husbands have the responsibility for family planning” FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 39. “If you have an extra birth it will be a bitter and difficult struggle” FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 40. Financial rewards FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 41. “PRC family planning – don‟t abandon girls” FAMILY PLANNING PROPAGANDA
  • 42. Family planning regulations in Chengdu FAMILY PLANNING REGULATIONS
  • 43. Policy to supplement incomes of parents who have only one child. FAMILY PLANNING REGULATIONS
  • 44. Family planning „fines‟ posted on a village noticeboard in Danshan, Sichuan. FAMILY PLANNING REGULATIONS
  • 45. FAMILY PLANNING REGULATIONS List of women who have given birth recently and whether or not the birth was outside the plan, Danshan, Sichuan. There were 18 births within the birth plan and one outside the birth planning rules. A second child was born to one woman, but was allowed by regulations. Many peasant families are allowed to have a second child if there first child is a girl or is a handicapped boy.
  • 46. Family planning clinic FAMILY PLANNING
  • 47. FATHER, MOTHER and I
  • 48. IS THE POLICY EFFECTIVE? • Fertility rate has dropped from over 6 births per woman in the 1960’s to 1.5 in 2012 • The Chinese government claims that the law has prevented an estimated 400 million births (about the combined population of the US and Canada). The implementation of the "one- child" policy in the early 1980s coincided with the coming of age of the "baby boom" generation, so the birth rate slipped back up to 23.33 in 1987 before subsiding steadily to reach 16.03 by 1998, pulling the natural growth rate (birth rate minus death rate) down from 16.61 to 9.53 over the same period.
  • 49. Wealthy couples are apparently increasingly turning to fertility medicines to have multiple births, due to the lack of penalties against couples who have more than one child in their first birth. ONE CHILD POLICY – TWO CHILD REALITY
  • 50. Children born outside of China Some parents manage to be outside the country or in Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan when giving birth to their child. Those children do not count in the one-child policy, even if they are technically a natural born Chinese citizen through parentage. ONE CHILD POLICY – TWO CHILD REALITY HONG KONGTAIWAN MACAU
  • 51. ONE CHILD POLICY – TWO CHILD REALITY In addition to the exceptions permitted by law some couples simply pay a fine, or "social maintenance fee" to have more children. Notice explaining the collection of the social maintenance fee (family planning fine) at Danshan, Sichuan.
  • 52. POPULATION PYRAMID 1950 to 2050 In 1950 the population structure of China was typical of an LEDC.
  • 53. POPULATION PYRAMID 2005 While the number of children was increasing rapidly between 1950 and about 1970, it is now declining significantly, due to China's one-child family planning program.
  • 54. POPULATION PYRAMID 2050? In the next few decades, China will experience population ageing - as can be seen by the shrinking base of the population pyramid and the increasing numbers of people age 50 and above.
  • 55. POPULATION STRUCTURE
  • 56. WHY IS CHINA STILL SO POPULOUS IF FERTILITY RATES HAVE DECLINED FROM 6 CHILDREN PER WOMAN DOWN TO 1.5? • The policy was only introduced in 1979 (33 years ago), it slows down growth rate, so people are still being added to the population. • Only the proportion of people aged 0 to 33 has lowered. • Death rates have declined as standards of living have improved since the cultural revolution of the 1960’s/70’s • An non government orgnisation, the United Nations has projected that the population will peak in 2030 at 1.46 billion • Also, the population will decline to 1.4 billion by 2050.
  • 57. FAILURE: VIOLATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS • Official government policy opposes forced abortion or sterilisation, but allegations of coercion continue as local officials strive to meet population targets. • China has been accused of meeting its population requirements through bribery, coercion, forced sterilisation, forced abortion, and infanticide, with most reports coming from rural areas. • A report in 2001 showed that a quota of 20,000 forced abortions had been set in the province of Guandong due to the reported disregard of the one-child policy.
  • 58. SUCCESS China has greatly decreased the number of „young dependents‟ and so reduced expenditure.
  • 59. In 1950 44% of the population were under 20 but by 2005 this had been reduced to 30%, Morning exercises before school starts
  • 60. 120 100 105 100 100 136 World China Hainan province male births female births China‟s sex ratio at birth of 120 male infants for every 100 female infants is likely to be due to 3 factors;  underreporting of female births  excessive female infant mortality  and prenatal sex determination and sex-selective abortion FAILURE: Sex Ratio
  • 61. FAILURE: In 1997, the World Health Organisation (WHO) issued a report claiming that "more than 50 million women were estimated to be 'missing' in China because of the institutionalised killing and neglect of girls due to Beijing's population control programme that limits parents to one child."
  • 62. The traditional attitude to girls is best described in the ancient "Book of Songs" (1000-700 B.C.): "When a son is born, Let him sleep on the bed, Clothe him with fine clothes, And give him jade to play... When a daughter is born, Let her sleep on the ground, Wrap her in common wrappings, And give broken tiles to play..." SUCCESSES and FAILURES “Little Emperors”
  • 63. This population pyramid presents the female minus the male population by age. In most age groups China has a larger male than female population - according to these raw census data. Particularly, in young age groups the "surplus" in male population is substantial. This well-known phenomenon of "missing girls" is due to the strong preference for male births in the Chinese and most other Asian societies. It is believed that only boys can later keep up the family tradition. Especially the farmers want to have at least one male child for taking over the family farm. SUCCESSES and FAILURES
  • 64. Despite the not-yet wealthy family economy, the only child tends to have almost whatever he wants and whatever the parents can get. The spoiled child thus acquires the nickname "little emperor.“ In later life there is often a lack of reality and responsibility because the child has been used to taking things for granted!
  • 65. Now that most families have only one child, all the hopes for the future of are placed on his or her shoulders. The parents' expectations of the child tend to be very high, and often unrealistic!
  • 66. Most Chinese accept the state‟s role in population control, but many disagree with the severe restrictions on the number of children they are allowed to have. The strong desire for sons is central to this resistance: Families who have had a daughter often want to try again for a son. Son preference has a long history in China and is tied to the social and economic roles of males in Chinese families. Family lineage is traced through males, and sons are responsible for caring for their parents in their old age. Marriage practices reflect these traditions. When daughters marry, they leave their birth families to join their husbands‟ families. In rural areas, few peasants have retirement pensions, so ageing parents depend on their children for support. Because daughters have traditionally married out of the family, a couple with no son may end up without financial and personal support. Thus, regardless of their acceptance of the state‟s control of population growth, most Chinese citizens want at least one son. Many couples would like a daughter as well.
  • 67. SUCCESSES and FAILURES An investigation by The Telegraph has revealed that an estimated 50,000 girls and young women, some as young as eight, have been sold or abducted into human slavery in China. The trade is largely the result of the nation's "one child policy", which has led to a shortage of young women and millions of unmarried men. September 2002
  • 68. SUCCESSES and FAILURES Missing children!
  • 69. SUCCESSES and FAILURES As the one-child policy approaches the third generation, one adult child supports two parents and four grandparents. This leaves the oldest and most vulnerable generation with increased dependency on retirement funds, the state, or charity for support.
  • 70. SUCCESSES and FAILURES China has an ageing population and will have an increasing dependency ratio in the future. As a result of almost 30 years of the one child policy there is a lower „active population‟, making it more difficult to support the „dependent population‟.
  • 71. EVALUATION OF THE ONE-CHILD POLICY
  • 72. • China’s population dynamics have changed from • traditionally high fertility (>6) to low fertility (1.5, below replacement rate) • high death rates and high natural increase to low death rates and low growth in 32 years. • China would have had about 400 million more people if they had been no One-Child Policy. • Increased prosperity • The One-Child Policy promised the population greater prosperity for the nation, at the same time China has shifted from a planned economy to a market one, resulting in a massive increase in prosperity, • Modernisation has greatly aided the success of the policy, with its ability to increase household wealth and diminish the need to have children for age- security. (Sped up the demographic transition model)
  • 73. The world‟s two population billionaires, India and China, have national policies to cut population growth. China‟s policy has been strictly enforced nationwide and more effective than India‟s in reducing fertility and slowing population growth. SUCCESS: FR below India‟s
  • 74. 2006 1,313,973,713 2050 1,424,000,000 2006 1,111,205,474 2050 1,807,000,000 China is expected to be overtaken by India as the world‟s most populous country in the next 25 years.
  • 75. Rapidly ageing population • In the coming decades further changes will be evident as the population ages. There will be fewer young people, as the shrinking base of the later population pyramid illustrates. • By 2050, people aged 65 and over could rise from around 7 per cent in 2000 to almost 20 per cent of the total, as one adult child is left to support his or her parents and any surviving grandparents.
  • 76. • Violation of human rights: • Mothers expecting a second child are 'encouraged' to have an abortion. This encouragement is very forceful. Some women have abortions at eight months. • Rapidly ageing population and workforce challenges • The dependency ratios are very high and will increase as the population becomes increasingly elderly. • Female infanticide and gender inbalance: • Evidence of high rates of female infanticide as parents want male child (to carry family lineage, care for parents in old age, avoid a dowry) • 120 boys to 100 females • Orphanages that are under-funded look after thousands of abandoned females. • 'Little Emperor Syndrome’ • there is a concern that many of the single children are being badly spoilt possibly creating a future society of selfish people. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ONE CHILD POLICY: NEGATIVE