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 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
 Reproduction in animals
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Reproduction in animals

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REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS is a lesson in science textbook 8th class.

REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS is a lesson in science textbook 8th class.

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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  • 1. Sexual Reproduction Male Reproductive Female Reproductive Fertilisation External and Internal fertilisation Test-tube baby Reproductive system of male and female frog Metamorphosis Asexual Reproduction Binary fission Budding Viviparous and oviparous Animals Dolly the clone
  • 2. Sexual Reproduction: The reproduction in which the both male reproductive organs and female reproductive organs involved to give birth to new individual is called sexual reproduction. Like plants, the the reproductive parts in animals also gametes that fuse to form a zygote. It is the zygote which develops into a new individual. SEXUAL RERODUCTION
  • 3. MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS IN HUMANS
  • 4. MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANGS The male reproductive organs include a pair of testes, two sperms ducts and a penis. The testes produce male gametes called sperms. Millions of sperms are produced by the testes.
  • 5. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS IN HUMANS [OVIDUCTS]
  • 6. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS The female reproductive organs are of ovaries, oviducts[fallopian tubes] and the uterus. The ovary produces female gametes called ova[eggs]. A single matured egg is released into oviduct by on of the ovaries every month. Uterus is the development of the baby takes place. Like the sperm, an egg is also a single cell.
  • 7. An ovum (plural ova, ovum meaning egg or egg cell) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. Both animals and embryophytes have ova. The term ovule is used for the young ovum of an animal, as well as the plant structure that carries the female gametophyte and egg cell and develops into a seed after fertilization. HUMAN OVUM
  • 8. Sperm were first observed in 1677 by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek using a microscope. The sperms are produced by testes. Though sperms are very small in size, each has head, a middle piece and a tail. Each sperm is a single cell with all usual cell components. SPERM
  • 9. PARTS OF SPERM A HUMAN SPERM
  • 10. SPERM FERTILIZING A FEMALE EGG
  • 11. The first step in process of reproduction is the fusion of a sperm and an ovum. When sperms come in contact with an egg, one of the sperms may fuse the egg. Such fusion of the egg and the sperm is called Fertilisation FERTILISATION
  • 12. Fertilization involves the fusion of the male and the female gamete. The male and the female gametes are released from the male and the female reproductive organs. Sperms or male gametes are released from the male reproductive organ i.e., the penis. These sperms then enter the female body through the vagina. Then, they travel through the fallopian tubes where they meet the eggs. Hence, the process of fertilization takes place in the fallopian tubes. During fertilization, the haploid nucleus of the sperm and that of the ovum fuse with each other to form the zygote. This zygote divides to form an embryo which in turn develops into a foetus. PROCESS OF FERTILISATION IN HUMAN BEINGS
  • 13. INTERNAL FERTILISATION AND EXTERNAL FERTILISATION The fertilisation which takes place inside the female body is called Internal fertilisation. Fertilisation in which the fusion of male and female gamete takes outside the body is called External fertilisation. Example: frog, fish, starfish etc.
  • 14. A zygote is always synthesized from the union of two gametes, and constitutes the first stage in a unique organism's development. Zygotes are usually produced by a fertilization event between two haploid cells— an ovum (female gamete) and a sperm cell (male gamete)—which combine to form the single diploid cell. Such zygotes contain DNA derived from both the parents, and this provides all the genetic information necessary to form a new individual. ZYGOTE Fusing nuclei
  • 15. FORMATION OF ZYGOTE
  • 16. DEVOELOPMENT OF ZYGOTE
  • 17. TEST-TUBE BABY In some women oviducts are blocked. These women are unable to bear babies because sperms cannot reach the egg for fertilisation. In such cases, doctors collect freshly released egg and sperms and keep them together for a few hours for IVF. In case fertilisation occurs, the zygote is allowed to develop for about a week and then it is placed in the mother’s uterus. Complete development takes place in the uterus and the baby is born like other babies. Babies born through this technique are called test-tube baby In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process by which egg cells are fertilized by sperm outside the womb, in vitro.
  • 18. EMBRYO Fertilisation results in the formation of zygote which begins to develop into embryo. The zygote divides repeatedly to give rise to a balls of cells. The cells then begin to form groups that develop into different tissues and organs of body. This developing structure is termed an embryo. The embryo gets embedded in the walls of uterus for development.
  • 19. FOETUS The stage embryo in which all body parts can been seen is called Foetus. UTERUS Foetus in the uterus
  • 20. Reproductive system of male and female frog
  • 21. A female frog sitting on a mass of its own spawn [eggs]
  • 22. REPRODUCTION IN FROGS During spring or rainy season, frogs and toads move to ponds and slow flowing streams. When the male and female come together in water, the female lays hundreds of eggs. A layer of jelly holds the eggs together and provides protection to the eggs. As the eggs are laid, the male deposits sperms over them. Each sperm swims randomly in water with the help of its long tail. The sperms contact with the eggs this results in fertilisation. Though the animals lay hundreds of eggs and release millions of sperms, all the eggs do not get fertilised ,this is because the eggs get exposed in water movement, wind and rainfall. Also, there are other animals in pond which may feed on eggs
  • 23. Metamorphosis is a biological process of transforming a larva into an adult. This involves relatively sudden and abrupt changes in the animal’s structure. Frogs and insects are examples of organisms showing metamorphosis. METAMORPHOSIS
  • 24. ASEXUAL PRODUCTION Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction that does not involve the fusion of the male and the female gamete. It requires only one parent, and the offsprings produced are exact copies of their parents.
  • 25. It is a type of asexual reproduction in which a single cell divides into two halves. Organisms that reproduce through binary fission are bacteria and Amoeba. In Amoeba, the division of cells can take place in any plane. It involves the division of its nucleus into two nuclei, which is followed by the division of its body into two halves. Each half of the body receives a nucleus. BINARY FISSON IN AMOEBA DIVIDING NULEUS DAUGHTER AMOEBAE BINARY FISSON
  • 26. Budding involves the formation of a new individual from the bulges, known as buds formed on the parent body. This method of reproduction is common in Hydra. In Hydra, the cells divide rapidly at a specific site and develop as an outgrowth, called the bud. These buds, while being attached to the parent plant, develop into smaller individuals. When these individuals become mature enough, they detach from the parent’s body and become independent individuals. Budding in Hydra BUDDING
  • 27. Animals which lay eggs outside their bodies are known as oviparous animals. All birds, frogs, lizards, crocodiles etc. belong to this group. Animals which give birth to young ones are known as viviparous animals. Animals like lions, tigers, dogs, and humans belong to this group. OVIPAROUS ANIMALS AND VIVIPAROUS ANIMALS
  • 28. Dolly was the first cloned mammal, and is genetically identical to its parent sheep. Cloning is creating an exact copy of a biological entity. A clone is created by inserting the complete genetic material of a regular body cell from a donor into a recipient. Sheep are viviparous animals, and so propagate their offspring sexually. Sir Ian Wilmut from Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland created Dolly. DOLLY, THE CLONE
  • 29. WORLD’S FIRST CLONED BUFFALO WAS IN INDIA! Scientists at India’s National Dairy Research Institute, in the Indian state of Haryana, produced the first cloned buffalo back in February 6 2008, using DNA from the ear of an adult female—though unfortunately, it died of pneumonia soon after its birth.

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