Improved instructional practices


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Improved instructional practices

  2. 2. Modular Instruction Modules as instructional materials responds well the principles of individual differences, allowing each student to proceed at his/her own pace. While modules have been widely used as a desirable pedagogical practice, its actual utilization in classroom instruction leaves much to be desired. Dr. Torralba as reiterated by Acero, et. al (2000) adopted two definitions of modules, the first given by Darrel Murray and the second by the workshop on Educational Technology sponsored by DECS-UNESCO. First Definition: A module is a self-contained and independent unit of instruction with a primary focus on a few well-defined objectives. The substance of a module consists of materials and instructions needed to accomplish these objectives.”
  3. 3. Second Definition: A module is a set oflearning opportunities systematically organizedaround a well defined topic which contains theelements of instruction- specific objectives,teaching-learning activities, and evaluation usingcriterion-referenced measure. Good in 1973described it as a teaching process using a set ofmodules suited to each student who is given achance to advance at his/her own rate,bypassing unnecessary instruction andsatisfying his/her particular needs and learn in aconsiderably shorter time.
  4. 4. Components of a Module• Title. It should be brief, comprehensive and interesting.• Target Population. This specifies the level and the kind of students to which the module is directed.• Overview: A bird’s eye view of the topic to be covered by the module. This is needed to prepare the mental set-up and to motivate the students.• Objectives: These would guide the students what exactly are expected of them in going through the modules in terms of learning objectives.
  5. 5. 5. Instructions to the learners. Instructions should be worded with clarity, brevity, simplicity and specificity to enable the students to carry out the suggested activities, to answer specific questions, to accomplish sheet assignment, and other related activities by themselves.6. Entry behavior and prerequisite skills. The entry behavior and prerequisite skills are needed to make the learners use the module successfully. It provides them preliminary assessment whether the module is within their capabilities or not. If they feel they do not have the prerequisite skills, they may skip the module and instead concentrate on the development of such requirements before they try it.
  6. 6. 7. Pre-test. The pretest is given to determine how much the learners already know about the topic. If the results show that they have considerably mastered it, they may be given the next module.8. Pre-test feedback and evaluation. A key to correction must be provided within the module for the students to determine whether their answers to every item in the pre-test is correct. The total number of correct items must be given an equivalent grade to find out whether the learners pass or fail the test given. Such equivalent grade is contained in the pre-test evaluation.
  7. 7. 11. Post test feedback and evaluation. The post test feedback serves as the key to correction while the post test evaluation provides the grade equivalents of the different scores obtained by the students.12. Teacher’s manual or guide. To assure effective use of the manual , the teacher needs the necessary pointers, helpful alternatives, and necessary background to strengthen mastery of topic. It is necessary that the teacher’s manual or guide can clarify things, provide cautions in the use of the manual, call the attention of the teacher to emphasize salient points, and suggest enrichment activities in order to maximize students’ learning.
  8. 8. 9. Learning Activities. This is the heart of the module which specifies the different activities that the students must undertake in order to achieve the specific learning objectives. Such activities include the various lessons, study sheet assignments, tests, and even suggested projects.10. Post test. The post test is taken after all the students have done all the learning activities suggested in the module. This is to find out how far have they learned from the module. The pre- test may be given as post test in the absence of other equally well-prepared post test.
  9. 9. Discovery Approach This refers to an inductive method of guiding students to discuss and organize ideas and processes themselves. It helps them use ideas already acquired as a means of discovering ideas. It is the process by which the students are directed subtly to go through the logical process of observation, comparison, and abstraction, generalization, and application. Self-discovery sets up learning situations whereby the learners are encouraged to explore a process or discover rules.
  10. 10. Types of Discovery Approach• Guided Discovery. The teacher draws out from his/her students certain bits of information through properly organized questions and explanations leading them to the eventual discovery of particular concepts or principles.• Pure Discovery. The students are expected to arrive at certain concepts and principles completely by themselves.
  11. 11. Guidelines in the Use of the Discovery Approach3. There should be a well-planned structured instructional strategy. The students must understand the problem very well. Data must be arranged systematically.4. Teacher must not answer questions, although s/he can give clues and hints.5. The teacher must not expect the students to find out for themselves all concepts, ideas, and generalizations of the course.
  12. 12. Conceptual Approach The conceptual approach is choosing and defining the content of a certain discipline to be taught through the use of big or pervasive ideas as against the traditional practice of determining content by isolated topics. The emphasis is not the content per se,but in the big ideas that pervade the subject. It is using the content as a means of leading the students to discover the laws and principles or generalization that govern a particular subject or discipline (Soriano, as reiterated by Acero,
  13. 13. The conceptual approach, like discovery,stresses cognitive learning: the learning ofcontent or the acquisition of knowledge.However, the conceptual approach requires thecategorization of content from simple to complexlevel while discovery is generally concerned withthe conscious effort of the learners to find outmere relationships between two given variables. The conceptual approach involves moredata collection usually through research whilethe discovery approach actively involvesstudents to undertake experimental andinvestigative work.
  14. 14. Conceptual Scheme Principle Generalization Concept FactHierarchy of Cognition
  15. 15. Process Approach In the process approach, the students are actively engaged in the activities so the competencies needed in the subject could eventually be acquired by them. For instance, if they are to learn cooking, they should actually cook rather that devote a great deal of their time on the theoretical aspects of the cooking.
  16. 16. Three major points to consider in the process approach:3. A corresponding de-emphasis on the subject content. The concern is how to learn and not what to learn.4. What is taught to the students must be functional and not theoretical. ( If you learn math, do what mathematicians do, if you learn science, do what scientists do, and if you learn music, do what musicians do.)5. It must consider human intellectual development.
  17. 17. Inquiry Approach It is the search for truth, information or knowledge. It pertains to research and investigation and to seeking for information by asking questions (Kilkman, 1970). It is also the search for the solution to a problem through an exploration and evaluation of alternatives (Suchman, 1964). The inquiry approach can either be inductive or deductive. Deductive, if the teacher in the beginning provides the students with background information which will serve as the subject of the inquiry. It can be done soon after
  18. 18. the students have learned through discovery.The generalization formed by the students aresubjected to a closer scrutiny during the inquirysession to lead the students toward in depthunderstanding of the generalization. It becomes inductive when through a set ofquestions presented, the students are able tocome up with certain ideas of their own whichare open for further investigation.
  19. 19. Other Teaching MethodologiesC. Whole Group Instruction is the most traditional form of classroom organization (Ornstein, 1982). Behavior Modeling – Acting out a particular behavior the right way. Case Study – A problematic situation written or described in narrative form ranging from a paragraph to several paragraphs.
  20. 20. Cross-Impact Analysis - With the occurrenceof one or more separate situations, the learnersestimate possible linkages or casual relationshipbetween or among these events and come upwith action plan to deal with likely events.Delphi Procedure - A method for obtaining theconsensus of opinion of a group of expertsthrough questionnaires with controlled opinionfeedback.Demonstration - Showing the learner how toperform a task/activity or how to operateequipment.
  21. 21. Devil’s Advocate – A method of dealing with a complex problem or conflicting situation in the context of opposition. Conflicting views may stem from different goals, perspectives, and role requirement. The “devil” serves as a critic-attacking idea presented and defended by learners.Exercises - Drill, board work, writing exercises that require learners’ application of the acquired knowledge and skills.
  22. 22. Micro simulations – Short informal practice sessions whereby learners perform a new task/activity under artificial conditions to help them develop a matrix of solutions and effects to help the learners generate new ideas to deal with future problems before they occur.Role Play – A dramatic enactment between two or more people intended to represent a situation.Scenario Analysis - Building hypothetical sequence of events; answers the questions, “If then, etc.” to determine the future effects pf a problem, issue, or trend.Simulations and Games – A lengthy role play involving several participants intended to represent a work, a problem situation, or a real life situation.
  23. 23. Team World-Webbing/Mind mapping – Students write simultaneously on a paper drawing to bridge the main concepts with their components, supporting elements in order to show multiple relations among ideas, or to differentiate concepts presented.Think-Pair-Share - Each student finds a pair to work on the topic provided by the teacher. They generate a concept, a conclusion through inductive-deductive reasoning, and an application of the concept developed. In the end, the pair shares their thoughts with the entire class.
  24. 24. Trips – Visits to museums, historical spots, congress,etc.B. Small-Group Instruction – Small groups provide an opportunity for students to become more actively engaged in learning and for teachers to monitor students’ progress better. Between 5 to 8 students ensure successful small-group activity. Ability Grouping – Grouping learners according to their ability and mental preparedness reduce the problems of heterogeneity in the classroom.