Urinary System

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Urinary System

  1. 1. URINARY SYSTEM<br /> CHAPTER 9<br /> ESSENTIALS OF ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY<br />
  2. 2. FUNCTIONS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM<br />ELIMINATION OF WASTE PRODUCTS<br />NITROGENOUS WASTES<br />TOXINS<br />DRUGS<br />
  3. 3. FUNCTIONS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM<br />REGULATES ASPECTS OF HOMEOSTASIS<br />WATER BALANCE<br />ELECTROLYTES<br />ACID BASE BALANCE IN THE BLOOD<br />BLOOD PRESSURE<br />RED BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION<br />ACTIVATION OF VITAMIN D<br />
  4. 4. ORGANS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM<br />KIDNEYS<br />ANATOMICAL STRUCTURE<br />& BLOOD SUPPLY<br />-HIGHLY VASCULAR (25% CARDIAC OUTPUT)<br />PRODUCES URINE (WATER & ELECTROLYTES, <br />UREA, URIC ACID & CREATINE) INITIALLY AN UL-<br />TRAFILTRATE OF THE BLOOD.<br />URETERS<br />URINARY BLADDER<br />URETHRA<br />
  5. 5. KIDNEYS<br />TWO REDDISH “BEAN SHAPED” EXCRETORY ORGANS THAT FILTERS WASTE (ESPECIALLY UREA) FROM THE BLOOD AND SECRETE THEM AND WATER IN THE URINE.<br />LOCATED ABOVE THE WAIST AND BEHIND THE STOMACH.<br />URINE PASSES OUT OF THE KIDNEY THROUGH URETERS TO THE BLADDER.<br />
  6. 6. OTHER ACTIVITIES OF THE KIDNEYS<br />Produces erythropoietin<br />– stimulates red blood cell production<br />Produces active form of Vitamin D3<br />– essential for calcium absorption from gut<br />Produces renin<br />– enzyme that participates in a chain of reactions to increase blood pressure<br />
  7. 7. THE KIDNEY<br />
  8. 8. NEPHRON<br />Functional unit of the kidney<br />Filtration, reabsorption, and secretion occur here<br />Starts in the cortex and loops down into medulla<br />
  9. 9. NEPHRON<br />
  10. 10. URETERS<br />SLENDER TUBES ATTACHING THE KIDNEY TO THE BLADDER<br />CONTINUOUS WITH THE RENAL PELVIS<br />ENTER THE POSTERIOR ASPECT OF THE BLADDER<br />RUNS BEHIND THE PERITONEUM<br />PERISTALSIS AIDS GRAVITY IN URINE TRANSPORT<br />
  11. 11. URINARY BLADDER<br />SMOOTH, COLLAPSIBLE, MUSCULAR SAC<br />TEMPORARILY STORES URINE<br />
  12. 12. URINARY BLADDER WALL<br /><ul><li>Three layers of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle)
  13. 13. Mucosa made of transitional epithelium
  14. 14. Walls are thick and folded in an empty bladder
  15. 15. Bladder can expand significantly without increasing internal pressure</li></li></ul><li> URETHRA<br /><ul><li>Thin-walled tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body by peristalsis
  16. 16. Release of urine is controlled by two sphincters
  17. 17. Internal urethral sphincter (involuntary)
  18. 18. External urethral sphincter (voluntary)</li></li></ul><li> URINARY GENDER DIFFERENCES<br /><ul><li>Length
  19. 19. Females – 3–4 cm (1 inch)- Only carries urine
  20. 20. Males – 20 cm (8 inches)-Carries urine and is a passageway for sperm cells
  21. 21. Location
  22. 22. Females – along wall of the vagina
  23. 23. Males – through the prostate and penis</li></li></ul><li>DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>Functional kidneys are developed by the third month
  24. 24. Urinary system of a newborn
  25. 25. Bladder is small
  26. 26. Urine cannot be concentrated</li></li></ul><li> AGING AND THE URINARY SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>There is a progressive decline in urinary function
  27. 27. The bladder shrinks with aging
  28. 28. Urinary retention is common in males</li>

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