Immunology and Serology (transplantation reactions)

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Host Vs Graft
Graft vs Host
GVHD
Types of graft
types of graft reaction

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  • T-cell of the donor’s bone marrow can mediate GVHD
  • Immunology and Serology (transplantation reactions)

    1. 1. HOST RESPONSES PowerPlugs: Templates Highest Quality Greatest Quantity
    2. 2. A. HOST VS. GRAFT RXN B. GRAFTT VS. HOST RXN C. TYPES OF GRAFT RXN
    3. 3. • WILL OCCUR WHEN VIABLE RECIPIENT’S T-CELL PROLIFERATE, ARE NOT RECOGNIZED BY THE DONOR’S T-CELL AS FOREIGN, BUT RECOGNIZE AND REJECT THE GRAFT AS FOREIGN
    4. 4. DEFINITION • CAN OCCUR WHEN VIABLE DONOR’S T-CELL PROLIFERATE, ARE NOT RECOGNIZED BY THE RECIPIENT’S IMMUNE SYSTEM AS FOREIGN, BUT RECOGNIZE AND REJECT THE HOST AS FOREIGN. – RESULTING TRANSFUSION-ASSTD GRAFT-VS-HOST DISEASE
    5. 5. • COMMON CASES – STEM CELL TRANSPLANT – LUNG AND LIVER I. ACUTE GVHD – Occurs during the first 100 days post infusion and targets the skin, GIT, & liver. – In mismatched allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the targets of GVHD are the mismatched HLA proteins – while in matched stem cell transplantation, minor histocompatibility antigens are targeted.
    6. 6. • The incidence and severity of GVHD is related to the match status of the donor and recipient as well as other factors. • The infused T cells can mediate GVHD in several ways: 1. massive release of cytokines due to largescale activation of the donor cells by MHC mismatched proteins 2. by infiltration and destruction of tissue.
    7. 7. Cases at risk of TA-GVHD • Congenital cellular immunodeficiency • Hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation • Hodgkin lymphoma • Granulocytes transfusion • Intrauterine transfusions (IUT) • Transfusion to neonates who have received IUT • Transfusions from biological relatives • Chemotherapy w/ purine analogs • • • • • • • Cases does not inc. risk TA-GVHD HIV infection Hemophilia Small-volume transfusions of term infants who did not received IUT Elderly Px Typical dose immunosuppressive therapy Pregnancy RC membrane, metabolic or Hb disorders
    8. 8. • Beyond 100 days post-transplant • This condition resembles autoimmune disease, with fibrosis affecting the skin, eyes, mouth, and other mucosal surfaces.
    9. 9. 1. Immunosuppressive therapy in the early post-transplant period 2. removal of T lymphocytes from the graft – T-cell reduction is very effective in lowering the incidence of GVHD, but it can also reduce the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect of the infused cells and increase the incidence of graft failure
    10. 10. 1. AUTOGRAFT  Is the transfer of tissue from one area of the body to another of the same individual 2. SYNGENEIC GRAFT  Is the transfer of cells or tissues between identical twins 3. ALLOGRAFT  Is the transfer of cells or tissue between two individuals of the same specie 4. XENOGRAFT  Is the transfer of tissue between two individuals of a different species
    11. 11. 1. Hyperacute rejection occurs within minutes to hours after the vascular supply to the transplanted organ is established. – This type of rejection is mediated by preformed antibody that reacts with donor vascular endothelium. ABO, HLA,and certain endothelial antigens may elicit hyperacute rejection. Binding of preformed antibodies to the alloantigens activates the complement cascade and clotting mechanisms and leads to thrombus formation. The result is ischemia and necrosis of the transplanted tissue.
    12. 12. • Days to weeks after transplant, individuals may develop (2.)acute rejection. This is a cellular-type rejection but may involve antibody as well. Acute rejection is characterized by parenchymal and vascular injury. Interstitial cellular infiltrates contain a predominance of CD8-positive T cells as well as CD4 T cells and macrophages.
    13. 13. 3. Chronic rejection results from a process of graft arteriosclerosis characterized by progressive fibrosis and scarring with narrowing of the vessel lumen due to proliferation of smooth muscle cells.13 Several predisposing factors impact the development of chronic rejection, including prolonged cold ischemia, reperfusion, acute rejection episodes, and toxicity from immunosuppressive drugs.

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