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  • 1. INDICATORS for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals Definitions Rationale Concepts and Sources United Nations
  • 2. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.F/95 United Nations Development Group Led by United Nations Population Fund United Nations Development Programme Department of Economic and Social Affairs–Statistics DivisionIndicators for Monitoring theMillennium Development GoalsDefinitions Rationale Concepts and Sources United Nations New York 2003
  • 3. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals NOTE The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The term “country” as used in the text of this report refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas. The des- ignations of “developed”. “developing” and “least developed” countries are intended for convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process. Reference to “dollars” ($) indicates United States dollars, unless otherwise stated. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.F/95 United Nations Publication Sales No. E.03.XVII. 18 ISBN 92-1-161467-8 Copyright © United Nations 2003 All rights reserved Graphic design and Desktop composition Andy Musilliii
  • 4. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesFOREWORD Building on the United Nations global conferences of the 1990s, the United Nations Millennium Declaration of 2000 marked a strong commitment to the right to devel- opment, to peace and security, to gender equality, to the eradication of the many dimensions of poverty and to sustainable human development. Embedded in that Declaration, which was adopted by 147 heads of State and 189 states, were what have become known as the eight Millennium Development Goals, including 18 time- bound targets. To monitor progress towards the goals and targets, the United Nations system, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, as well as the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, came together under the Office of the Secretary-General and agreed on 48 quantitative indicators. The indicators built upon an intergovernmen- tal process to identify relevant indicators in response to global conferences. The Secretary-General presented the goals, targets and indicators to the General Assembly in September 2001 in his report entitled “Road map towards the imple- mentation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration”. The present handbook provides guidance on the definitions, rationale, concepts and sources of data for each of the indicators that are being used to monitor the goals and targets. It expands on an earlier exercise to provide the metadata for the socio-eco- nomic indicators that make up the United Nations Common Country Assessment Indicator Framework. The indicators for goals 1–7 are a subset of that framework. Preparation of the handbook was directed by an inter-agency working group of the United Nations Development Group, including the World Bank, chaired by the United Nations Population Fund and co-chaired by the United Nations Statistics Division and the United Nations Development Programme. On behalf of the United Nations Development Group, I would like to thank all the agencies and individuals (see below) who contributed to this handbook, including the Department for International Development of the Government of the United Kingdom, which funded the services of a short-term consultant who contributed to the handbook. I believe that this tangible example of interagency collaboration will prove useful to the international community by strengthening national statistical capacity and improving monitoring. And I sincerely hope that this will be sustained through future revisions in the same spirit. Mark Malloch Brown Chairman United Nations Development Group September 2003 iii
  • 5. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesCONTENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii. Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Goals, targets and indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. 1. . Proportion. of population below $1 purchasing power. parity (PPP) per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 1A. . Poverty headcount ratio (percentage .of population below the national poverty line) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. 2. . Poverty gap ratio .(incidence multiplied by depth .of poverty) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 3. . Share .of poorest quintile in national consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. 4. . Prevalence of .underweight children under 5 years of. age. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. 5. . Proportion. of population below minimum. level of. dietary. energy. consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. 6. . Net enrolment. ratio in. primary education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. 7. . Proportion. of pupils starting grade 1 .who. reach grade 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. 7A. . Primary completion rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. 8. . Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. 9. . Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. 10. . Ratio of literate women to men, 15–24 years. old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. 11. . Share .of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural. sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. 12. . Proportion. of seats held by women in. national parliaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. 13. . Under-five mortality rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. 14. . Infant .mortality rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. 15. . Proportion. of 1-year-old children .immunized .against. measles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34. 16. . Maternal mortality ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. 17. . Proportion. of births attended. by skilled health personnel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. 18. . HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15–24. years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40. 19. . Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 19A. Condom use at last high-risk sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 19B. Percentage of population aged 15–24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge. . . of .HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. 19C. . Contraceptive. prevalence .rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 20. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans. . . aged 10–14 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48. 21. . Prevalence and death. rates associated with malaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 22. Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria. . . prevention and treatment. measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. 23. . Prevalence and death. rates associated with tuberculosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS 54. 25. . Proportion. of land. area covered by forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56. 26. . Ratio of area protected to. maintain biological diversity to surface area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58. 27. . Energy use (kilogram oil equivalent) per $1 gross. domestic product (PPP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59. 28. . Carbon dioxide emissions .per. capita and .consumption of. ozone-depleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chlorofluorocarbons (ODP tons) 61. 29. . Proportion. of the population using solid fuels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63. 30. . Proportion. of population with. sustainable access. to an improved water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . source, urban and rural . . . . . . 64. 31. . Proportion. of population with. access .to improved sanitation,. urban and .rural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
  • 6. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals . . 32. . Proportion of households with access to secure. tenure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 . . 33. . Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as. a percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . national income. 70 . . 34. . Proportion of total bilateral,. sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to. basic social . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) 71 . . 35. . Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 . . 36. . ODA .received in .landlocked .countries as a proportion of their gross national incomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 . . 37. . ODA .received in .small island. developing. States .as a. proportion. of their. gross national .incomes 75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38. . Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding. arms) from. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . developing countries and from the least developed countries, admitted free of duty 76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . Average .tariffs imposed . by developed countries on. agricultural. products and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . clothing from developing countries 78 . . 40. . Agricultural support . estimate for OECD .countries as a percentage .of their .gross domestic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 . . 41. . Proportion of ODA provided .to help .build trade .capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 42. Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points . . . and number .that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . 43. . Debt. relief committed under. HIPC Initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 . . 44. . Debt. service. as a percentage of. exports of .goods and services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 . . 45. . Unemployment rate .of young people aged 15–24 years, each sex and .total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 46. Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a . . . sustainable basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 . . 47. . Telephone lines and .cellular .subscribers. per. 100 population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . 48. . Personal. computers .in use per 100 .population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 . . . Internet .users per 100 population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 . . Annex 1. Additional socio-economic common. country assessment indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 . . CCA.19. . Proportion of children under. age 15. who are working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 . . CCA.30. . Employment. to population of working age ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 . . CCA.31. . Unemployment rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 . . CCA.32. . Informal .sector employment. as .a percentage of. employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 . . CCA.41. . Number of persons per room, or average floor area. per. person. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 . . CCA.43. . Number of intentional homicides per 100,000 inhabitants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 . . Annex 2. Household surveys and other national data .sources. . . . . . . . . . . 100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex 3. Web .sites (see also references in the metadata .sheets). . . . . . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex 4. World summits and conferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . .vi
  • 7. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesA B B R E V I AT I O N S A, C, E, F, R, S Translated publications available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish, at http://unstats.un.org.unsd/pubs/ CCA common country assessment CFCS chlorofluorocarbons c.i.f. cost, insurance and freight CWIQ Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire in Africa DAC Development Assistance Committee of the OECD DHS Demographic and Health Survey DOTS internationally recommended tuberculosis control strategy DPT diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations f.o.b. free on board GDP gross domestic product GNI gross national income GNP gross national product HBS household budget survey HIPC Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative ICES income, consumption and expenditure survey ILO Internatonal Labour Organization IMF International Monetary Fund IPU Inter-Parliamentary Union ISCED 97 International Standard Classification of Education, 1997 version ISIC International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities ITU International Telecommunication Union IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources–The World Conservation Union Kg kilogram LDCs least developed countries LFS labour force surveys LSMS Living Standards Measurement Study MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey NCHS National Center for Health Statistics ODA official development assistance ODP ozone-depleting potential OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PCs personal computers PPP purchasing power parity TCBDB trade capacity-building database TRAINS Trade Analysis and Information System UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization vii
  • 8. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals MEMBERS AND CONTRIBUTORS TO THE UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT GROUP WORKING GROUP ON INDICATORS United Nations Human Settlements Programme Laura Licchi United Nations Population Fund Richard Leete, Chair World Food Programme Iqbal Alam Patricia Kennedy Kourtoum Nacro Mickie Schoch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Jorge Mernies Affairs Statistics Division Toshiko Murata Stefan Schweinfest, Vice Chair Robert Johnston International Labour Organization Giselle Kamanou Sophia Lawrence Francesca Perucci International Telecommunication Union United Nations Development Programme Esperanza Magpantay Diana Alarcon, Vice Chair Jan Vandemoortele United Nations Educational, Scientific and Haishan Fu Cultural Organization Denise Lievesley United Nations Development Group Office José Pessoa Gerton van den Akker Alain Nickels World Bank Heidi Swindells Neil Fantom Tom Griffin (consultant) Makiko Harrison Eric Swanson Executive Office of the Secretary-General Madhushree Dasgupta World Health Organization Christopher Murray United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Carla AbouZahr Andrea Treso World Trade Organization Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Guy Karsenty Human Rights Goro Onojima United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS James Grabert Peter Ghys Inter-Parliamentary Union United Nations Children’s Fund Kareen Jabre Gareth Jones Tessa Wardlaw Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development United Nations Development Fund for Women Brian Hammond Suzette Mitchell Simon Scott United Nations Environment Programme Stuart Chape Marion Cheatle Volodymyr Demkine Eugene Fosnight Phillip Fox Gerald Mutisyaviii
  • 9. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesINTRODUCTION Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals: Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources contains basic metadata on the agreed list of quantitative indicators for monitoring progress towards the eight goals and 18 targets derived from the United Nations Millennium Declaration (table). The list of indicators, devel- oped using several criteria, is not intended to be prescriptive but to take into account the country setting and the views of various stakeholders in preparing country-level reports. Five main criteria guided the selection of indicators. Indicators should: I Provide relevant and robust measures of progress towards the targets of the Millennium Development Goals I Be clear and straightforward to interpret and provide a basis for international comparison I Be broadly consistent with other global lists and avoid imposing an unnecessary burden on country teams, Governments and other partners I Be based to the greatest extent possible on international standards, recommen- dations and best practices I Be constructed from well-established data sources, be quantifiable and be con- sistent to enable measurement over time The present handbook is designed to provide United Nations country teams and national and international stakeholders with guidance on the definitions, rationale, concepts and sources of the data for the indicators that are being used to monitor the Millennium Development Goals. Just as the indicator list is dynamic and will nec- essarily evolve in response to changing national situations, so will the metadata change over time as concepts, definitions and methodologies change. A consultation process, generally involving the national statistical office or other national authority, should be initiated in the selection and compilation of country- specific indicators. The consultation should take into account national development priorities, the suggested list of indicators and the availability of data. The United Nations country team should work collaboratively to help build ownership and con- sensus on the selected indicators. NATIONAL SOURCES Country data should be used for compiling the indicators where such data are avail- able and of reasonable quality. The data source for each indicator and the quantita- tive value of the indicator should be decided by consensus among the key stake- holders, especially the national statistical system. The national statistical system should own the data and related indicators. For any given indicator, a wide range of data sources may be available within the country, and each source should be critically reviewed. Existing data sources and reporting systems should be used where possible, particularly where line ministries have their own statistical systems. International data sources should be consulted 1
  • 10. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals for validation and in the absence of national sources. METADATA SHEETS For each indicator used to measure progress towards the targets and goals, the handbook provides all or some of the following information: I A simple operational definition I The goal and target it addresses I The rationale for use of the indicator I The method of computation I Sources of data I References, including relevant international Web sites I Periodicity of measurement I Gender and disaggregation issues I Limitations of the indicator I National and international agencies involved in the collection, compilation or dissemination of the data The intention is not to provide an exhaustive amount of information for each item, but to provide a reference point and guidance for country teams and national stake- holders. The amount of information varies by indicator and tends to reflect the extent of national and international debate on its relevance. Limited information is available for some of the less well-established indicators. With further use of the indicators and greater recognition of the need for such data, fuller information is expected to become available. Monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals is taking place globally, through annual reports of the United Nations Secretary-General to the General Assembly and through periodic country reporting. For global reporting, use is made of indicators compiled by international organizations. Internationally compiled indicators, based on standard concepts, definitions and methodologies, more readily facilitate cross- country comparisons. For country reporting, use is generally made of indicators com- piled from national sources, generally by the national statistical system. The meta- data sheets for the indicators reflect national and international standards. ANNEX 1 provides metadata for some additional indicators included in the common country assessment indicator framework; the indicators for Millennium Development Goals 1–7 are a subset of that framework. ANNEX 2 supplies information on the house- hold surveys and national sources mentioned in the metadata for constructing the indicators. ANNEX 3 gives the World Wide Web addresses of the agencies involved. ANNEX 4 lists the major world summits and conferences that have helped to shape the Millennium Development Goals and indicators.2
  • 11. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesGoals, targets and indicators GOALS AND TARGETS INDICATORS FOR MONITORING PROGRESS FROM THE MILLENNIUM DECLARATION GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER a TARGET 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is 1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day less than one dollar a day 1A. Poverty headcount ratio (percentage of population below the national poverty line) 2. Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty] 3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption TARGET 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from 4. Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age hunger 5. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION TARGET 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able 6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education b to complete a full course of primary schooling 7. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 8. Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN TARGET 4 : Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably 9. Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 10. Ratio of literate women to men, 15–24 years old 11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY TARGET 5 : Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate 13. Under-five mortality rate 14. Infant mortality rate 15. Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH TARGET 6 : Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal 16. Maternal mortality ratio mortality ratio 17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES TARGET 7 : Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 18. HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15–24 years c 19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate 19A. Condom use at last high-risk sex 19B. Percentage of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowl- d edge of HIV/AIDS 19C. Contraceptive prevalence rate 20. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10–14years TARGET 8 : Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and 21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria other major diseases 22. Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention e and treatment measures 23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis 24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY TARGET 9 : Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies 25. Proportion of land area covered by forest and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources 26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area 27. Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP) 28. Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons) 29. Proportion of population using solid fuels TARGET 10 : Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe 30. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water drinking water and basic sanitation source, urban and rural 31. Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, urban and rural TARGET 11 : By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 32. Proportion of households with access to secure tenure 100 million slum dwellers 3
  • 12. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked countries and small island developing States. TARGET 12 : Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trad- Official development assistance ing and financial system 33. Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as a percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national income Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty 34. Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic reduction – both nationally and internationally social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) TARGET 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries 35. Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries’ untied exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor 36. ODA received in landlocked countries as a proportion of their gross national countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more gen- incomes erous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction 37. ODA received in small island developing States as proportion of their gross nation- al incomes TARGET 14 : Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island devel- Market access oping States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable 38. Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the developing countries and and from the least developed countries, admitted free of twenty-second special session of the General Assembly) duty 39. Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and tex- TARGET 15 : Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries tiles and clothing from developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sus- 40. Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross tainable in the long term domestic product 41. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity Debt sustainability 42. Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and num- ber that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) 43. Debt relief committed under HIPC Initiative 44. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services f TARGET 16 : In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strate- 45. Unemployment rate of young people aged 15-24 years, each sex and total gies for decent and productive work for youth TARGET 17 : In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to afford- 46. Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable able essential drugs in developing countries basis TARGET 18 : In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits 47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population of new technologies, especially information and communications 48A. Personal computers in use per 100 population and Internet users per 100 population 48B. Internet users per 100 populationTHE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS and targets come from the Millennium Declaration, signed by 189 countries,including 147 heads of State and Government, in September 2000 (http://www.un.org.millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm). The goals and targets are interrelated and should be seen as a whole. They represent a partnershipbetween the developed countries and the developing countries “to create an environment – at the national and globallevels alike – which is conducive to development and the elimination of poverty”. Note: Goals, targets and indicators effective 8 September 2003. a For monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on nation- healthy-looking person can transmit HIV. However, since there are al poverty lines should be used, where available. currently not a sufficient number of surveys to be able to calculate the indicator as defined above, UNICEF, in collaboration with b An alternative indicator under development is “primary completion UNAIDS and WHO, produced two proxy indicators that represent rate”. two components of the actual indicator. They are the following: (a) c Among contraceptive methods, only condoms are effective in pre- percentage of women and men 15-24 who know that a person can venting HIV transmission. Since the condom use rate is only meas- protect herself from HIV infection by “consistent use of condom”; ured among women in union, it is supplemented by an indicator on (b) percentage of women and men 15-24 who know a healthy- condom use in high-risk situations (indicator 19a) and an indicator looking person can transmit HIV. on HIV/AIDS knowledge (indicator 19b). Indicator 19c (contracep- e Prevention to be measured by the percentage of children under 5 tive prevalence rate) is also useful in tracking progress in other sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets; treatment to be meas- health, gender and poverty goals. ured by percentage of children under 5 who are appropriately d This indicator is defined as the percentage of population aged 15- treated. 24 who correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the f An improved measure of the target for future years is under devel- sexual transmission of HIV (using condoms and limiting sex to one opment by the International Labour Organization. faithful, uninfected partner), who reject the two most common local misconceptions about HIV transmission, and who know that a 4
  • 13. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources 1 PROPORTION OF POPULATION tion) curves weighted by household size. In all BELOW $1 PURCHASING POWER cases measures of poverty to obtain LorenzPARITY(PPP) PER DAY curves are calculated from primary data sources rather than existing estimates.DEFINITIONProportion of population below $1 per day is Poverty in a country is estimated by convertingthe percentage of the population living on less the one dollar a day poverty line to local curren-than $1.08 a day at 1993 international prices. cy using the latest purchasing power parityThe one dollar a day poverty line is compared (PPP) exchange rates for consumption takento consumption or income per person and from World Bank estimates. Local consumerincludes consumption from own production price indices are then used to adjust the inter-and income in kind. This poverty line has national poverty line in local currency to pricesfixed purchasing power across countries or prevailing around the time of the surveys. Thisareas and is often called an “absolute poverty international poverty line is used to identify howline” or measure of extreme poverty. many people are below the one dollar a day threshold.GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSEDGoal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger The PPP-based international poverty line isTarget 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the required only to allow comparisons acrossproportion of people whose income is less countries and to produce estimates of pover-than one dollar a day ty at the aggregate level. Most countries also set their own poverty lines (SEE INDICATOR 1A).RATIONALEThe indicator allows for comparing and aggre- DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCEgating progress across countries in reducing the The indicator is produced by the World Banknumber of people living under extreme poverty Development Research Group based on dataand for monitoring trends at the global level. obtained from government statistical offices and World Bank country departments. It is notMETHOD OF COMPUTATION normally calculated by national agencies.The World Bank regularly estimates povertybased on the one dollar a day poverty line. Data on household income, consumption andEstimates are based on incomes or consump- expenditure, including income in kind, aretion levels derived from household surveys. generally collected through household budgetWhenever possible, consumption is preferred surveys or other surveys covering income andto income for measuring poverty. When con- expenditure.sumption data are not available, income isused. When available, household consumption data are preferred to income data. National statis-Consumption, which includes consumption tical offices, sometimes in conjunction withfor own production, or income per person, and other national or international agencies, usu-its distribution are estimated from household ally undertake such surveys.surveys. Household consumption or income isdivided by the number of people in the house- Only surveys that meet the following criteria arehold to establish the income per person. used: they are nationally representative, include a sufficiently comprehensive consumption orThe distribution of consumption or income is income aggregate (including consumption orestimated using empirical Lorenz (distribu- income from own production), and they allow for 5
  • 14. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals the construction of a correctly weighted distri- The one dollar a day poverty measure is used bution of consumption or income per person. to assess and monitor poverty at the global level, but like other indicators it is not equally The most recent estimates of PPP for devel- relevant in all regions because countries have oping countries are based on data collected different definitions of poverty. between 1993 and 1996, standardized to Measurements of poverty in countries are 1993 international prices. Global price com- generally based on national poverty lines. parisons are carried out by the International Comparison Programme of the World Bank PPP exchange rates are used because they and others. New estimates of PPPs are take into account the local prices of goods expected in 2006. and services that are not traded internation- ally. Although PPP rates were designed for PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT comparing aggregates from national Household budget or income surveys are accounts, they may not fully reflect the com- undertaken at different intervals in different parative cost of goods typically consumed by countries. In developing countries they typi- the very poor. cally take place every three to five years. There are also problems in comparing poverty PPP surveys are conducted at infrequent measures within countries, especially for urban- intervals. The last price survey through the rural differences. The cost of living is typically International Comparison Programme was higher in urban than in rural areas, so the urban completed in 1996, and the next will begin in monetary poverty line should be higher than the 2003. It is, however, possible to extrapolate rural monetary poverty line. However, it is not from PPP surveys, and the World Bank con- always clear that the difference between the version factors are calculated in this way. two poverty lines found in practice properly reflects the difference in the cost of living. GENDER ISSUES Households headed by women tend to have In considering whether to use income or con- lower incomes and are therefore more likely sumption as a welfare indicator, income is to have incomes per person lower than one generally more difficult to measure accurate- dollar. However, this relationship should be ly, and consumption accords better with the carefully studied to take into account nation- idea of the standard of living than income, al circumstances and the definition of head of which can vary over time even if the standard household adopted in data collection, which is of living does not. Nevertheless, consumption not necessarily related to being the chief data are not always available, and when they source of economic support. Whether house- are not there is little choice but to use income. holds are headed by women or men, gender relations affect intrahousehold resource allo- There is also a problem with comparability cation and use. It is not possible to estimate across surveys: household survey question- sex-disaggregated poverty rates from avail- naires can differ widely, and even similar sur- able data. veys may not be strictly comparable because of differences in quality. DISAGGREGATION ISSUES It is sometimes possible to disaggregate this Even if surveys are entirely accurate, the indicator by urban-rural location. measure of poverty can miss some important aspects of individual welfare. First, using COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS household consumption ignores inequalities6
  • 15. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourceswithin households. Second, the measure does http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/librarynot reflect people’s feeling about relative /progr/2000-01/execsum.htm.deprivation or their concerns about uninsured WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). Worldrisks to their income and health. Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. Table 2.6. Washington, D.C. Available inComparisons across countries at different levels part from http://www.worldbank.org/data.of development may also pose a problem, owing WORLD BANK (2003). Data and Statistics.to differences in the relative importance of con- Internet site http://www.worldbank.org/sumption of non-market goods. data . Washington, D.C. WORLD BANK (2003). Poverty ReductionREFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA Strategy Sourcebook, vol. 1, Core tech-COMPARISONS niques: Poverty Measurement and Analysis. CHEN, SHAOCHUA, and MARTIN RAVALLION Washington, D.C. Available from http:// (2002). How Did the World’s Poorest Fare in www. worldbank.org/poverty/strategies/ the 1990s?, Working Paper No. 2409, pp.1-5. sourcons.htm . Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Available from http://www.worldbank.org/research/ AGENCY povmonitor/publications.htm. World Bank HESTON, ALAN, ROBERT SUMMERS and BETTINA ATEN (2002). Penn World Tables 6.1. Internet site http://datacentre2.chass.utoronto.ca/pwt . UNITED NATIONS (1992). Handbook of the 1-A POVERTY HEADCOUNT RATIOBELOW CENTAGE OF POPULATION (PER- International Comparison Programme. THE NATIONAL POVERTY LINE) Series F, No. 62 (United Nations publica- tion, Sales No. E.92.XVII.12). Available from DEFINITION http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs. (A, C, E, The poverty headcount ratio is the proportion F, R, S) of the national population whose incomes are UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators below the official threshold (or thresholds) set Database. Statistics Division Internet site by the national Government. National poverty http://millenniumindicators.un.org. lines are usually set for households of various UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME compositions to allow for different family (2003 and annual). Human Development sizes. Where there are no official poverty Report. New York: Oxford University Press. lines, they may be defined as the level of Available from http://hdr.undp.org. income required to have only sufficient food UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN or food plus other necessities for survival. COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED DEVELOPMENT AND WORLD BANK (1994). Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the 1993), Series F, No. 2, Rev. 4 (United Nations proportion of people whose income is less publication, Sales No. E.94.XVII.4), paras. than one dollar a day 9.45, 16.80-16.83. Available with updates from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/sna1993. RATIONALE WORLD BANK (2001). Poverty Reduction and The indicator allows for monitoring the pro- the World Bank: Progress in Operationaliz- portion of the national population that is con- ing the World Development Report sidered poor by a national standard. Most 2000/01. Washington, D.C. Available from poverty analysis work for countries is based 7
  • 16. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals on national poverty lines. National poverty cally take place every three to five years. lines tend to increase in purchasing power GENDER ISSUES with the average level of income of a country. Households headed by women tend to have lower incomes and are therefore more likely METHOD OF COMPUTATION to have incomes per person below the pover- Household income (or consumption) and its ty line. However, this relationship should be distribution are estimated from household carefully studied to take into account nation- surveys (SEE INDICATOR 1). The incomes of various al circumstances and the definition of head of household types, by composition, may then household adopted in data collection, which is be compared with the poverty lines for those not necessarily related to being the chief types of household. If the poverty lines are source of economic support. Whether house- expressed in terms of income per adult equiv- holds are headed by women or men, gender alent or some similar measure, the incomes of relations affect intrahousehold resource allo- the households must be measured on a simi- cation and use. lar basis. Household income may be convert- ed to income per adult equivalent by using DISAGGREGATION ISSUES the modified equivalence scale of the Disaggregation of the poverty headcount Organisation for Economic Co-operation and index is normally limited by the size of the Development (OECD)—in which the first household survey. It is common, however, for household member over 16 equals 1, all others indices to be produced for urban and rural over 16 equal 0.5, all under 16 equal 0.3 —or areas and for some subnational levels as the some other equivalence scale. Household sample allows. Estimates at low levels of dis- incomes are then divided by the “equivalized” aggregation may be made using “poverty number of people in the household (two adults mapping” techniques, which use the lower would equal 1.5 according to the OECD scale) levels of disaggregation available from popu- to establish income per person. lation censuses, particularly where the timing of the population census and household sur- Once the number of households that are vey is relatively close. Wherever household below the poverty line has been estimated, surveys provide income or consumption data the number of people in those households is disaggregated by sex of household heads, aggregated to estimate the percentage of the these data should be used. population below the line. COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE The advantage of this indicator is that it is Data on household income, consumption and specific to the country in which the data are expenditure, including income in kind, are collected and where the poverty line is estab- generally collected through household budget lished. While the one dollar a day poverty line surveys or other surveys covering income and helps in making international comparisons, expenditure. national poverty lines are used to make more accurate estimates of poverty consistent with National statistical offices, sometimes in con- the characteristics and level of development junction with other national or international of each country. The disadvantage is that agencies, usually undertake such surveys. there is no universally agreed poverty line, even in principle, and international compar- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT isons are not feasible. Household budget or income surveys are undertaken at different intervals in different There are also problems in comparing poverty countries. In developing countries they typi- measures within countries, especially for8
  • 17. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesurban and rural differences. The cost of livingis typically higher in urban than in rural areas, 2 POVERTY GAP RATIO (INCIDENCE MULTIPLIED BY DEPTH OF POVER-so the urban monetary poverty line should be TY)higher than the rural monetary poverty line.But it is not always clear that the difference DEFINITIONbetween the two poverty lines found in prac- Poverty gap ratio is the mean distance sepa-tice properly reflects the difference in the rating the population from the poverty linecost of living. (with the non-poor being given a distance of zero), expressed as a percentage of theREFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA poverty line.COMPARISONS CANBERRA GROUP ON HOUSEHOLD INCOME GOALAND TARGET ADDRESSED STATISTICS (2001). Expert Group on Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Household Income Statistics: Final Report Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the and Recommendations. Ottawa. Available proportion of people whose income is less from http://www.lisproject.org/links/canb than one dollar a day access.htm. SWEDEN, STATISTICS SWEDEN (1996). Engendering RATIONALE Statistics: A Tool for Change. Stockholm. The indicator measures the “poverty deficit” UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators of the entire population, where the poverty Database. Statistics Division Internet site deficit is the per capita amount of resources http://millenniumindicators.un.org. that would be needed to bring all poor people UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME above the poverty line through perfectly tar- (2003 and annual). Human Development geted cash transfers. Report. New York, Oxford University Press. Available from http://hdr.undp.org. METHOD OF COMPUTATION WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World The poverty gap ratio is the sum of the Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. income gap ratios for the population below Notes to table 2.6. Washington, D.C. the poverty line, divided by the total popula- Available in part from http://www.world tion, which can be expressed as follows: bank.org/data. WORLD BANK (2003). Poverty Reduction 1 q  z − yi  Strategy Sourcebook, vol. 1, Core Techniques: PG = ∑ n i =1  z  Poverty Measurement and Analysis.   Washington, D.C. Available from where z is the poverty line, Yi is the income of http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/ individual i, q is the number of poor people and strategies/sourcons.htm. n is the size of the population. The poverty gap can also be expressed (and thus calculated)AGENCIES as the product of the average income gapNational statistical offices ratio of poor people and the headcount ratio,World Bank that is, where PG = I * H where q z − yq H= I= n z 9
  • 18. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals , the distance is meaningful. For example, the where poverty gap in education could be the number 1 q of years of education missing to reach the yq = ∑ yi q i =1 defined threshold. All the formulas are calculated based on data REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA on individuals ( yi as individual income or con- COMPARISONS sumption). If household-level data are used, CHEN, SHAOCHUA, and MARTIN RAVALLION (2002). the formulas have to be adjusted by the How Did the World’s Poorest Fare in the weight wi, which is the household size times 1990s? Working Paper No. 2409, pp.1-5. sampling expansion factor for every house- World Bank, Washington, D.C. Available hold i. from http://www.worldbank.org/research/ povmonitor/publications.htm . DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators When based on the $1 a day poverty line, this Database. Statistics Division Internet site indicator is calculated by the World Bank. http://millenniumindicators.un.org . When based on national poverty lines, the WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World indicator is commonly calculated by national Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. agencies. Washington, D.C. Available in part from http://www.worldbank.org/data . The data required are the same as those for WORLD BANK (2003). Poverty Reduction indicator 1. Strategy Sourcebook, vol. 1, Core Techniques: Poverty Measurement and Analysis. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT Washington, D.C. Available from Household budget or income surveys are http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/ undertaken at different intervals in different strategies/sourcons.htm. countries. In developing countries, they typi- cally take place every three to five years. AGENCIES National statistical offices GENDER ISSUES World Bank Households headed by women may be con- centrated in the bottom fifth. However, this relationship should be carefully studied to take into account national circumstances and 3 SHARE OFCONSUMPTION NATIONAL POOREST QUINTILE IN the definition of head of household adopted in data collection, which is not necessarily DEFINITION related to being the chief source of economic Share of the poorest quintile in national con- support. Whether households are headed by sumption is the income that accrues to the women or men, gender relations affect intra- poorest fifth of the population. household resource allocation and use. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger The comments under indicators 1 and 1A also Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the apply here. proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day This measure can also be used for non-mone- tary indicators, provided that the measure of10
  • 19. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesRATIONALE World Bank tries to produce comparable dataThe indicator provides information about the for international comparisons and for analysisdistribution of consumption or income of the at the aggregated level (regional or global).poorest fifth of the population. Because the Survey data provide either per capita incomeconsumption of the poorest fifth is expressed or consumption. Whenever possible, con-as a percentage of total household consump- sumption data are used rather than incometion (or income), this indicator is a “relative data. Where the original household surveyinequality” measure. Therefore, while the data are not available, shares are estimatedabsolute consumption of the poorest fifth from the best available grouped data.may increase, its share of total consumptionmay remain the same (if the total goes up by PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENTthe same proportion), decline (if the total Household budget or income surveys aregoes up by a larger proportion) or increase (if undertaken at different intervals in differentthe total goes up by a smaller proportion). countries. In developing countries, they typi- cally take place every three to five years.METHOD OF COMPUTATIONHousehold income and its distribution are GENDER ISSUESestimated from household surveys. Household Households headed by women may be con-income is adjusted for household size to pro- centrated in the bottom fifth. However, thisvide a more consistent measure of per capita relationship should be carefully studied toincome for consumption. Household income is take into account national circumstances anddivided by the number of people in the house- the definition of head of household adoptedhold to establish income per person. The pop- in data collection, which is not necessarilyulation is then ranked by income. The income related to the chief source of economic sup-of the bottom fifth is expressed as a percent- port. Whether households are headed byage of aggregate household income. The cal- women or men, gender relations affect intra-culations are made in local currency, without household resource allocation and use.adjustment for price changes or exchangerates or for spatial differences in cost of living INTERNATIONAL DATA COMPARISONSwithin countries, because the data needed for Since the underlying household surveys differsuch calculations are generally unavailable. in method and type of data collected, the dis- tribution indicators are not easily comparable across countries. These problems are dimin-DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE ishing as survey methods improve andFor international purposes, this indicator is become more standardized, but achievingcalculated by the World Bank, but it may also strict comparability is still impossible (seebe calculated by national agencies. The “COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS” for INDICATOR 1).Development Research Group of the WorldBank Group produces the indicator based on COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSprimary household survey data obtained from Two sources of non-comparability should begovernment statistical agencies and World noted. First, the surveys can differ in manyBank country departments. respects, including whether they use income or consumption as the indicator of living stan-Data on household income or consumption dards. The distribution of income is typicallycome from household surveys. Since underly- more unequal than the distribution of con-ing household surveys differ across countries sumption. In addition, the definitions ofin methods and type of data collected, the income usually differ among surveys. Con- 11
  • 20. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals sumption is normally a better welfare indica- tor, particularly in developing countries (see 4 PREVALENCE OF YEARS OF AGE CHIL- DREN UNDER 5 UNDERWEIGHT “COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS” for INDICATOR 1). DEFINITION Second, households differ in size (number of Prevalence of (moderately or severely) under- members), extent of income sharing among weight children is the percentage of children members, age of members and consumption under five years old whose weight for age is needs. Differences among countries in these less than minus two standard deviations from respects may bias comparisons of distribution. the median for the international reference population ages 0–59 months. The interna- The percentile chosen here is the bottom fifth tional reference population was formulated (quintile). The proportionate share of national by the National Center for Health Statistics household income of this group may go up (NCHS) as a reference for the United States while the proportionate share of some other and later adopted by the World Health percentile, such as the bottom tenth (decile), Organization (WHO) for international use may go down, and vice versa. (often referred to as the NCHS/WHO refer- ence population). REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA COMPARISONS GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED RAVALLION, MARTIN, and SHAOHUA CHEN (1996). Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger What Can New Survey Data Tell Us about Target 2. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the Recent Change in Distribution and Poverty? proportion of people who suffer from hunger World Bank Economic Review. Washington, D.C. 11/2:357-82. RATIONALE UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of Child malnutrition, as reflected in body Sustainable Development: Guidelines and weight, is selected as an indicator for several Methodologies. Department of Economic reasons. Child malnutrition is linked to poverty, and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable low levels of education and poor access to Development. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6. health services. Malnourishment in children, Available from http:// www.un.org/esa/ even moderate, increases their risk of death, sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm . inhibits their cognitive development, and UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators affects health status later in life. Sufficient Database. Statistics Division Internet site and good quality nutrition is the cornerstone http://millenniumindicators.un.org . for development, health and survival of cur- WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World rent and succeeding generations. Healthy Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. nutrition is particularly important for women Washington, D.C. Available in part from during pregnancy and lactation so that their http://www.worldbank.org/data . children set off on sound developmental paths, both physically and mentally. Only AGENCIES when optimal child growth is ensured for the National statistical offices majority of their people will Governments be World Bank successful in their efforts to accelerate eco- nomic development in a sustained way. The under-five underweight prevalence is an internationally recognized public health indi- cator for monitoring nutritional status and12
  • 21. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourceshealth in populations. Child malnutrition is may be a sensitive issue in the country.also monitored more closely than adult mal- Gender differences may also be more pro-nutrition. nounced in some social and ethnic groups.METHOD OF COMPUTATION COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSThe weights of the under-five child population The weight-for-age indicator reflects bodyin a country are compared with the weights mass relative to chronological age and is influ-given in the NCHS/WHO table of child weights enced by both the height of the child (heightfor each age group. The percentages of chil- for age) and weight-for-height. Its compositedren in each age group whose weights are nature makes interpretation complex. Formore than 2 standard deviations less than the example, weight for age fails to distinguishmedian are then aggregated to form the total between short children of adequate bodypercentage of children under age 5 who are weight and tall, thin children.underweight. Low height for age or stunting, defined as minusDATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE two standard deviations from the medianAt the national level, data are generally avail- height for the age of the reference population,able from national household surveys, includ- measures the cumulative deficient growthing Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple asociated with long-term factors, includingIndicator Cluster Surveys and national nutri- chronic insufficient daily protein intake.tion surveys. Low weight for height, or wasting, defined asFor international comparisons and global or below minus 2 standard deviations from theregional monitoring, the United Nations median weight for height of the reference pop-Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and WHO compile ulation, indicates in most cases a recent andinternational data series and estimate region- severe process of weight loss, often associat-al and global figures based on data from ed with acute starvation or severe disease.national surveys. When possible, all three indicators should bePERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT analysed and presented since they measure andHousehold surveys are generally conducted reflect different aspects of child malnutrition.every three to five years. REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAGENDER ISSUES COMPARISONSThe data from national household surveys gen- UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2003).erally show no significant differences in under- Progress since the World Summit forweight prevalence between boys and girls. Children. New York. Available fromHowever, those trends should continue to be http://www.childinfo.org.monitored, particularly at the subnational UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual).level and within subgroups of the population. The State of the World’s Children. New York. UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators ofDISAGGREGATION ISSUES Sustainable Development: Guidelines andIndicators of malnutrition generally show dif- Methodologies. Department of Economicferentials between rural and urban settings. In and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainablesome countries, child nutrition may vary Development. Sales No. E.01.II.A. Availableacross geographical areas, socio-economic from http:// www.un.org/esa/sustdev/groups or ethnic groups. However, showing natlinfo/indicitors/isd.htm.and analysing data on specific ethnic groups UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators 13
  • 22. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals Database. Statistics Division Internet site RATIONALE http://millenniumindicators.un.org . The indicator measures an important aspect WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World of the food insecurity of a population. Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. Sustainable development demands a concert- Washington, D.C. Available in part from ed effort to reduce poverty, including finding http://www.worldbank.org/data . solutions to hunger and malnutrition. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1986). The Alleviating hunger is a prerequisite for sus- Growth Chart: A Tool for Use in Infant and tainable poverty reduction since undernour- Child Health Care. Geneva. ishment seriously affects labour productivity WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and and earning capacity. Malnutrition can be the annual). World Health Report. Geneva. outcome of a range of circumstances. In order Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ to work, poverty reduction strategies must en. address food access, availability (physical and WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). Global economic) and safety. Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Internet site http://www.who.int/nut- METHOD OF COMPUTATION growthdb/. Geneva. Estimation of the proportion of people with insufficient food (undernourishment) involves UNICEF and WHO produce international data specification of the distribution of dietary sets based on survey data. In some countries, energy consumption, considering the total ages may have to be estimated. food availability (from national global statis- tics) and inequality in access to food (from AGENCIES national household surveys). The distribution Ministries of health is assumed to be unimodal and skewed. The United Nations Children’s Fund log-normal function is used in estimating the World Health Organization proportion of the population below a mini- mum energy requirement level or cut-off point. The cut-off point is estimated as a pop- 5 PROPORTION OF THE POPULATION BELOW MINIMUM LEVEL OF ulation per capita average value, based on dietary energy needed by different age and DIETARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION gender groups and the proportion of the pop- ulation represented by each age group. DEFINITION Proportion of the population below the mini- The estimates are not normally available in mum level of dietary energy consumption is countries. The Food and Agriculture the percentage of the population whose food Organization of the United Nations (FAO) pre- intake falls below the minimum level of pares the estimates at the national level. They dietary energy requirements. This is also are then aggregated to obtain regional and referred to as the prevalence of under-nour- global estimates. ishment, which is the percentage of the pop- ulation that is undernourished. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE The main data sources are country statistics GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED on local food production, trade, stocks and Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger non-food uses; food consumption data from Target 2. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the national household surveys; country anthro- proportion of people who suffer from hunger pometric data by sex and age and United Nations country population estimates, in total and by sex and age.14
  • 23. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesPERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT nificance of resulting estimates for assess-Estimates for the most recent period and for ment and policy-making. First, the estimatesselected benchmark periods (expressed as are based on food acquired by (or availablethree-year averages) are reported every year. to) the households rather than the actual food intake of individual household members.GENDER ISSUES Second, any inequity in intrahousehold accessIntrahousehold access to food may show dis- to food is not taken into account. Third,parities by gender. Also, cultural patterns of changes in relative inequality of food distribu-distribution and nutritional taboos may affect tion through the assessed periods are notwomen’s nutrition. Women’s higher require- considered. However, FAO is monitoring anyments for iron during pregnancy and breast- evidence of significant changes over time thatfeeding may result in iron deficiency anemia, would require adjustment to the current esti-which affects the result of pregnancy and mation procedure.may increase women’s susceptibility to dis-eases. Although food consumption data do Indicators should not be used in isolation.not allow for disaggregation by sex, whenev- Monitoring of the hunger reduction targeter household survey data are available by sex, addresses two related problems: food depri-efforts should be made to conduct a gender- vation and child malnutrition. Analysis of foodbased analysis. deprivation is based on estimates of the prevalence of undernourishment in the wholeDISAGGREGATION ISSUES population. Analysis of child malnutrition isIn assessing food insecurity, it is important to based on estimates of underweight prevalenceconsider geographical areas that may be par- in the child population. This is an indicator ofticularly vulnerable (such as areas with a high nutritional status of individual children (ade-probability of major variations in production quate weight for a given age), and the finalor supply or areas subject to natural disas- outcome depends not only on food adequacyters) and the population groups whose access but also on other multiple factors such asto food is precarious or sporadic (due to struc- infections, environmental conditions and care.tural or economic vulnerability), such as eth- Therefore, the combined use of both indica-nic or social groups. However, showing and tors would enhance the understanding of theanalysing data on specific ethnic groups may changes in the food and nutrition situation.be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender dif-ferences may also be more pronounced in REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAsome social and ethnic groups. COMPARISONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THEConsidering the need for disaggregated esti- UNITED NATIONS (2002). FAO Methodologymates, the FAO methodology has been expand- for Estimating the Prevalence ofed to measure the extent of food deprivation at Undernourishment. In Proceedings of thesubnational levels, making appropriate use of International Scientific Symposium onavailable household survey data. To support Measurement and Assessment of Foodcountries in preparing disaggregated esti- Deprivation and Undernutrition. Rome.mates, FAO is conducting capacity-building FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THEactivities for national statistical offices. UNITED NATIONS (annual). The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Rome. AvailableCOMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS from http://www.fao.org/sof/sofi/index_en.The methods and data used by FAO have htm .implications for the precise meaning and sig- WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1985). Energy 15
  • 24. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals and Protein Requirements: Report of a Joint dren might be enrolled at other levels of edu- FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. World cation. Health Organization Technical Report 724. Geneva. METHOD OF COMPUTATION The indicator is calculated as the number of AGENCY enrolled students within the appropriate age Food and Agriculture Organization of the cohort according to school records as report- United Nations ed to ministries of education, divided by the number of children of primary school age. 6 NET ENROLMENT RATIO IN PRI- MARY EDUCATION DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Data on school enrolment are usually record- ed by the country ministry of education or DEFINITION compiled from surveys and censuses. Data on Net primary enrolment ratio is the ratio of the the population in the official age group for the number of children of official school age (as primary level are available from national sta- defined by the national education system) tistical offices, based on population censuses who are enrolled in primary school to the total and vital statistics registration. Nationally population of children of official school age. reported values will be the same as interna- Primary education provides children with tionally reported values only if the same basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills methods and population estimates are used. along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural For international comparisons and estimates science, social science, art and music of regional and global aggregates, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics regularly pro- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED duces data series on school enrolment based Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education on data reported by education ministries or Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children every- national statistical offices and United Nations where, boys and girls alike, will be able to population estimates. complete a full course of primary schooling For countries for which administrative data are RATIONALE not available, household survey data may be The indicator is used to monitor progress used to assess school attendance rather than towards the goal of achieving universal pri- enrolment. Among international surveys, the mary education, identified in both the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey and Millennium Development Goals and the Demographic and Health Surveys (and some- Education for All initiative. It shows the pro- times Living Standards Measurement Surveys portion of children of primary school age who and the Core Welfare Indicators are enrolled in primary school. Net enrolment Questionnaires in Africa) provide school refers only to children of official primary attendance data. school age. (Gross enrolment includes children of any age.) Net enrolment rates below 100 PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT per cent provide a measure of the proportion Enrolment data are recorded regularly by min- of school age children who are not enrolled at istries of education and are available on a yearly the primary level. This difference does not basis. Data derived from surveys and census- necessarily indicate the percentage of stu- es, when administrative records on enrolment dents who are not enrolled, since some chil- by age and sex are not available, are less fre-16
  • 25. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesquent. Net enrolment rates produced by repeat years may mistakenly be included inUNESCO are available on an annual basis for the net figures. Children’s ages may be inac-two thirds of countries, but usually one year curately estimated or misstated. Census dataafter the reference year. The United Nations may be out of date or unreliable. There mayPopulation Division estimates population by also be insufficient data on school enrolmentindividual years of age biannually, although by sex, but existing measurement problemsestimates may be based on population cen- make it difficult to assess the situation cor-suses conducted every 10 years in most rectly.countries. Household survey data, such asthose from the Multiple Indicator Cluster The indicator attempts to capture the educa-Survey and Demographic and Health Surveys, tion system’s coverage and efficiency, but itare available for many developing countries at does not solve the problem completely. Someregular intervals of three to five years. children fall outside the official school age because of late or early entry rather thanGENDER ISSUES because of grade repetition.In situations of limited resources, families makedifficult choices about sending their children Enrolment data compiled by UNESCO areto school. They may perceive the value of ed- adjusted to be consistent with theucation differently for boys and girls. Girls are International Standard Classification ofmore likely than boys to suffer from limited Education, 1997 (ICSCED) and are thereforeaccess to education, especially in rural areas. comparable across countries. National dataNevertheless, where basic education is widely derived from administrative records are notaccepted and overall enrolment is high, girls necessarily based on the same classificationtend to equal or outnumber boys at primary over time and may not be comparable withand secondary levels. data for other countries, unless exactly the same classification is used. Similarly, the con-DISAGGREGATION ISSUES cepts and terms in household surveys andRural and urban differences are particularly censuses do not necessarily remain constantimportant in the analysis of enrolment data over time.owing to significant differences in schoolfacilities, available resources, demand on chil- REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAdren’s time for work and dropout patterns. It COMPARISONSis also important to consider disaggregation ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK. Gender Issues inby geographical areas and social or ethnic Basic and Primary Education. In Gendergroups. However, showing and analysing data Checklist:Education. Manila. Available fromon specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive http://www.adb.org/documents/Manuals/issue in the country. Gender differences may Gender_checklists/Education.also be more pronounced in some social and UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles andethnic groups. Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, Revision 1. Series M, No.COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS 67, Rev. 1, para. 2.156 Sales No.School enrolments may be overreported for E.98.XVII.1. Available from http://unstats.various reasons. Survey data may not reflect un.org/unsd/pubs (A, E, F, S).actual rates of attendance or dropout during UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicatorsthe school year. Administrators may report Database. Statistics Division Internet siteexaggerated enrolments, especially if there is http://millenniumindicators.un.org.a financial incentive to do so. Children who UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2003). 17
  • 26. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals Monitoring Methods. New York. Internet site http:// unicef.org/reseval/methodr. html. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education The State of the World’s Children. New York. Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children every- UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME where, boys and girls alike, will be able to (2003 and annual). Human Development complete a full course of primary schooling Report. New York: Oxford University Press. Available from http://hdr.undp.org . RATIONALE UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND The indicator measures an education sys- CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1978). Revised tem’s success in retaining students from one Recommendations Concerning the Inter- grade to the next as well as its internal effi- national Standardization of Educational ciency. Various factors account for poor per- Statistics. Paris. See also UNESCO Statistical formance on this indicator, including low qual- Yearbook, 1998, chap.2. ity of schooling, discouragement over poor per- UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND formance and the direct and indirect costs of CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1997). International schooling. Students’ progress to higher grades Standard Classification of Education, 1997 may also be limited by the availability of (ISCED). Montreal. Available from teachers, classrooms and educational materials. http://www.uis.unesco.org. Path: Core Theme Education, Technical Guides. METHOD OF COMPUTATION WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World The indicator is typically estimated from data Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. on enrolment and repetition by grade for two Washington, D.C. Available in part from consecutive years, in a procedure called the http://www.worldbank.org/data . reconstructed cohort method. This method makes three assumptions: dropouts never UNESCO data since 1998 follow the 1997 return to school; promotion, repetition and version of the International Standard dropout rates remain constant over the entire Classification of Education, 1997 ISCED, which period in which the cohort is enrolled in enables international comparability between school; and the same rates apply to all pupils countries. The time series data before 1998 enrolled in a given grade, regardless of are not consistent with data for 1998 and after. whether they previously repeated a grade. AGENCIES The calculation is made by dividing the total Ministries of education number of pupils belonging to a school cohort UNESCO Institute for Statistics who reach each successive grade of the spec- ified level of education by the number of pupils in the school cohort (in this case stu- 7 PROPORTION OF PUPILS STARTING GRADE 1 WHO REACH GRADE 5 dents originally enrolled in grade 1 of primary education) and multiplying the result by 100. DEFINITION When estimated from household survey data, The proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who the proportion is estimated as the product of reach grade 5, known as the survival rate to the proportions of transition for each grade grade 5, is the percentage of a cohort of up to grade 5. The estimation follows the pupils enrolled in grade 1 of the primary level method of the United Nations Educational, of education in a given school year who are Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). expected to reach grade 5.18
  • 27. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources The method of computation has limits inDATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE measuring the degree to which schoolThe indicator proposed by the UNESCO entrants survive through primary educationInstitute for Statistics is based on grade-specif- because flows caused by new entrants, re-ic enrolment data for two successive years for a entrants, grade skipping, migration or transferscountry and on grade repeater data. during the school year are not considered.Household survey data are obtained from Wherever possible, the indicator should beMultiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and complemented by the grade 1 intake rate, be-Demographic and Health Surveys in a standard cause together the indicators give a muchway and include information on current and last better sense of the proportion of children in theyear school grade and level of attendance. population who complete primary education.PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAWhere the data are available, they are pub- COMPARISONSlished annually about two years after the ref- UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles anderence year. Household surveys, such as Recommendations for Population andMultiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No.Demographic and Health Surveys, are gener- 67, Rev. 1, para. 2.156. Sales No.ally conducted every three to five years. E.98.XVII.1. Available from http://unstats. un.org/unsd/pubs . (A, E, F, S)GENDER ISSUES UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators ofFrequency and dropout patterns vary Sustainable Development: Guidelines andbetween girls and boys. Reasons for leaving Methodologies. Department of Economicschool also differ for girls and boys and by and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainableage. Families’ demand on children’s time to Development. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.help in household-based work is an important Available from http://www.un.org/esa/factor and is often greater for girls. Also impor- sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm .tant for girls are security, the proximity of UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicatorsschool facilities and the availability of ade- Database. Statistics Division Internet sitequate sanitation and other services in schools. http://millenniumindicators. un.org. UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2000).DISAGGREGATION ISSUES Monitoring Progress toward the Goals of theRural and urban differences are particularly World Summit for Children: The End-important in the analysis of education data, Decade Multiple Indicator Survey Manual.owing to significant differences in school New York. Available at http://www.unicef.facilities, available resources, demand on chil- org/reseval/methodr.html.dren’s time for work, and dropout patterns. It UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual).is also important to consider disaggregation The State of the World’s Children. New York.by geographical area and social or ethnic UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEgroups. However, showing and analysing data (2003 and annual). Human Developmenton specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive Report. New York: Oxford University Press.issue in the country. Gender differences may Available at http://hdr.undp.org .also be more pronounced in some social and UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC ANDethnic groups. CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1978). Revised Recommendations concerning theCOMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS International Standardization of Educational 19
  • 28. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals Statistics. Paris. Also contained in UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1998, chap.2. 7-A PRIMARY COMPLETION RATE UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1997). International DEFINITION Standard Classification of Education, 1997 Primary completion rate is the ratio of the (ISCED). Montreal. Available at http://www. total number of students successfully com- uis.unesco.org. Select: Core Themes/ pleting (or graduating from) the last year of Education/Technical Guides. primary school in a given year to the total UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND number of children of official graduation age CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). Education for in the population. All: Year 2000 Assessment, Technical Guidelines. Paris. Available at http://www. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED unescobkk.org/infores/efa2000/tech.htm. Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children every- CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). World where, boys and girls alike, will be able to Education Indicators. Internet site complete a full course of primary schooling http://www.uis.unesco.org/en/stats/sta- tistics/indicators/indic0.htm. Montreal. RATIONALE WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World The indicator, which monitors education sys- Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. tem coverage and student progression, is Washington, D.C. Available in part from intended to measure human capital formation http://www.worldbank.org/data. and school system quality and efficiency. Comparable survival rates are produced by The indicator focuses on the share of children UNESCO for about 40 per cent of countries who ever complete the cycle; it is not a meas- based on data from national administrative ure of “on-time” primary completion. Various records. The number of countries reporting factors may lead to poor performance on this data for this indicator has increased over time indicator, including low quality of schooling, in part because of recent inclusion of esti- discouragement over poor performance and mates obtained from household surveys such the direct and indirect costs of schooling. as Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Students’ progress to higher grades may also Demographic and Health Surveys. be limited by the availability of teachers, classrooms and educational materials. AGENCIES Ministries of education METHOD OF COMPUTATION UNESCO Institute for Statistics The numerator may include over-age children who have repeated one or more grades of primary school but are now graduating suc- cessfully. For countries where the number of primary graduates is not reported, a proxy primary completion rate is calculated as the ratio of the total number of students in the final year of primary school, minus the num- ber of students who repeat the grade in a typical year, to the total number of children of official graduation age in the population.20
  • 29. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesDATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE obvious anomalies and estimates that areThe indicator is compiled by staff in the suspect. The current database is a mixture ofEducation Group of the World Bank’s Human enrolment data and data based on differentDevelopment Network based on two basic data systems of graduation (examinations, diplo-sources used to compute gross and net enrol- mas, automatic promotion), limiting interna-ment ratios: enrolment data from national tional comparability.ministries of education and population datafrom the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. The The indicator captures the final output of theWorld Bank and the UNESCO Institute for primary education system, so responses toStatistics are committed to monitoring this policy changes will register only with time.indicator annually in the future. The age-specific estimates are less reliablePERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT than overall population estimates. This isAnnual. particularly an issue in countries with rela- tively rapid changes in population and its ageGENDER ISSUES and sex distribution resulting from such caus-More understanding is needed on the pat- es as internal and international migration,terns of completion by gender. civil unrest and displacement. When age-spe- cific population breakdowns are not available,DISAGGREGATION ISSUES the primary completion rate cannot be esti-Rural and urban differences are particularly mated.important in the analysis of education dataowing to significant differences in school Primary completion rates based on primaryfacilities, available resources, demand on chil- enrolment have an upward bias, since they dodren’s time for work and dropout patterns. It not capture those who drop out during theis also important to consider disaggregation final grade. This implies that once the data onby geographical area and social or ethnic actual graduates become available for agroups. However, showing and analysing data country, the completion rate of the countryon specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive would appear to decline.issue in the country. Gender differences mayalso be more pronounced in some social and REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAethnic groups. COMPARISONS UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC ANDCOMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1997). InternationalThe indicator reflects the primary school Standard Classification of Education, 1997cycle as nationally defined according to the (ISCED). Montreal. Available at http://www.International Standard Classification of uis.unesco.org. Select: Core Themes/Education, as is the case for gross and net Education/Technical Guides.enrolment ratios. WORLD BANK (2003). Millennium Development Goals: Achieve universal primary education.While the World Bank and the UNESCO Internet site http://www.developmentInstitute for Statistics are committed to mon- goals.org/Education.htm. Washington, D.C.itoring this indicator annually, systems forcollecting and standardizing the data from AGENCIES155 developing countries are not yet in place. Ministries of educationAs a result, the current database has many UNESCO Institute for Statisticsgaps, particularly for small countries, earlier World Bankyears and gender breakdowns, as well as 21
  • 30. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals 8 LITERACY RATE OF 15–24 YEAR-OLDS DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Literacy data may be derived from population censuses, household surveys and literacy sur- DEFINITION veys, and total population is derived from Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds, or the youth national censuses or sample surveys. However, literacy rate, is the percentage of the popula- not all censuses or surveys include specific tion 15–24 years old who can both read and questions for assessing literacy. In some write with understanding a short simple countries where literacy questions are not statement on everyday life. The definition of included, a person’s educational attainment literacy sometimes extends to basic arith- (years of schooling completed) is used to metic and other life skills. assess literacy status. A common practice is to consider those with no schooling as illiter- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED ate and those who have attended grade 5 of Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education primary school as literate. Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children every- where, boys and girls alike, will be able to Many household surveys, including the Multiple complete a full course of primary schooling Indicator Cluster Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, Core Welfare Indicators RATIONALE Questionnaires in Africa and Living Standards The youth literacy rate reflects the outcomes Measurement Studies, collect literacy data, of primary education over the previous 10 which can provide complementary data for years or so. As a measure of the effectiveness countries without a recent census. However, of the primary education system, it is often definitions are not necessarily standardized seen as a proxy measure of social progress (see “COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS”). and economic achievement. The literacy rate for this analysis is simply the complement of Most of the available data on literacy are the illiteracy rate. It is not a measure of the based on reported literacy rather than on quality and adequacy of the literacy level tested literacy and in some cases are derived needed for individuals to function in a society. from other proxy information. Reasons for failing to achieve the literacy standard may include low quality of school- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT ing, difficulties in attending school or drop- Youth literacy rates may change more quickly ping out before reaching grade 5. than adult literacy rates and therefore need to be measured more often. Since population METHOD OF COMPUTATION censuses normally occur only every 10 years, The usual method of computation is to divide input from more frequently administered the number of people ages 15–24 who are lit- labour force and household surveys are used erate by the total population in the same age for annual estimates. Data are available for group and to multiply the total by 100. Since consecutive five-year age cohorts starting at literacy data are not always available for all 15–19 years old. Household surveys are gen- countries and all censuses, the UNESCO erally conducted every three to five years in Institute for Statistics uses modeling tech- most developing countries. niques to produce annual estimates based on literacy information obtained from national GENDER ISSUES censuses and surveys. Higher illiteracy rates for women are the result of lower school enrolment and early drop- outs. Moreover, because women generally22
  • 31. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourceshave less access to information and training REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA COMPARISONSand literacy programmes, estimates based onenrolments may overestimate literacy for girls. UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and Recommendations for Population andDISAGGREGATION ISSUES Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No.Rural and urban differences are particularly 67, Rev. 1. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Availableimportant in the analysis of education data from http://unstats. un.org/unsd/pubs (A,because of significant differences in school E, F, S).facilities, available resources, demand on chil- UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators ofdren’s time for work and dropout patterns. It Sustainable Development: Guidelines andis also important to consider disaggregation Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.by geographical area and social or ethnic Available from http://www.un.org/esa/groups. However, showing and analysing data sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm.on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicatorsissue in the country. Gender differences may Database. Statistics Division Internet sitealso be more pronounced in some social and http://millenniumindicators.un.org.ethnic groups. UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). The State of the World’s Children. New York.COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEMeasurements of literacy can vary from sim- (2003 and annual). Human Developmentply asking “Are you literate or not?” to testing Report. New York: Oxford University Press.to assess literacy skills. In some cases, literacy Available at http://hdr.undp.org.is measured crudely in population censuses, UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC ANDeither through self-declaration or by assuming CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1978). Revised Rec-that people with no schooling are illiterate. ommendations concerning the InternationalThis causes difficulty for international com- Standardization of Educational Statistics.parisons. Comparability over time, even for Paris. See also UNESCO Statisticalthe same survey, may also be a problem Yearbook, 1998, chap. 2.because definitions of literacy used in the UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC ANDsurveys are not standardized. The latest revi- CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). Education forsion of Principles and Recommendations for All: The Year 2000 Assessment: TechnicalPopulation and Housing Censuses advises Guidelines. Paris. Available fromcountries against adopting a proxy measure- http://www.unescobkk.org/infores/ment based on educational attainment. It rec- efa2000/tech.htm .ommends that literacy questions be adminis- UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC ANDtered as part of national censuses and house- CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). UNESCOhold surveys, or as part of a post-census sam- Institute for Statistics. Internet siteple enumeration. http://www.uis.unesco.org. Montreal. WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). WorldShortcomings in the definition of literacy, Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.measurement problems and infrequency of Washington, D.C. Available in part fromcensuses and literacy surveys weaken this http://www.worldbank.org/data.indicator as a means of monitoring educationoutcomes related to the goal of achieving uni- The main international source of data is theversal primary education. UNESCO international data series of annual and projected estimates based on informa- tion from national population censuses and 23
  • 32. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals labour force, household and other surveys. data are not available, household survey data The estimates are available for approximately may be used, although household surveys 130 countries. usually measure self-reported attendance rather than enrolment as reported by schools. AGENCIES Among international surveys, Multiple Indicator Ministries of education Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health National statistical offices Surveys (and sometimes also Living Standards UNESCO Institute for Statistics Measurement Studies and Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaires in Africa) provide school attendance data. 9 RATIO OF GIRLS TO AND TERTIARY MARY, SECONDARY BOYS IN PRI- For international comparison and estimation of EDUCATION regional and global aggregates, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics data series on school DEFINITION enrolment can be used. The series is based on Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and data reported by education ministries or tertiary education is the ratio of the number national agencies for enrolment. of female students enrolled at primary, sec- ondary and tertiary levels in public and pri- UNESCO produces ratios of girls to boys at vate schools to the number of male students. country, regional and global levels for use in monitoring the Millennium Development Goals. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED They are available at the Millennium Indicators Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower web site http://millenniumindicators.un.org. women Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT and secondary education preferably by 2005, Where official enrolment data are available, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 estimates from UNESCO are normally available annually about one year after the reference RATIONALE year. Data from household surveys may be The indicator of equality of educational oppor- available for selected countries at various tunity, measured in terms of school enrolment, intervals. is a measure of both fairness and efficiency. Education is one of the most important aspects Official data on higher education are not as of human development. Eliminating gender frequently reported as data on primary and disparity at all levels of education would help secondary enrolment. to increase the status and capabilities of women. Female education is also an impor- GENDER ISSUES tant determinant of economic development. In situations of limited resources, families make difficult choices about sending their METHOD OF COMPUTATION children to school. They may perceive the The indicator is a ratio of the number of en- value of education differently for boys and rolled girls to enrolled boys, regardless of ages. girls. Girls are more likely than boys to suffer from limited access to education, especially in DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE rural areas. However, where basic education is Data on school enrolment are usually record- widely accepted and overall enrolment is high, ed by the ministry of education or derived girls tend to equal or outnumber boys at the from surveys and censuses. If administrative primary and secondary levels. The pattern is24
  • 33. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcessimilar in higher education, but with larger UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual).differences between the two genders. The State of the World’s Children. New York. UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMECOMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS (2003 and annual). Human DevelopmentSome 50 countries have no system of higher Report. New York: Oxford University Press.education. Private education tends to be Available at http://hdr.undp.org .underreported, but international coverage UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC ANDhas improved over the last four cycles of the CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1978). RevisedUNESCO Institute for Statistics survey. Recommendations concerning the Inter-Household survey data may include higher national Standardization of Educationaland private education, but may not be com- Statistics. Paris. See also UNESCOparable between surveys. Statistical Yearbook, 1998, chap. 2. UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC ANDThe indicator is an imperfect measure of the CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1997). Internationalaccessibility of schooling for girls because it Standard Classification of Education, 1997does not allow a determination of whether (ISCED). Montreal. Available at http://www.improvements in the ratio reflect increases in uis.unesco.org. Select: Core Themes/girls’ school attendance (desirable) or decreases Education/Technical Guides.in boys’ attendance (undesirable). It also does UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC ANDnot show whether those enrolled in school CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). Education forcomplete the relevant education cycles. All: The Year 2000 Assessment, Technical Guidelines. Paris. Available at http://www.Another limitation of the indicator is that the unescobkk.org/infores/efa2000/tech.htm.ratio reflects the sex structure of the school- UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC ANDage population. When the sex ratio in the CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). Worldschool age population deviates significantly Education Indicators. Internet site http://from 1, the indicator will not adequately reflect www.uis.unesco.org/en/stats/statistics/inthe actual differences between girls’ and dicators/indic0.htm. Montreal.boys’ enrolment. This happens in countries WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). Worldwhere boys outnumber girls at younger ages. Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. Washington, D.C. Available in part fromA ratio based on net enrolment (indicator 6) http://www.worldbank.org/data.or gross enrolment is a better measure forthis indicator as it takes into account the pop- AGENCIESulation structure of the country. Ministries of education UNESCO Institute for StatisticsREFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATACOMPARISONS UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators Database. Statistics Division Internet site http://millenniumindicators.un.org . UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2000). Monitoring Progress towards the Goals of the World Summit for Children: The End- Decade Multiple Indicator Survey Manual. New York. Available at http://www.unicef. org/reseval/methodr.html. 25
  • 34. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals 10 RATIO15–24LITERATE WOMEN TO MEN, OF YEARS OLD Health Surveys, Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaires in Africa and Living Standards Measurement Surveys, collect literacy data, DEFINITION which can provide complementary data for The ratio of literate women to men, 15–24 countries without a recent census. However, years old (literacy gender parity index) is the definitions are not necessarily standardized ratio of the female literacy rate to the male (see “COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS”). literacy rate for the age group 15–24. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED Since population censuses normally occur Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower every 10 years, input from more frequently women administered labour force, household and Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary other surveys are used for annual estimates. and secondary education preferably by 2005, Household surveys are generally conducted and in all levels of education no later than 2015 every three to five years in most developing countries. RATIONALE The indicator measures progress towards GENDER ISSUES gender equity in literacy and learning oppor- Higher illiteracy rates for women are the tunities for women in relation to those for result of lower school enrolment and early men. It also measures a presumed outcome of dropouts. Moreover, since women generally attending school and a key indicator of have less access to information, training and empowerment of women in society. Literacy literacy programmes, estimates based on is a fundamental skill to empower women to enrolments may overestimate literacy for girls. take control of their lives, to engage directly with authority and to gain access to the wider COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS world of learning. Measurements of literacy can vary from simply asking “Are you literate or not?” to testing to METHOD OF COMPUTATION assess literacy skills. In some cases, literacy is The indicator is derived by dividing the litera- measured crudely in population censuses, cy rate of women ages 15–24 by the literacy either through self-declaration or by assuming rate of men ages 15–24. that people with no schooling are illiterate. This causes difficulty for international comparisons. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Comparability over time, even for the same Literacy data may be derived from population survey, may also be a problem because defini- censuses, household surveys and literacy sur- tions of literacy used in the surveys are not veys. However, not all censuses or surveys standardized. The latest revision of Principles include specific questions for assessing literacy. and Recommendations for Population and In some countries where literacy questions Housing Censuses advises countries against are not included, a person’s educational adopting a proxy measurement based on edu- attainment (years of schooling completed) is cational attainment. It recommends that litera- used to assess literacy status. A common cy questions be administered as part of nation- practice is to consider those with no schooling al censuses and household surveys or as part as illiterate and defining those who have of a post-census sample enumeration. attended grade 5 of primary school as literate. Many household surveys, including the Multiple Shortcomings in the definition of literacy, Indicator Cluster Surveys, Demographic and measurement problems and infrequency of26
  • 35. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcescensuses and literacy surveys weaken this tion censuses and labour force, householdindicator as a means of monitoring education and other surveys. These estimates are avail-outcomes related to the goal of achieving uni- able for some 130 countries.versal primary education. AGENCIESREFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA Ministries of educationCOMPARISONS National statistical offices UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and UNESCO Institute for Statistics Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No. 67, Rev. 1, Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Available at http://unstats. un.org/unsd/pubs. (A, E, 11 SHARE IN WOMEN IN WAGE EMPLOY- MENT OF THE NON-AGRICULTURAL F, S) SECTOR UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators Database. Statistics Division Internet site DEFINITION http://millenniumindicators.un.org. The share of women in wage employment in UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). the non-agricultural sector is the share of The State of the World’s Children. New York. female workers in the non-agricultural sector UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME expressed as a percentage of total employ- (2003 and annual). Human Development ment in the sector. Report. New York, Oxford University Press. Available at http://hdr.undp.org. The non-agricultural sector includes industry UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND and services. Following the International CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1978). Revised Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of All Recommendations concerning the Inter- Economic Activities, industry includes mining national Standardization of Educational and quarrying (including oil production), man- Statistics. Paris. See also UNESCO Statistical ufacturing, construction, electricity, gas and Yearbook, 1998, chap. 2. water. Services includes wholesale and retail UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND trade; restaurants and hotels; transport, stor- CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). Education for age and communications; financing, insurance, All: The Year 2000 Assessment: Technical real estate and business services; and com- Guidelines. Paris. Available at http://www. munity, social and personal services. unescobkk.org/infores/efa2000/tech.htm . UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND Employment refers to people above a certain CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). UNESCO age who worked or held a job during a refer- Institute for Statistics Internet site ence period. Employment data include both http://www.uis.unesco.org. Montreal. full-time and part-time workers whose remu- WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World neration is determined on the basis of hours Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. worked or number of items produced and is Washington, D.C. Available in part from independent of profits or expectation of profits. http://www.worldbank.org/data. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSEDThe main source of international data is the Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empowerUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and womenCultural Organization’s international data Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primaryseries of annual and projected estimates and secondary education preferably by 2005,based on information from national popula- and in all levels of education no later than 2015 27
  • 36. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals RATIONALE on other sources may be available annually or The indicator measures the degree to which less frequently in some developing countries. labour markets are open to women in industry and service sectors, which affects not only GENDER ISSUES equal employment opportunity for women There are large differences between women and but also economic efficiency through flexibili- men in non-agricultural employment, in particu- ty of the labour market and, therefore, the lar in developing countries. This is the result of economy’s ability to adapt to change. differences between rates of participation in employment for women and men as well as the A significant global increase over the last kind of employment in which they participate. In decade in women’s share in paid employment many regions, women are more likely than men in the non-agricultural sector indicates that to be engaged in informal sector activities and working women have become more integrat- subsistence or unpaid work in the household. ed into the monetary economy through par- ticipation in the formal and informal sectors. Wage employment in most of Africa and much However, labour markets remain strongly of Asia and the Pacific is a middle-class, urban segregated. In many countries, productive phenomenon. Outside of urban areas, most work under conditions of freedom, equity and employment is agricultural, often for family human dignity is in short supply, and this dis- subsistence. However, where non-agricultural proportionately affects women. Women are employment is available, it is more likely to go much more likely than men to work as con- to male members of the household. tributing family workers, without their own pay, and in the informal sector, although there As economies develop, the share of women in are large differentials between countries and non-agricultural wage employment becomes at regional and national levels, often mirroring increasingly important. A higher share in paid the relative importance of agriculture. employment could secure for them better income, economic security and well-being. METHOD OF COMPUTATION However, this shift is not automatic, nor does The total number of women in paid employ- it account for differentials in working condi- ment in the non-agricultural sector is divided tions between men and women. Other vari- by the total number of people in paid employ- ables need to be considered, such as level of ment in that same sector. education, level of remuneration and wage differentials, and the extent to which women DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCES: and men benefit from labour legislation and Data are obtained from population censuses, social programmes. Men more often hold reg- labour force surveys, enterprise censuses and ular and better remunerated jobs, whereas surveys, administrative records of social women are frequently in peripheral, insecure, insurance schemes and official estimates less valued jobs, as home workers, casual based on results from several of these workers or part-time or temporary workers. sources. Enterprise surveys and administra- tive records are likely to cover only large pri- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS vate and public sector employers, in particu- Although there are clear international stan- lar in developing countries. The other sources dards for the relevant concepts, countries may cover the whole relevant population. may use different defini tions for employment status, especially for part-time workers, stu- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT: dents, members of the armed forces and Results from population censuses are normally household or contributing family workers. Also, available every 10 years, while estimates based different sources of data may use different def-28
  • 37. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesinitions and have different coverage, with limit- UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles anded comparability across countries and over Recommendations for Population andtime within the same country. The employment Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No.share of the agricultural sector is severely 67, Rev. 1. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Availableunderreported. In addition, studies have shown from http://unstats. un.org/unsd/pubs. (A,that employment activity questions on stan- E, F, S)dard censuses tend to grossly underestimate UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicatorsthe extent of female employment of any kind. Database. Statistics Division Internet site http://millenniumindicators.un.org.REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). WorldCOMPARISONS Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. ANKER, R., M.E. KHAN and R.B. GUPTA (1988). Washington, D.C. Available in part from Women’s Participation in the Labour Force: http://www.worldbank.org/data . A Methods Test in India for Improving Its Measurement. Women, Work and International data are compiled by the Development 16. Geneva: International International Labour Organization based on Labour Office. data reported by countries. An increasing INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (1988). Assessing number of countries report economic activity Women’s Economic Contribution to according to the ISIC. Development. Geneva. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (2002). Women AGENCIES and Men in the Informal Economy: A statis- Ministries of labour tical picture. Geneva. available from http:// National statistical offices www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/g International Labour Organization ems/download/women.pdf. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000). Current International Recommendations on Labour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva. 12 PROPORTION OF SEATS HELD BY WOMEN IN NATIONAL PARLIAMENTS INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2003). Laborsta—an International Labour Office DEFINITION database on labour statistics operated by The proportion of seats held by women in the ILO Bureau of Statistics. Internet site national parliaments is the number of seats http://laborsta.ilo.org. Geneva. held by women expressed as a percentage of INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual). all occupied seats. Key Indicators of the Labour Market. Geneva. Available in part from GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED http://www.ilo. org/kilm. Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual). women Yearbook of Labour Statistics. Geneva. Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary Available at http://laborsta.ilo.org . and secondary education preferably by 2005, SWEDEN, STATISTICS SWEDEN (1996). and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Engendering Statistics: A Tool for Change. Stockholm. RATIONALE UNITED NATIONS (1990). International Women’s representation in parliaments is one Standard Industrial Classification of All aspect of women’s opportunities in political Economic Activities (ISIC). Series M, No. 4, and public life, and it is therefore linked to Rev. 3.1. available from http://unstats.un. women’s empowerment. org/unsd/cr/registry. 29
  • 38. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals METHOD OF COMPUTATION the resources, respect or constituency to The indicator is obtained by dividing the num- exercise significant influence. ber of parliamentary seats occupied by women by the total number of seats occupied. REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA National parliaments consist of one or two COMPARISONS chambers. For international comparisons, INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION (2003). Women generally only the single or lower house is in National Parliaments. Internet site considered in calculating the indicator. http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/world.htm. Geneva. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators At the national level, the data come from the Database. Statistics Division Internet site records of national parliaments. National par- http://millenniumindicators.un.org. liaments also report the total number of par- UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMEN liamentary seats and the number occupied by (2000). Progress of the World’s Women. New women and men to the Inter-Parliamentary York. available from http://www.unifem. Union (IPU), which regularly compiles interna- undp.org/progressww/2000. tional data series and global and regional UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME aggregates. (2003 and annual). Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT Available at http://hdr.undp.org. The data are commonly available from national parliaments and updated after an election. The IPU regularly compiles international data National parliaments also transmit their data series and global and regional aggregates. to the IPU at least once a year and when the numbers change significantly, such as after AGENCIES an election. National parliaments Inter-Parliamentary Union GENDER ISSUES Women are underrepresented in all decision- making bodies and within political parties, particularly at the higher echelons. Women 13 UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY RATE still face many practical obstacles to the full exercise of their role in political life. DEFINITION The under-five mortality rate is the probability COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS (expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births) of a Parliaments vary considerably in their inde- child born in a specified year dying before pendence and authority, though they generally reaching the age of five if subject to current engage in law-making, oversight of age-specific mortality rates. Government and representation of the elec- torate. In terms of measuring women’s real GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED political decision-making, this indicator may Goal 4. Reduce child mortality not be sufficient, because women still face Target 5. Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 many obstacles in fully and efficiently carry- and 2015, the under-five mortality rate ing out their parliamentary mandate. Thus, being a member of parliament, especially in RATIONALE developing countries and emerging democra- The indicator, which relates directly to the cies, does not guarantee that a woman has target, measures child survival. It also reflects30
  • 39. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesthe social, economic and environmental con- ing countries. Household surveys that includeditions in which children (and others in society) questions on births and deaths are generallylive, including their health care. Because data conducted every three to five years.on the incidences and prevalence of diseases(morbidity data) frequently are unavailable, GENDER ISSUESmortality rates are often used to identify vul- Under-five mortality rates are higher for boysnerable populations. The under-five mortality than for girls in countries without significantrate captures more than 90 per cent of global parental gender preferences. Under-five mor-mortality among children under the age of 18. tality better captures the effect of gender dis- crimination than infant mortality, as nutritionMETHOD OF COMPUTATION and medical interventions are more importantAge-specific mortality rates are calculated in this age group, while biological differencesfrom data on births and deaths in vital statis- have a higher impact during the first year oftics registries, censuses and household surveys life (see also indicator 14, infant mortalityin developing countries. Estimates based on rate). There may be gender-based biases inhousehold survey data are obtained directly the reporting of child deaths.(using birth history, as in Demographic andHealth Surveys) or indirectly (Brass method, DISAGGREGATION ISSUESas in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys). The Under-five mortality generally shows largedata are then summed for children under five, disparities across geographical areas andand the results are expressed as a rate per between rural and urban areas. Under-five1,000 live births. mortality may also vary across socio-econom- ic groups. Children in some ethnic groupsDATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE might also be at higher risk of malnutrition,At the national level, the best source of data poorer health and higher mortality. However,is a complete vital statistics registration sys- showing and analysing data on specific ethnictem—one covering at least 90 per cent of groups may be a sensitive issue in the coun-vital events in the population. Such systems try. Gender differences may also be more pro-are uncommon in developing countries, so nounced in some social and ethnic groups.estimates are also obtained from sample sur-veys or derived by applying direct and indirect COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSestimation techniques to registration, census Data on under-five mortality is more com-or survey data. A wide variety of household plete and more timely than data on adult mor-surveys, including Multiple Indicator Cluster tality. The under-five mortality rate is consid-Surveys and Demographic and Health ered to be a more robust estimate than theSurveys, are used in developing countries. infant mortality rate if the information is drawn from household surveys.Several international agencies produce coun-try estimates based on available national data In developing countries, household surveysfor purposes of international comparisons are essential to the calculation of the indica-and assessment of global and regional trends tor, but there are some limits to their quality.(see below, “International data compar- Survey data are subject to recall error; inisons”). addition, surveys estimating under-five deaths require large samples because suchPERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT incidences are uncommon and representativeVital statistics are typically available once a households cannot ordinarily be identified foryear, but they are unreliable in most develop- sampling. Moreover, the frequency of the sur- 31
  • 40. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals vey is generally only every three to five years. Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva. Therefore, when using household surveys it is WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHO important to take sampling errors into Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)— account. In addition, indirect estimates rely Evidence and Information for Health Policy. on estimated actuarial (“life”) tables that may Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ be inappropriate for the population con- menu.cfm. Geneva. cerned. Mortality rates are among the most frequently There are also gender-based biases in the used indicators to compare levels of socio- reporting of child deaths. economic development across countries. The United Nations Population Division, the REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA United Nations Children’s Fund and the World COMPARISONS Health Organization regularly produce esti- UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of mates of under-five mortality based on avail- Sustainable Development: Guidelines and able national data. The data series may differ, Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6. however, owing to differences in methodolo- Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ gies used to estimate data and differences in sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm . reporting periods. UNITED NATIONS (2001). Principles and Recommendations for a Vital Statistics AGENCIES System, Revision 2. Series M, No. 19, Rev. 2. Ministries of health Sales No. 01.XVII.10. Available from http:// National statistical offices unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs. United Nations Children’s Fund UNITED NATIONS (2003 and biennial). World World Health Organization Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision, vol. 1. Comprehensive Tables (Sales No. E.03.XIII.6) and vol. 2, Sex and Age distribu- tion of the World Population (Sales No. 14 INFANT MORTALITY RATE E.03.XIII.7). Available from http://esa. un.org/unpp. DEFINITION UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2000). The infant mortality rate is typically defined Monitoring Progress towards the Goals of as the number of infants dying before reaching the World Summit for Children: The End- the age of one year per 1,000 live births in a Decade Multiple Indicator Survey Manual. given year. New York. Available from http://www. unicef. org/reseval/methodr.html . GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). Goal 4. Reduce child mortality The State of the World’s Children. New York. Target 5. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME and 2015, the under-five mortality rate (2003 and annual). Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press. RATIONALE available from http://hdr.undp.org . Although the target relates specifically to WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World under-five mortality, infant mortality is rele- Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. vant to the monitoring of the target since it Washington, D.C. Available in part from represents an important component of http://www.worldbank.org/data . under-five mortality. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992). International Statistical Classification of Infant mortality rates measure child survival. Diseases and Related Health Problems, They also reflect the social, economic and32
  • 41. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesenvironmental conditions in which children GENDER ISSUES(and others in society) live, including their Girls have a survival advantage over boys dur-health care. Since data on the incidence and ing the first year of life, largely based on bio-prevalence of diseases (morbidity data) fre- logical differences. This is especially so duringquently are unavailable, mortality rates are the first month of life when perinatal condi-often used to identify vulnerable populations. tions are most likely to be the cause or a con- tributing cause of death. While infant mortal-METHOD OF COMPUTATION ity is generally higher for boys than for girls, inThe indicator is the number of deaths of some countries girls’ biological advantage isinfants under one year of age in the indicated outweighed by gender-based discriminationyear per 1,000 live births in the same year. (see also INDICATOR 13, “Under-five mortality rate”). However, under-five mortality betterFor data from vital statistics registrations captures the effect of gender discrimination(when reliable), the number of live births and than infant mortality, as nutrition and medicaldeaths in the same year of children under one interventions are more important after ageyear old are estimated. The number of deaths one.is divided by the number of births and theresult is multiplied by 1,000. DISAGGREGATION ISSUES Infant mortality generally shows large dispar-For data from household surveys, infant mor- ities across geographical areas and betweentality estimates are obtained directly (using urban and rural areas. Infant mortality maybirth history, as in Demographic and Health also vary across socioeconomic groups, andSurveys) or indirectly (Brass method, as in the indicator is often used as a general indi-Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys). When cator of social distress in populations. Infantsestimated indirectly, the under-one mortality in some ethnic groups might also be at higherestimates must be consistent with the under- risk of malnutrition, poorer health and higherfive mortality estimates. mortality. However, showing and analysing data on specific ethnic groups may be a sen-DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE sitive issue in the country. Gender differencesThe best source of data is a complete vital sta- may also be more pronounced in some socialtistics registration system—one covering at and ethnic groups.least 90 per cent of vital events in the popula-tion. Such systems are uncommon in developing COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONScountries, so estimates are also obtained from The infant mortality rate is considered to be asample surveys or derived by applying direct more robust estimate than the under-fiveand indirect estimation techniques to registra- mortality rate if the information is drawn fromtion, census or survey data. A wide variety of vital statistics registration.household surveys, including Multiple IndicatorCluster Surveys and Demographic and Health In developing countries, household surveysSurveys, are used in developing countries. are essential to the calculation of the indica- tor, but there are some limits to their quality.PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT Survey data are subject to recall error, andVital statistics are typically available once a surveys estimating infant deaths require largeyear, but they are unreliable in most develop- samples because such incidences are uncom-ing countries. Household surveys that include mon and representative households cannotquestions on births and deaths are usually ordinarily be identified for sampling.conducted every three to five years. Moreover, the frequency of the surveys is generally only every three to five years. Therefore, when using household survey esti- 33
  • 42. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals mates, it is important to take sampling errors United Nations Children’s Fund and the World into account. Health Organization regularly produce esti- mates of infant and under-five mortality REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA based on available national data. The data COMPARISONS series may differ, however, owing to differ- UNITED NATIONS (1958). Multilingual ences in methodologies used to estimate data Demographic Dictionary. Population Studies, and differences in reporting periods. No. 29. Sales No. E.58.XIII.4. UNITED NATIONS (1999). World Population AGENCIES Prospects: The 1998 Revision, vol. III, Ministries of health Analytical Report. Sales No. E.99.XIII.10. National statistical offices UNITED NATIONS (2001). Principles and United Nations Children’s Fund Recommendations for a Vital Statistics World Health Organization System, Revision 2. Series M, No. 19, Rev. 2. Sales No. 01.XVII.10. Available from http:// unstats.un. org/unsd/pubs. UNITED NATIONS (2003 and biennial). World 15 PROPORTION OF 1-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN IMMUNIZED AGAINST Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision, MEASLES vol. 1. Comprehensive Tables (Sales No. E.03.XIII.6) and vol. 2, Sex and Age distribu- DEFINITION tion of the World Population. (Sales No. The proportion of 1-year-old children immu- E.03.XIII.7). Available from http://esa. nized against measles is the percentage of un.org/unpp. children under one year of age who have UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). The received at least one dose of measles vaccine. State of the World’s Children. New York. UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED (2003 and annual). Human Development Goal 4. Reduce child mortality Report. New York: Oxford University Press. Target 5. Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 available from http://hdr.undp.org . and 2015, the under-five mortality rate WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. RATIONALE Washington, D.C. Available in part from The indicator provides a measure of the cov- http://www.worldbank.org/data . erage and the quality of the child health-care WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992). system in the country. Immunization is an International Statistical Classification of essential component for reducing under-five Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth mortality. Governments in developing coun- Revision (ICD-10), vol.1. Geneva. tries usually finance immunization against WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHO measles and diphtheria, pertussis (whooping Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)— cough) and tetanus (DPT) as part of the basic Evidence and Information for Health Policy. health package. Among these vaccine-pre- Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ ventable diseases of childhood, measles is the menu.cfm . Geneva. leading cause of child mortality. Health and other programmes targeted at those specific Mortality rates are among the most frequently causes are one practical means of reducing used indicators to compare levels of socio- child mortality. economic development across countries. The United Nations Population Division, the34
  • 43. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesMETHOD OF COMPUTATION GENDER ISSUESThe indicator is estimated as the percentage Immunization programmes are generally freeof children ages 12–23 months who received of charge and should not discriminateat least one dose of measles vaccine either between boys and girls. However, in someany time before the survey or before the age countries of south-central Asia and northernof 12 months. Estimates of immunization Africa, girls’ immunization rates are lowercoverage are generally based on two sources than boys’, probably due to cultural ratherof empirical data: administrative data and than economic reasons.coverage surveys (see “Data collection andsources”). For estimates based on administra- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONStive data, immunization coverage is derived The first dose of measles vaccine is supposedby dividing the total number of vaccinations to be administered to all children at the age ofby the number of children in the target popu- nine months or shortly after. By 2000, mostlation. For most vaccines, the target popula- countries were providing a “second opportu-tion is the national annual number of births or nity” for measles vaccination, either through anumber of surviving infants (this may vary two-dose routine schedule or through a com-depending on a country’s policies and the bined routine schedule and supplementaryspecific vaccine). Immunization coverage sur- campaigns. Measles immunization coverageveys are frequently used in connection with is expressed as the percentage of childrenadministrative data. who have received at least one dose.DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Vaccination coverage for measles needs to beThe two sources available at the national level above 90 per cent to stop transmission of theare reports of vaccinations performed by service virus—not only because measles is so conta-providers (administrative data) and house- gious, but also because up to 15 per cent ofhold surveys containing information on chil- children vaccinated at nine months fail todren’s vaccination history (coverage surveys). develop immunity. Some countries in the LatinThe principle types of surveys used as sources America and Caribbean region, for example,of information on immunization coverage are administer the measles vaccine at 12–15Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) months of age. This has to be taken into30 cluster surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster account in calculations of coverage based onSurveys and Demographic and Health Surveys. household surveys.Routine data are compiled by national EPIprogramme managers. In many developing countries, lack of precise information on the size of the cohort of chil-The World Health Organization and the United dren under one year of age makes immuniza-Nations Children’s Fund compile country data tion coverage difficult to estimate.series based on both types of data, gatheredthrough the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAForm on Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. COMPARISONS GUNN, S.W.A., KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERSPERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT (1990). Multilingual Dictionary of DisasterAdministrative data are collected annually. Medicine and International Relief.Surveys are generally conducted every three Dordrecht, The Netherlands. English/to five years. Français/Español/Arabic. UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2003). Health. Internet site http://www.unicef. 35
  • 44. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals org/health/index.html. New York. occurring between six weeks and one year UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2003). after childbirth. Routine Immunization. Internet site http://www.childinfo.org/eddb/immuni/in GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED dex.htm. New York. Goal 5. Improve maternal health UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). Target 6. Reduce by three quarters, between The State of the World’s Children. New York. 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992). International Statistical Classification of RATIONALE Diseases and Related Health Problems, The indicator, which is directly related to the Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva. target, monitors deaths related to pregnancy. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1999). Such deaths are affected by various factors, Recommended Standards for Surveillance including general health status, education and of Selected Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. services during pregnancy and childbirth. It is WHO/EPI/GEN/99012. Geneva. important to monitor changes in health condi- WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). tions related to sex and reproduction. Measles. Internet site http://www.who.int/ health_topics/measles/en. Geneva. METHOD OF COMPUTATION WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). The maternal mortality ratio can be calculat- Surveillance. Internet site http://www.who. ed by dividing recorded (or estimated) mater- int/vaccines-surveillance. Geneva. nal deaths by total recorded (or estimated) live births in the same period and multiplying WHO and UNICEF compile country data series by 100,000. The indicator can be calculated based on administrative data and household directly from data collected through vital sta- surveys, gathered through the WHO/UNICEF tistics registrations, household surveys or Joint Reporting Form on Vaccine-Preventable hospital studies. However, those sources all Diseases. have data quality problems (see “Data collec- tion and sources”). Alternative methods AGENCIES include a review of all deaths of women of Ministries of health reproductive age (so-called Reproductive Age United Nations Children’s Fund Mortality Surveys, or RAMOS), longitudinal World Health Organization studies of pregnant women and repeated household studies. All these methods, howev- er, still rely on accurate reporting of deaths of MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO pregnant women and of the cause of death, 16 something that is difficult to obtain. DEFINITION Another problem is the need for large sample The maternal mortality ratio is the number of sizes, which raises costs. This can be over- women who die from any cause related to or come by using sisterhood methods. The indi- aggravated by pregnancy or its management rect sisterhood method asks respondents (excluding accidental or incidental causes) four simple questions about how many of during pregnancy and childbirth or within 42 their sisters reached adulthood, how many days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective have died and whether those who died were of the duration and site of the pregnancy, per pregnant around the time of death. However, 100,000 live births. The 10th revision of the the reference period of the estimate is at least International Classification of Diseases makes 10–12 years before the survey. The direct sis- provision for including late maternal deaths terhood method used in Demographic and36
  • 45. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesHealth Surveys also asks respondents to PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENTprovide the date of death, which permits the Every 7–10 years.calculation of more recent estimates, buteven then the reference period tends to cen- GENDER ISSUESter on 0–6 years before the survey. The low social and economic status of girls and women is a fundamental determinant ofMaternal deaths should be divided into two maternal mortality in many countries. Lowgroups. Direct obstetric deaths result from status limits the access of girls and women toobstetric complications of the pregnant state education and good nutrition as well as to the(pregnancy, labour and puerperium); from inter- economic resources needed to pay for healthventions, omissions or incorrect treatment; or care or family planning services.from a chain of events resulting from any ofthese. Indirect obstetric deaths result from pre- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSviously existing disease or disease that devel- The indicator is generally of unknown reliability,oped during pregnancy and that was not direct- as are many other cause-specific mortality indi-ly due to obstetric causes but was aggravated cators, owing to the difficulty in distinguishingby the physiologic effects of pregnancy. deaths that are genuinely related to pregnancyPublished maternal mortality ratios should from deaths that are not. Even in industrializedalways specify whether the numerator (number countries with comprehensive vital statisticsof recorded maternal deaths) is the number of registration systems, misclassification andrecorded direct obstetric deaths or the number underreporting of maternal deaths can lead toof recorded obstetric deaths (direct plus indi- serious underestimation. Because it is a relative-rect). Maternal deaths from HIV/AIDS and ly rare event, large sample sizes are needed ifobstetrical tetanus are included in the maternal household surveys are used. Household surveysmortality ratio. such as the Demographic and Health Survey attempt to measure maternal mortality by ask-DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE ing respondents about survivorship of sisters.Good vital statistics registration systems are While the sisterhood method reduces samplerare in developing countries. Official data size requirements, it produces estimates cover-are usually obtained from health service ing some 6–12 years before the survey, whichrecords, but few women in rural areas have renders the data problematic for monitoringaccess to health services. So in developing progress or observing the impact of interven-countries, it is more usual to use survey data. tions. In addition, owing to the very large confi-The most common sources of data are the dence limits around the estimates, they are notDemographic and Health Surveys and similar suitable for assessing trends over time or forhousehold surveys. Available data on levels of making comparisons between countries. As amaternal mortality are generally significantly result, it is recommended that process indica-underestimated because of problems of mis- tors, such as attendance by skilled health per-classification and underreporting of maternal sonnel at delivery and use of emergency obstet-deaths. The World Health Organization, the ric care facilities, be used to assess progressUnited Nation’s Children’s Fund and the United towards the reduction in maternal mortality.Nations Population Fund have adjusted exist-ing data to take account of these problems The maternal mortality ratio should not beand have developed model-based estimates confused with the maternal mortality ratefor countries with no reliable national data on (whose denominator is the number of womenmaternal mortality. It is those estimates that of reproductive age), which measures theare usually published in international tables. likelihood of both becoming pregnant and 37
  • 46. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals dying during pregnancy or the puerperium WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, and UNITED (six weeks after delivery). The maternal mor- NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (1997). The tality ratio (whose denominator is the number Sisterhood Method for Estimating Maternal of live birth), takes fertility levels (likelihood of Mortality: Guidance Notes for Potential becoming pregnant) into consideration. Users. Geneva. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, UNITED NATIONS REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA CHILDREN’S FUND and UNITED NATIONS COMPARISONS POPULATION FUND (2001). Maternal Mortality UNITED NATIONS (2003 and biennial). World in 1995. Geneva. Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision, vol. 1. Comprehensive Tables (Sales No. The World Health Organization, the United E.03.XIII.6) and vol. 2, Sex and Age distribu- Nation’s Children’s Fund and the United tion of the World Population (Sales No. Nations Population Fund have adjusted exist- E.03.XIII.7). Available from http://esa. ing data to account for the problems and have un.org/unpp. developed model-based estimates for coun- UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators tries with no reliable national data on mater- Database. Statistics Division Internet site nal mortality. It is those estimates that are http://millenniumindicators.un.org. usually published in international tables. UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). The State of the World’s Children. New York. AGENCIES UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Ministries of health (2003 and annual). Human Development United Nations Children’s Fund Report. New York: Oxford University Press. World Health Organization Available from http://hdr.undp.org . United Nations Population Fund UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (1998). Issues in measuring and monitoring mater- nal mortality: implications for programmes. Technical and Policy Paper No.1. New York. 17 PROPORTION OF BIRTHS ATTENDED BY SKILLED HEALTH PERSONNEL UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (annual). State of World Population. Available from DEFINITION http://www.unfpa.org/swp/swpmain.htm . The proportion of births attended by skilled WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World health personnel is the percentage of deliver- Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. ies attended by personnel trained to give the Washington, D.C. Available in part from necessary supervision, care and advice to http://www.worldbank.org/data . women during pregnancy, labour and the WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1991). post-partum period; to conduct deliveries on Maternal Mortality: A Global Factbook. their own; and to care for newborns. Geneva. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992). Skilled health personnel include only those International Statistical Classification of who are properly trained and who have appro- Diseases and Related Health Problems, priate equipment and drugs. Traditional birth Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva. attendants, even if they have received a short WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1999). training course, are not to be included. Reduction of Maternal Mortality: A Joint WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF/World Bank State- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED ment. Geneva. Available from www.who. Goal 5. Improve maternal health int/reproductive-health. Target 6. Reduce by three quarters, between38
  • 47. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio tion of skilled health personnel is sometimes difficult because of differences in training ofRATIONALE health personnel in different countries.Measuring maternal mortality accurately is Although efforts have been made to stan-unusually difficult, except where there is dardize the definitions of doctors, nurses andcomprehensive registration of deaths and midwives and auxiliary midwives used in mostcauses of death. Several process indicators household surveys, it is probable that manyhave been proposed for tracking progress by “skilled attendants” would not meet the crite-focusing on professional care during pregnan- ria for a “skilled attendant” as defined by thecy and childbirth, particularly for the manage- World Health Organization. Moreover, it isment of complications. The most widely avail- clear that skilled attendants’ ability to provideable indicator is the proportion of women who appropriate care in an emergency depends ondeliver with the assistance of a medically the environment in which they work.trained health-care provider. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCEMETHOD OF COMPUTATION Data are collected through household sur-The number of births attended by skilled veys, in particular Demographic and Healthhealth personnel (doctors, nurses or mid- Surveys and Multiple Indicator Clusterwives) is expressed as a percentage of deliv- Surveys, as well as other national householderies (or births if those are the only data avail- surveys.able) in the same period. REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAGENDER ISSUES COMPARISONSThe low social status of women in developing UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicatorscountries limits their access to economic Database. Statistics Division Internet siteresources and basic education and thus their http://millenniumindicators. un.org.ability to make decisions related to health and UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual).nutrition. Some women are denied access to The State of the World’s Children. New York.care when it is needed either because of cul- UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEtural practices of seclusion or because deci- (2003 and annual). Human Developmentsion-making is the responsibility of other Report. New York: Oxford University Press.family members. Lack of access to or use of Available from http://hdr.undp.org.essential obstetric services is a crucial factor UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (annual).contributing to high maternal mortality. State of World Population. Available from http://www.unfpa.org/swp/swpmain.htm.PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). WorldHousehold survey data on this indicator is Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.generally available every three to five years. Washington, D.C. Available in part from http://www.worldbank.org/data.COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2001).The indicator is a measure of a health sys- Reproductive Health Indicators for Globaltem’s ability to provide adequate care for Monitoring: Report of the Secondpregnant women. Concerns have been Interagency Meeting, 2001. WHO/RHR/expressed that the term skilled attendant may 01.19. Geneva.not adequately capture women’s access to WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHOgood quality care, particularly when compli- Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)—cations arise. Standardization of the defini- Evidence and Information for Health Policy. 39
  • 48. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ percentage of all pregnant women in that age menu.cfm. Geneva. group whose blood is tested. AGENCIES DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Ministries of health Data on HIV in pregnant women come from United Nations Children’s Fund tests on leftover blood samples taken for World Health Organization other reasons during pregnancy. The samples United Nations Population Fund come from selected antenatal clinics during routine sentinel surveillance, chosen to reflect urban, rural and other socio-geographic divi- 18 HIV PREVALENCE AMONG YEARS NANT WOMEN AGED 15-24 PREG- sions in a country. HIV prevalence data in groups with high-risk behaviour are collected in serosurveys that are part of the surveil- DEFINITION lance system or in ad hoc prevalence surveys. HIV prevalence among 15–24 year-old preg- nant women is the percentage of pregnant Only the results of unlinked, anonymous women ages 15–24 whose blood samples screening of blood taken for other purposes test positive for HIV. should be used in calculating this indicator of HIV prevalence. Refusal and other forms of GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED participation bias are considerably reduced in Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other unlinked, anonymous HIV testing compared diseases with other forms of testing, such as in pro- Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to grammes that offer counselling and voluntary reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS HIV testing for pregnant women to reduce mother-to-child transmission. RATIONALE The data are gathered by the World Health HIV infection leads to AIDS. Without treatment, Organization and the Joint United Nations average survival from the time of infection is Programme on HIV/AIDS. about nine years. Access to treatment is uneven, and no vaccine is currently available. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT The data are collated annually in many devel- About half of all new HIV cases are among peo- oping countries. ple 24 years of age or younger. In generalized epidemics (with prevalence consistently at more GENDER ISSUES than 1 per cent among pregnant women), the Pregnant women are chosen for clinical sur- infection rate for pregnant women is similar to veillance, not because of gender issues, but the overall rate for the adult population. because they offer a unique opportunity to Therefore, the indicator is a measure of the monitor HIV/AIDS. spread of the epidemic. In low-level and concen- trated epidemics, HIV prevalence is monitored in Throughout the world, the unequal social status groups with high-risk behaviour because preva- of women places them at higher risk for con- lence among pregnant women is low. tracting HIV. Women are at a disadvantage when it comes to access to information about HIV pre- METHOD OF COMPUTATION vention, the ability to negotiate safe sexual The number of pregnant women whose blood encounters and access to treatment for samples test positive for HIV expressed as a HIV/AIDS once infected. As a result of those40
  • 49. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesinequities and the dynamics of the epidemic, the UNAIDS (2002). Monitoring the Declarationproportion of women among people living with of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines onHIV/AIDS is rising in many regions. Construction of Core Indicators. Geneva. Available from http://www.unaids.org/en/DISAGGREGATION ISSUES in+ focus/monitoringevaluation.Data from surveillance of pregnant women at UNAIDS (2003). Report on the Globalantenatal care clinics are broken into urban pop- HIV/AIDS Epidemic, 2002, biennial; AIDSulations and populations living outside major Epidemic Update. Geneva.urban areas. In many countries, data from rural UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicatorsareas are rare. The indicator for pregnant Database. Statistics Division Internet sitewomen ages 15–24 should be reported as the http://millenniumindicators.un.org.median for the capital city, for other urban areas UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual).and for rural areas. The State of the World’s Children. New York. UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND, UNAIDSCOMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS and WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002).The indicator gives a fairly good idea of relative- Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity inly recent trends in HIV infection nationwide in Crisis. New York.countries where the epidemic is generalized. In UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FORareas where most HIV infections are confined to WOMEN (2000). Gender, HIV and Humansubpopulations with high-risk behaviours, Rights: A Training Manual. New York.trends should be assessed in those populations. Available from http://www.unifem.undp. org/ resources/hivtraining.In most countries, serosurveillance sites have UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMENnot been selected as representative samples (2001). Turning the Tide: CEDAW and theof the country. Logistical, feasibility and cost Gender Dimensions of the HIV/AIDS Pan-issues guide the selection of these sites. In demic. New York. Available from http://www.addition, in many countries, the sites included unifem.undp.org/resources/turningtide.in the surveillance system have changed over WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002). Secondtime, making interpretation of trends more Generation Surveillance for HIV. Geneva.difficult. Available from http://www.who.int/hiv/ pub/surveillance/en.REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002).COMPARISONS Strategic Information. Geneva. Available CAROLINA POPULATION CENTER (2003). from http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/ National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to epdemiology/en. Monitoring and Evaluation. Chapel Hill. Available from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/ AGENCIES measure/guide/guide.html . Ministries of health PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet: Gender and HIV/AIDS. World Health Organization Washington, D.C. Available from United Nations Children’s Fund http://www. paho.org/english/hdp/hdw/ United Nations Population Fund GenderandHIVFactSheetI.pdf. SCHWARTLÄNDER, BERNARD, and OTHERS (1999). Country-specific estimates and models of HIV and AIDS: methods and limi- tations. AIDS, vol. 13, No. 17. 41
  • 50. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals 19 CONDOM USE RATE OF THE CON- TRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE RATE Irrespective of the contraceptive prevalence rate, if 10 per cent of those practising contra- ception use condoms, then the rate for indi- DEFINITION cator 19 is 10 per cent. Condom use rate of the contraceptive preva- lence rate is the number of women aged The definition and method of calculation of 15–49 years in marital or consensual unions the indicator differ when it is used for moni- who are practising contraception by using toring contraceptive use only. In that case, condoms as a proportion of all of women of the numerator is the number of women ages the same age group in consensual unions who 15–49 in marital or consensual unions who are practising, or whose sexual partners are report that they are using a condom as their 19-A practising, any form of contraception. main method of contraception. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other Contraceptive prevalence data are obtained diseases mainly from household surveys, notably the Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Indicator Cluster Surveys and contraceptive prevalence surveys. For condom-use data, RATIONALE married women are asked whether they have The condom use rate is used to monitor ever heard of condoms and then whether progress towards halting and reversing the they are currently using condoms to prevent spread of HIV/AIDS, as condoms are the only pregnancy. contraceptive method effective in reducing the spread of HIV. Since the condom use rate PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT is measured only among women in unions, the Household surveys, such as Demographic and indicator needs to be supplemented by an Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster indicator on condom use in high-risk situa- Surveys and contraceptive prevalence sur- tions (see indicator 19a). veys, are generally conducted every three to five years. METHOD OF COMPUTATION The number of women ages 15–49 in marital GENDER ISSUES or consensual unions who report that they are Statistics on contraception prevalence rates using a condom to avoid pregnancy (regard- are based primarily on women, mainly less of whether they are also using additional because contraception is more easily meas- methods) is divided by the total number of ured in this way. Further, contraception, or its women ages 15–49 in unions who are practis- absence, affects the health and well-being of ing, or whose sexual partners are practising, women more than it does their sexual partners. contraception. Similarly, condom use is still at the discretion of male partners, and the female condom is The indicator is not equivalent to condom use not as widely available. The rising number of prevalence, which is the number of women women and girls infected by HIV/AIDS indi- ages 15–49 in marital or consensual unions cates that condom use needs further promo- who are practising (or whose sexual partners tion and that women need to be empowered are practising) contraception by using con- to refuse unprotected sex. doms as a percentage of the total number of women of the same age group (and same DISAGGREGATION ISSUES marital status, if applicable) in the survey. Condom use, as it is the case in general for42
  • 51. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcescontraceptive use, may vary significantly across measuredhs.com. Calverton, Maryland.socio-economic groups and regional and geo- UNAIDS (2003). Internet site http://www.graphical areas. It is important that the analysis unaids.org. Geneva.address specific demographic groups, such as UNITED NATIONS (1958). Multilingualadolescents and unmarried women. Demographic Dictionary. Population Studies, No. 29. Sales No. E.58.XIII.4.COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators ofThe indicator does not reflect condom use for Sustainable Development: Guidelines andthe unmarried population and people in groups Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.with high-risk behaviour. Data are generally Available from http://www.un.org/esa/collected for women in consensual unions and sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm.in a particular age range, while the population UNITED NATIONS (2001). Levels and Trends ofof concern includes all women of reproductive Contraceptive Use as Assessed in 1998.age, irrespective of marital status. Sales No. E.01.XIII.4. Available from http://www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.The spread of HIV through sexual relations htm.depends on having unprotected sex with people UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicatorswho also have other partners. Most monoga- Database. Statistics Division Internet sitemous relationships are cohabiting, although the http://millenniumindicators.un.org.reverse is not necessarily true. Partners who do UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2003).not live together and who have sex only occa- Progress since the World Summit forsionally are most likely to have other partners Children. New York. Available from http://over the course of a year. These partnerships www.childinfo.org; in Quick Access undertherefore carry a higher risk of HIV transmission “Contraceptive prevalence”.than partnerships that do not link into a wider UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual).sexual network. AIDS prevention programmes The State of the World’s Children. New York.try to discourage high numbers of partnerships UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FORand to encourage mutual monogamy. WOMEN (2000). Gender, HIV and Human Rights: A Training Manual. New York.Indicator 19, therefore, is not a practical indi- Available from http://www.unifem.undp.cator for measuring the prevention of org/ resources/hivtraining.HIV/AIDS. Information should be collected on UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEadditional indicators on condom use in high- (2003 and annual). Human Developmentrisk situations (indicator 19A) and on knowl- Report. New York: Oxford University Press.edge and misconceptions of HIV/AIDS among Available from http://hdr.undp.org.15-24 year-olds (indicator 19B). Such indica- WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). Worldtors give a better picture of the proportion of Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.the population that engages in relatively high- Washington, D.C. Available in part fromrisk partnerships and that is therefore more http://www.worldbank.org/data.likely to be exposed to the sexual networks WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 andwithin which HIV can circulate. annual). World Health Report. Geneva. Available from http://www.who.int/whr/REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA en.COMPARISONS ORC MACRO (2003). Demographic and Health AGENCIES Surveys – Providing Information for Ministries of health Informed Decisions in Population, Health and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS Nutrition. Internet site http://www. United Nations Children’s Fund 43
  • 52. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals United Nations Population Division of the number of respondents ages 15–24 World Health Organization who reported having had a non-regular sexu- United Nations Population Fund al partner in the last 12 months. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT 19-A CONDOM USE AT LAST HIGH-RISK SEX Household surveys, such as Demographic and Health Surveys, rural household surveys and behavioural surveillance surveys, are general- DEFINITION ly conducted every three to five years. Condom use at last high-risk sex is the per- centage of young people ages 15–24 report- GENDER ISSUES ing the use of a condom during sexual inter- Women’s risk of becoming infected with HIV course with a non-regular sexual partner in during unprotected sexual intercourse is the last 12 months. higher than that of men. And the risk is even higher for younger women. Social and cultur- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED al factors may increase women’s vulnerability Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other to HIV infection. For instance, cultural norms diseases related to sexuality often prevent girls from Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to taking active steps to protect themselves. reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS RATIONALE A rise in the indicator is an extremely power- Consistent use of condoms in non-regular ful sign that condom promotion campaigns sexual partnerships substantially reduces the are having the desired effect among their risk of sexual HIV transmission. This is espe- principle target market. However, condom cially important for young people, who often promotion campaigns aim for consistent use experience the highest rates of HIV infection of condoms with non-regular partners rather because they have low prior exposure to than simply occasional use. infection and (typically) relatively high num- bers of non-regular sexual partnerships. Some surveys have tried to ask directly about Consistent condom use with non-regular sex- consistent use, but the question is subject to ual partners is important even in countries recall bias and other biases. where HIV prevalence is low because it can prevent the spread of HIV in circumstances The current indicator is therefore considered where non-regular relationships are common. adequate to address the target since it is Condom use is one measure of protection assumed that if consistent use rises, use at against HIV/AIDS. Equally important are last high-risk sex will also increase. delaying age at first sex, reducing the number of non-regular sexual partners and being DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE faithful to one partner. Data on condom use with non-regular sexual partners are available from household surveys METHOD OF COMPUTATION (such as Demographic and Health Surveys, The number of respondents ages 15–24 who rural household surveys and behavioural sur- reported having had a non-regular (non-mar- veillance surveys) that collect information on ital and non-cohabiting) sexual partner in the sexual behaviour. last 12 months and using a condom the last time they had sex with this partner, as a share44
  • 53. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesREFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA transmit HIV.COMPARISONS CAROLINA POPULATION CENTER (2003). GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other Monitoring and Evaluation. Chapel Hill. diseases Available from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/ Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to measure/guide/guide.html. reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS UNAIDS (2002). Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on RATIONALE Construction of Core Indicators. Geneva. The indicator reflects the success of national Available from http://www.unaids.org/en/ information, education and communication in+ focus/monitoringevaluation. programmes and other efforts in promoting UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). knowledge of valid HIV-prevention methods The State of the World’s Children. New York. and reducing misconceptions about the dis- UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND, UNAIDS ease. Common local misconceptions can be and WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002). determined by the context of the country. Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in Crisis. New York. METHOD OF COMPUTATION WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, JOINT UNITED Since there are not enough surveys to calcu- NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS and the late the indicator as defined above, the UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2002). United Nations Children’s Fund, in collabora- Epidemiological Fact Sheets. Geneva. tion with the Joint United Nations Programme Available from http://www.who.int/emc- on HIV/AIDS and the World Health hiv/fact_sheets. Organization, has produced two proxy indica- tors that represent two components of theAGENCIES actual indicator:Ministries of healthUnited Nations Children’s Fund Percentage of women and men ages 15–24United Nations Population Fund who know that a person can protect him or herself from HIV infection by “consistent use of condom”. The indicator is calculated19-B PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION AGED 15–24 YEARS WITH COMPREHEN- as the number of respondents ages 15–24 who, in response to prompting, correctly SIVE CORRECT KNOWLEDGE OF identify consistent use of condoms as a HIV/AIDS means of protection against HIV infection, as a percentage of the total number ofDEFINITION respondents ages 15–24.Percentage of population aged 15–24 yearswith comprehensive correct knowledge of Percentage of women and men ages 15–24HIV/AIDS is the share of women and men who know a healthy-looking person canaged 15–24 years who correctly identify the transmit HIV. The indicator is calculated astwo major ways of preventing the sexual the number of respondents ages 15–24transmission of HIV (using condoms and lim- who, in response to prompting, correctlyiting sex to one faithful, uninfected partner), note that a person who looks healthy maywho reject the two most common local mis- transmit HIV, as a percentage of the totalconceptions about HIV transmission and who number of respondents ages 15–24.know that a healthy-looking person can 45
  • 54. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Available from http://www.unaids.org/en/ Data on knowledge of and misconceptions in+focus/monitoringevaluation. Select: about HIV/AIDS are collected through house- Guidelines on construction of core indica- hold surveys (such as Demographic and tors. Health Surveys, rural household surveys, UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). behavioural surveillance surveys and Multiple The State of the World’s Children. New York. Indicator Cluster Surveys). UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND, UNAIDS and WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002). PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in Household surveys, such as Demographic and Crisis. New York. Health Surveys, rural household surveys, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, JOINT UN behavioural surveillance surveys and Multiple PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS and the UNITED Indicator Cluster Surveys, are generally con- NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2002). Epidemio- ducted every three to five years. logical Fact Sheets. Geneva. Available from http://www.who.int/emc-hiv/ fact_sheets. GENDER ISSUES Women’s risk of becoming infected with HIV AGENCY during unprotected sexual intercourse is United Nations Children’s Fund. higher than that of men. The risk is even high- er for younger women. Social and cultural fac- tors may increase women’s vulnerability to HIV infection. For instance, cultural norms 19-C CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE RATE related to sexuality often prevent girls from taking active steps to protect themselves. DEFINITION The contraceptive prevalence rate is the per- In many countries, girls are becoming infect- centage of women who are practising, or ed and dying younger than boys, for various whose sexual partners are practising, any reasons, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, the form of contraception. It is usually reported region most affected by HIV/AIDS. for women ages 15–49 in marital or consen- sual unions. COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS: See “Methods of computation”. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA diseases COMPARISONS Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to CAROLINA POPULATION CENTER (2003). reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation. Chapel Hill. RATIONALE Available from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/ The indicator is useful in tracking progress measure/guide/guide.html. towards health, gender and poverty goals. It also ORC MACRO (2003). Demographic and serves as a proxy measure of access to repro- Health Surveys – Providing Information for ductive health services that are essential for Informed Decisions in Population, Health meeting many of the goals, especially the child and Nutrition. Internet site http://www. and maternity mortality and HIV/AIDS goals. measuredhs.com. Calverton, USA. UNAIDS (2002). Monitoring the Declaration Contraceptive methods include condoms, of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on female and male sterilization, injectable and Construction of Core Indicators. Geneva. oral hormones, intrauterine devices, dia-46
  • 55. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesphragms, spermicides and natural family plan- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSning, as well as lactational amenorrhoea (lack of Data are generally collected for women inmenstruation during breastfeeding) where it is unions and in a particular age range, while thecited as a method. Since, among contraceptive population of concern includes all women ofmethods, only condoms are effective in pre- reproductive age, irrespective of marital status.venting HIV infections, specific indicators oncondom use are also considered (SEE INDICATORS In addition, contraceptive methods may19, 19A and 19B). include traditional methods that are largely ineffective. It is important, to the extent possi-METHOD OF COMPUTATION ble, to at least distinguish between traditionalThe number of women ages 15–49 in marital and modern methods.or consensual unions who report that they arepractising (or whose sexual partners are prac- Underreporting can occur when the inter-tising) contraception is divided by the total viewer does not mention specific methods,number of women ages 15–49 (and same such as contraceptive surgical sterilization.marital status, if applicable) in the survey. REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATADATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE COMPARISONSContraceptive prevalence data are obtained ORC MACRO (2003). Demographic and Healthmainly from household surveys, notably the Surveys–Providing Information for InformedDemographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Decisions in Population, Health andIndicator Cluster Surveys and contraceptive Nutrition. Internet site http://www.prevalence surveys. measuredhs.com. Calverton, Maryland. UNITED NATIONS (1958). MultilingualPERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT Demographic Dictionary, English Section,Household surveys, such as Demographic and Population Studies, No. 29. Sales No.Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster E.58.XIII.4.Surveys and contraceptive prevalence sur- UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators ofveys, are generally conducted every three to Sustainable Development: Guidelines andfive years. Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/GENDER ISSUES sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm.Statistics on contraception prevalence rates UNITED NATIONS (2001). Levels and Trends ofare based primarily on women, mainly Contraceptive Use as Assessed in 1998.because contraception is more easily meas- Sales No. E.01.XIII.4. Available fromured in this way. Further, contraception, or its http://www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.absence, affects the health and well-being of htm.women more than it does their sexual partners. UNITED NATIONS (2002). World Contraceptive Use 2001. Wall Chart. Sales No. E.02.XIII.7.DISAGGREGATION ISSUES Available from http://www.un.org/esa/Contraceptive use may vary significantly p o p u l a t i o n / p u b l i c a t i o n s / c o n t ra c e pacross socio-economic groups and regional tive2001/contraception01.htm.and geographical areas. It is important that UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual).the analysis address specific demographic The State of the World’s Children. New York.groups, such as adolescents and unmarried UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMENwomen. (2000). Gender, HIV and Human Rights: A Training Manual. New York. Available from 47
  • 56. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals http://www.unifem.undp.org/resources/ families and bringing up children. As a result, hivtraining . orphan prevalence is rising steadily in many UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME countries, while fewer relatives within the (2003 and annual). Human Development prime adult ages mean that orphaned chil- Report. New York: Oxford University Press. dren face an increasingly uncertain future. Available from http://hdr.undp.org. UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (annual). Orphanhood is frequently accompanied by prej- State of World Population. Available from udice and increased poverty—factors that can http://www.unfpa.org/swp/swpmain.htm. further jeopardize children’s well-being. WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World Children and adolescents orphaned by AIDS Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. face decreased access to adequate nutrition, Washington, D.C. Available in part from basic health care, housing and clothing. They http://www.worldbank.org/data. may turn to survival strategies that increase WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and their vulnerability to HIV. They are likely to drop annual). World Health Report. Geneva. out of school owing to discrimination, emotion- Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ al distress, inability to pay school fees or the en. need to care for parents or caretakers infected with HIV or for younger siblings. In sub-Saharan AGENCIES Africa, only 60 per cent of orphans (ages Ministry of health 10–14) who lost both parents attend school as United Nations Population Fund compared with 71 per cent of those with both United Nations Children’s Fund parents still living. The limited countries with United Nations Population Division trend data indicate a widening of the gap. It is important, therefore, to monitor the extent to which AIDS support programmes succeed in 20 RATIO OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF ORPHANS TO SCHOOL ATTENDANCE securing educational opportunities for orphaned children. OF NON-ORPHANS AGED 10–14 YEARS METHOD OF COMPUTATION The current school attendance rate of children DEFINITION ages 10–14 for whom both biological parents Strictly defined, the number of children have died is divided by the current school orphaned by HIV/AIDS is the estimated num- attendance rate of children ages 10–14 whose ber of children who have lost their mother, parents are both still alive and who live with at father or both parents to AIDS before age 15. least one biological parent. In practice, the impact of the AIDS epidemic on orphans is measured through the ratio of DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE orphans to non-orphans who are in school. Data for the indicator are collected through household surveys (such as Demographic and GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other Surveys). diseases Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Household surveys, such as Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster RATIONALE Surveys, are generally conducted every three HIV/AIDS is claiming the lives of ever-growing to five years. numbers of adults just when they are forming48
  • 57. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesGENDER ISSUES and UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONALBoys and girls are both affected. However, girls DEVELOPMENT (2002). Children on the Brinkmight be more likely than boys to leave school 2002: A Joint Report on Orphan Estimatesto care for ill parents and younger siblings. and Program Strategies. UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND, UNAIDSDISAGGREGATION ISSUES and WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002).Data should be presented separately for boys Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity inand girls. Crisis. New York.COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS AGENCIESThe indicator is confined to children ages Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS10–14 for comparability, as age at school entry United Nations Children’s Fundvaries across countries. Household surveys canmiss children in unstable households, andorphaned children are disproportionately likelyto be in such households. 21 PREVALENCEWITH MALARIA RATES ASSOCIATED AND DEATHThe indicator is not a direct measure of the DEFINITIONnumber of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS, Prevalence of malaria is the number of casesdespite the wording. The indicator does not of malaria per 100,000 people. Death ratesdirectly distinguish the cause of orphanhood. associated with malaria refers to the numberHowever, it is believed that high proportions of of deaths caused by malaria per 100,000deaths of adults with school-age children in people.areas of HIV epidemics are likely to be related toHIV/AIDS. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and otherREFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA diseasesCOMPARISONS Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to CAROLINA POPULATION CENTER (2003). reverse the incidence of malaria and other National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to major diseases Monitoring and Evaluation. Chapel Hill. Available from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/ RATIONALE measure/guide/guide.html. The indicator allows highly endemic countries UNAIDS (2002). Monitoring the Declaration to monitor disease and death from malaria, of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on which have been increasing over the last two Construction of Core Indicators. Geneva. decades owing to deteriorating health sys- Available from http://www.unaids.org/en/ tems, growing drug and insecticide resist- in+ focus/monitoringevaluation. ance, periodic changes in weather patterns, UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and civil unrest, human migration and population Recommendations for Population and displacement. Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No. 67, Rev. 1. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Available METHOD OF COMPUTATION from http://unstats. un.org/unsd/pubs (A, Where the only prevalence data available are E, F, S). reported through the administration of health UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). services, they are expressed per 100,000 The State of the World’s Children. New York. population, using population estimates as the UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND, UNAIDS denominator. 49
  • 58. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals immunity to tropical diseases. Gender roles Where prevalence data on children under five and relations influence the degree of expo- come from household surveys, the data may sure to the relevant vectors and also to the be reported as percentages of children under access and control of resources needed to five with fever in the last two weeks. The per- protect women and men from being infected. centage may be multiplied by 1,000 to Women’s immunity is particularly compro- express the rate per 100,000. mised during pregnancy, making pregnant women more likely to become infected and The World Health Organization also produces implying differential severity of the conse- model-based estimates of malaria-specific quences. Malaria during pregnancy is an mortality. important cause of maternal mortality. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE DISAGGREGATION ISSUES Data come from administrative sources, All data should be classified by sex, as there household surveys and vital statistics regis- could be differential death rates. trations. Administrative data are derived by health ministries from the administration of Rural populations carry the overwhelming health services. Multiple Indicator Cluster burden of disease, so urban and rural disag- Surveys collect information on the prevalence gregation of the data is important in tracking of fever in the last two weeks for children the progress made in rural areas. Multiple under five. The surveys also provide data on Indicator Cluster Surveys data have shown all causes of under-five mortality. substantial difference by wealth quintiles, and where possible the data should be disaggre- Vital statistics registration systems collect gated by a wealth index. data on cause of death, including deaths caused by malaria. Good quality information COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS requires that death registration be near uni- Malaria statistics are reported in countries versal, that the cause of death be reported where it is endemic, which includes almost all routinely on the death record and that it be developing countries. However, data reported determined by a qualified observer according by ministries are often only a fraction of the to the International Classification of Diseases. number of cases in the population. Many Such information is not generally available in report only laboratory-confirmed cases. In developing countries but is now compiled by sub-Saharan Africa, clinically diagnosed WHO annually for approximately 70 (mainly cases also tend to be reported. developed) countries. Differences between male and female preva- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT lence and incidence rates are difficult to Administrative data are, in principle, available measure since malaria in women is more likely annually. Data from surveys are generally to be undetected. The fact that health services available every three to five years. focus almost exclusively on women’s repro- ductive function means that opportunities are GENDER ISSUES lost for detection of multiple conditions, Potential differences between men and women including tropical diseases. Moreover, when are a function of the interaction between bio- incidence rates in women and men are similar, logical factors and gender roles and relations. there are still significant differences between Biological factors vary between men and them in the susceptibility and the impact of women and influence susceptibility and tropical diseases.50
  • 59. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources menu.cfm. Geneva. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION and UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2003). AfricaREFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA Malaria Report. Available from http://www.COMPARISONS rbm.who.int/amd2003/amr2003/ GUNN, S.W.A., KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS amr_toc.htm . (1990). Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief. Dordrecht, AGENCIES The Netherlands. English/Français/Español Ministries of health /Arabic. United Nations Children’s Fund UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). World Health Organization The State of the World’s Children. New York. UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (2003 and annual). Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press. Available from http://hdr.undp.org. 22 PROPORTION OF POPULATION IN MALARIA-RISK AREAS USING WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World EFFECTIVE MALARIA PREVENTION Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. AND TREATMENT MEASURES Washington, D.C. Available in part from http://www.worldbank.org/data. DEFINITION WORLD BANK, UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S Malaria prevention is measured as the per- FUND, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION and centage of children ages 0–59 months sleep- UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME ing under insecticide-treated bednets. (2003). Roll Back Malaria (RBM). A Global Malaria treatment among children is meas- Partnership. Internet site http://www.rbm. ured as the proportion of children ages 0–59 who.int/. Geneva. months who were ill with fever in the two WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992). weeks before the survey and who received International Statistical Classification of appropriate antimalarial drugs. Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1998). Gender Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other and Health: Technical Paper. diseases WHO/FRH/WHD/98.16. Geneva. Available Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to from http://www.who.int/reproductive- reverse the incidence of malaria and other health/publications. Select: Gender. major diseases WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and annual). World Health Report. Geneva. RATIONALE Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ The Roll Back Malaria initiative, established in en. late 1998 by the World Health Organization, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002). 2001- the United Nations Children’s Fund and the 2010: United Nations Decade to Roll Back World Bank, identifies four main interventions Malaria: Monitoring and Evaluation. to reduce the burden of malaria in Africa: Geneva. Available from http://www.who. I Use of insecticide-treated bednets, which int/inf-fs/en/informationSheet11.pdf. have been demonstrated to cut all-cause WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHO child mortality over the first two years by Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)— 20 per cent. Evidence and Information for Health Policy. I Prompt access to effective treatment in or Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ near the home. 51
  • 60. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals I Provision of antimalarial drugs to symp- tom-free pregnant women in high trans- GENDER ISSUES mission areas. Girls may have greater exposure than boys to I Improved forecasting, prevention and rapid malaria-infested areas owing to their role in response to malaria epidemics. the provision of fuel, water and other supplies. In areas of sub-Saharan Africa with high levels of DISAGGREGATION ISSUES malaria transmission, regular use of an insecti- Disparities by sex, age, mother’s education cide-treated bednet can reduce mortality in chil- and area of residence should be assessed. dren under five years of age by as much as 20 per cent and has a significant impact on anemia. COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS Similar or greater benefits have been achieved Survey data are subject to sampling errors in other regions and for pregnant women. The and are undertaken only every few years. As prevention indicator will allow countries to mon- the data on bednet use are new, no trend data itor widespread use of insecticide-treated mate- are yet available. rials and other appropriate methods to limit contact between humans and mosquitoes. REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA COMPARISONS Detection of epidemics requires timely, com- GUNN, S.W.A. (1990). Multilingual plete surveillance of malaria cases and monitor- Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and ing of weather patterns. Reserve drug stocks, International Relief. Dordrecht, The transport and hospital capacity are needed to Netherlands: KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS. mount an appropriate response. In some epi- English/Français/Español/Arabic. demic zones, well-timed and targeted vector UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2003). The control activities have minimized the impact of Challenge – Scope of the Problem. Internet epidemics. The treatment indicator allows coun- site http://www.childinfo.org/eddb/Malaria. tries to monitor detection and appropriate New York. response to epidemics within two weeks of UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). onset. The State of the World’s Children. New York. UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME METHOD OF COMPUTATION (2003 and annual). Human Development For prevention, the indicator is calculated as the Report. New York: Oxford University Press. percentage of children under five years of age Available from http://hdr.undp.org. in the survey who slept under an insecticide- WORLD BANK, UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S treated bednet the previous night. FUND, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION and UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE (2003). Roll Back Malaria - A Global The only data sources are household surveys, Partnership. Internet site http://www.rbm. mainly Demographic and Health Surveys and who.int. Geneva. the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, malar- WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002). 2001- ia surveys and malaria modules added to 2010: United Nations Decade to Roll Back other ongoing household surveys. Malaria: Monitoring and evaluation. Geneva. Available from http://www.who. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT int/ inf-fs/en/informationSheet11.pdf. Data on coverage of insecticide-treated bed- WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and nets and treatment data should be collected annual). World Health Report. Geneva. about every two to three years. Available from http://www.who.int/whr/52
  • 61. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources en. pressed per 100,000 population, using the total population in the survey as the denominator.AGENCIES Tuberculosis prevalence is sometimes ex-Ministries of health pressed in absolute numbers of cases, whileUnited Nations Children’s Fund tuberculosis incidence in a given period (usu-World Health Organization ally one year) is always per 100,000 people. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE23 PREVALENCEWITH TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATED AND DEATH RATES Direct measures of tuberculosis prevalence are uncommon, and recent population-based sur- veys have been confined largely to countries inDEFINITION East Asia and the Pacific . Direct measures of theTuberculosis prevalence is the number of cases tuberculosis death rate come from vital statis-of tuberculosis per 100,000 people. Death tics registration. Reliable figures require thatrates associated with tuberculosis refers to death registration be nearly universal and thatthe number of deaths caused by tuberculosis the cause of death be reported routinely on theper 100,000 people. A tuberculosis case is death record and determined by a qualifieddefined as a patient in whom tuberculosis has observer according to the Internationalbeen bacteriologically confirmed or diag- Classification of Diseases. Such information isnosed by a clinician. not generally available in developing countries. Vital statistics registration systems tend toGOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED underestimate tuberculosis deaths, althoughGoal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other time series data from some countries in Asia anddiseases the Americas give a useful indication of trends.Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun toreverse the incidence of malaria and other In the absence of direct measures of prevalencemajor diseases and death rates, a variety of techniques can be used to estimate these values. AdministrativeRATIONALE data are derived from the administration ofDetecting tuberculosis and curing it are key health services. Data can also be obtained frominterventions for addressing poverty and such household surveys as Multiple Indicatorinequality. Prevalence and deaths are more Cluster Surveys or the Demographic and Healthsensitive markers of the changing burden of Surveys, although they usually refer only to chil-tuberculosis than incidence (new cases), dren under five and do not provide death rates.although data on trends in incidence are far Population data come directly or indirectly frommore comprehensive and give the best overview population censuses.of the impact of global tuberculosis control. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENTMETHOD OF COMPUTATION Administrative data are, in principle, availableWhere the only data available are data report- annually. Data from surveys are generallyed through the administration of health serv- available every three to five years. Resultsices, they are expressed per 100,000 popula- from population censuses are generally avail-tion, using population estimates as the able every 10 years.denominator. GENDER ISSUESWhere the data come from household surveys, At younger ages, the prevalence of infection isprevalence (and more rarely deaths) is ex- similar in boys and girls. At older ages, a higher 53
  • 62. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals prevalence has been found in men; in most http://www.worldbank.org/data. of the world, more men than women are diag- WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992). nosed with tuberculosis and die from it. International Statistical Classification of However, recent analyses comparing infection Diseases and Related Health Problems, and disease rates suggest that the propensity Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva. to develop the disease after infection with WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1998). Gender mycobacterium tuberculosis (the progression and Health, Technical Paper. Geneva. rate) may be greater among women of repro- Available from http://www.who.int/ ductive age than among men of the same age. reproductive-health/publications. A recent review of socio-economic and cultur- WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and al factors relating to the suggested differ- annual). World Health Report. Geneva. ences called for further research to clarify such Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ differences in the epidemiology of tuberculosis. en. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). Global Although more men than women die of tuber- Tuberculosis Control – Surveillance, Planning, culosis, it is still a leading cause of death from Financing. WHO Report 2003. Geneva. infectious disease among women. Since WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHO tuberculosis affects women mainly in their Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)— economically and reproductively active years, Evidence and Information for Health Policy. the impact of the disease is also strongly felt Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ by their children and families. menu.cfm. Geneva. DISAGGREGATION ISSUES AGENCIES It is important to compile data by sex and to Ministries of health. take a gender perspective in the analysis. World Health Organization. COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS Tuberculosis prevalence and death rate data reported by ministries in developing countries 24 PROPORTION OF TUBERCULOSIS CASES DETECTED AND CURED UNDER are usually only a fraction of the number of INTERNATIONALLY RECOMMENDED cases and deaths from tuberculosis in the TB CONTROL STRATEGY population. DEFINITION REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA The tuberculosis detection rate is the percent- COMPARISONS age of estimated new infectious tuberculosis GUNN, S.W.A. (1990). Multilingual cases detected under the internationally rec- Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and ommended tuberculosis control strategy International Relief. Dordrecht, The DOTS. DOTS combines five elements—politi- Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publis- cal commitment, microscopy services, drug hers . English/Français/Español/Arabic. supplies, surveillance and monitoring systems UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME and use of highly efficacious regimes—with (2003 and annual). Human Development direct observation of treatment. The cure Report. New York: Oxford University Press. rate is the percentage of new, registered Available from http://hdr.undp.org. smear-positive (infectious) cases that were WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World cured or in which a full course of DOTS was Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. completed. A tuberculosis case is defined as a Washington, D.C. Available in part from patient in whom tuberculosis has been bateri-54
  • 63. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesologically confirmed or diagnosed by a clini- the numerator.cian.GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCEGoal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other Data on both the detection rate and the treat-diseases ment success rate are derived from WorldTarget 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to Health Organization DOTS programmes, whichreverse the incidence of malaria and other monitor and report cases detected, treatmentmajor diseases progress and programme performance.RATIONALE PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENTSince tuberculosis is an airborne contagious Administrative data are, in principle, availabledisease, primary control is effected through annually. Household surveys are generallyfinding and treating infectious cases and thus available annually. Household surveys arelimiting the risk of acquiring infection. The generally available every three to five years.recommended approach to primary control is Data from DOTS programmes, though incom-the DOTS strategy, an inexpensive strategy plete, are updated frequently.that could prevent millions of tuberculosiscases and deaths over the coming decade. GENDER ISSUES At younger ages, the prevalence of infection isDOTS is a proven system based on accurate similar in boys and girls. At older ages, a higherdiagnosis and consistent treatment with a prevalence has been found in men; in most offull course of a mixture of anti-tuberculosis the world, more men than women are diagnoseddrugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, with tuberculosis and die from it. However,streptomycin and ethambutol). DOTS requires recent analyses comparing infection and diseasegovernment commitment, careful detection, rates suggest that the propensity to developconsistent treatment, uninterrupted supply of the disease after infection with mycobacteri-anti-tuberculosis drugs and a monitoring and um tuberculosis (the progression rate) may bereporting system to evaluate treatment out- greater among women of reproductive agecomes for each patient. than among men of the same age. A recent review of socio-economic and cultural factorsMETHOD OF COMPUTATION relating to the suggested differences calledThe case detection rate is the ratio of smear- for further research to clarify such differencespositive case notifications in a given year to the in the epidemiology of tuberculosis.estimated number of new smear-positive casesarising in that year. For some countries, there Tuberculosis is nevertheless a leading causeis a margin of uncertainty in the estimation of of death from infectious disease amongthe denominator of this ratio. women. Since tuberculosis affects women mainly in their economically and reproductivelyThe treatment success rates is the ratio of active years, the impact of the disease is alsonew, registered smear-positive (infectious) strongly felt by their children and families.cases that were cured or that completed a fullcourse of DOTS to the total number of new, COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSregistered cases. Treatment success rates can Tuberculosis cases reported by ministries inbe monitored directly and accurately in developing countries are usually only a fractioncohorts of patients treated under the DOTS of the number of cases in the population. It isstrategy. Systematic evaluation of patient estimated that in 2000 only 27 per cent ofprogress and treatment outcomes provides new cases were notified under DOTS and only 55
  • 64. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals about 19 per cent of cases were successfully tations. It refers to land with an existing or treated. expected tree canopy of more than 10 per REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA cent and an area of more than 0.5 hectare COMPARISONS where the trees should be able to reach a min- GUNN, S.W.A., (1990). Multilingual Diction- imum height of five metres. Forests are iden- ary of Disaster Medicine and International tified by both the presence of trees and the Relief. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer absence of other land uses. Land from which Academic Publishers. English/Français/ forest has been cleared but that will be refor- Español/Arabic. ested in the foreseeable future is included. STOP TB PARTNERSHIP (2003). Stop Tuber- Excluded are stands of trees established pri- culosis, the Stop TB Partnetship. Internet marily for agricultural production, such as site http://www.stoptb.org . fruit tree plantations. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992). International Statistical Classification of GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED Diseases and Related Health Problems, Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva. Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and development into country policies and pro- annual). World Health Report. Geneva. grammes and reverse the loss of environmen- Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ tal resources en. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). Global RATIONALE Tuberculosis Control – Surveillance, Planning, The indicator provides a measure of the rela- Financing. WHO Report 2003. Geneva. tive importance of a forest in a country. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHO Changes in forest area reflect the demand for Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)— land for other competitive uses. Evidence and Information for Health Policy. Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ Forests fulfil a number of functions that are menu.cfm. Geneva. vital for humanity, including the provision of goods (timber and non-timber products) and AGENCIES services such as protection against flooding, Ministries of health habitat for biodiversity, carbon sequestration, World Health Organization watershed protection and soil conservation. Large areas of the world’s forests have been converted to other uses or severely degraded. 25 PROPORTION OF LAND AREA COV- ERED BY FOREST While substantial areas of productive forest remain, there is now widespread recognition that the resource is not infinite and that its DEFINITION wise and sustainable use is needed for The Proportion of land area covered by forest humanity’s survival. is the forest areas as a share of total land area, where land area is the total surface area METHOD OF COMPUTATION of the country less the area covered by inland The proportion of forest in the total land area waters, such as major rivers and lakes. As is calculated from information provided by defined by the Food and Agriculture countries or from satellite images or other Organization of the United Nations in Global remote sensing information analysis. Changes Forest Resources Assessmen, 2000, forest in the proportion should be computed to iden- includes both natural forests and forest plan- tify trends.56
  • 65. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources The proportion of total forest cover (includingDATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE both natural forest and plantation) mayFAO global forest resource assessments, underestimate the rate at which natural for-regional forest resource assessments, special est is disappearing in some countries.studies and surveys, national forest invento-ries and satellite images. It is also recommended that immediate users or beneficiaries of wooded land be identified.PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENTFAO global forest resource assessments are REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAcarried out every 5–10 years, incorporating COMPARISONSnational forest resource variables, which FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THEare measured in the national forest inventory UNITED NATIONS (2000). Global Forestprocess at different intervals (often 5–10 years). Resources Assessment, 2000. Rome. Available from http://www.fao.org/GENDER ISSUES forestry/fo/fra.Men and women use forest products in different FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THEways. Women typically gather forest products UNITED NATIONS (2003 and biennial). State offor fuel, fencing, food for the family, fodder the World’s Forests. Available from http://for livestock, medicine and raw materials for www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y7581E/Y758income-generating activities. Women are also 1E00.HTM.often the chief sources of information on the UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FORuse and management of trees and other for- EUROPE (2000). Forest Resources of Europe,est plants. Men, on the other hand, tend to CIS, North America, Australia, Japan anduse non-wood forest products, but also more New Zealand. Sales No. 99.II.E.96. Availableoften cut wood to sell or use for building from http://www.unece.org/ trade/tim-materials. Women’s access to forest products ber/fra/ pdf/contents.htm.may not be ensured—even where women UNITED NATIONS. ECONOMIC COMMISSION FORhave ownership rights to land. EUROPE. CONFERENCE OF EUROPEAN STATISTICS (1989). ECE Standard StatisticalDISAGGREGATION ISSUES Classification of Land Use. Geneva.FAO provides a breakdown of forest cover Available from http://www.unescap.org/between natural forest and plantation for stat/ envstat/stwes-class-landuse.pdf.developing countries only. UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (2003). Internet site http://www.unep.org.COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS Nairobi.National forest inventories and forest surveys WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). Worldare irregular in some countries and may be Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.significantly out of date. Owing to climatic Washington, D.C. Available in part fromand geographical differences, forest areas http:// www.worldbank.org/data.vary in importance among countries. Overtime, changes in area covered by forests as Although the FAO forestry-related definitionswell as area covered by forests should be doc- are clear and applied at the international level,umented. Longer time series may be difficult countries have historically used their ownto compare directly without analysis of differ- definitions in conducting national forest inven-ences in definitions, methods and underlying tories and assessments. Considerable effortsdata. have been made to adjust data based on 57
  • 66. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals national definitions to comparable internation- harbouring an untold wealth of genetic re- al ones, and FAO documents those adjust- sources; supporting thriving recreation and ments in Global Forest Resources Assessment. tourism industries; providing for science, research and education; and forming a basis AGENCIES for cultural and other non-material values. Ministries of environment Those values continue to grow in importance. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations METHOD OF COMPUTATION Protected areas, both terrestrial and marine, are totalled and expressed as a percentage of 26 RATIO OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY MAINTAIN AREA PROTECTED TO the total surface area of the country. The total surface area of the country includes terrestri- TO SURFACE AREA al area plus any territorial sea area (up to 12 nautical miles). DEFINITION The ratio of area protected to maintain biolog- DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE ical diversity to surface area is defined as Data are collected by ministries of environ- nationally protected area as a percentage of ment and other ministries responsible for the total surface area of a country. The generally designation and maintenance of protected accepted IUCN–World Conservation Union areas. Data are stored in the World Database definition of a protected area is an area of land on Protected Areas and can be accessed at or sea dedicated to the protection and main- http://sea.unep-wcmc. org/ wdbpa/UN.cfm. tenance of biological diversity and of natural and associated cultural resources and man- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT aged through legal or other effective means. Data are constantly updated in the World Database on Protected Areas as new informa- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED tion is received from countries. Goal 7 Ensure environmental sustainability Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustain- GENDER ISSUES able development into country policies and Mainstream agricultural, environmental and programmes and reverse the loss of environ- related policies and programmes tend to envi- mental resources sion farmers as men and often fail to recog- nize women’s work, knowledge, contributions RATIONALE and needs. This tendency has important con- Habitat conservation is vital for stemming the sequences for biodiversity as well as for gen- decline in biodiversity. The establishment of der equality. protected areas is an important mechanism for achieving that aim. Some areas, such as COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS scientific reserves, are maintained in their The designation of an area as protected is natural state and closed to extractive use. not confirmation that protection measures Others are partially protected and may be are actually in force. The indicator provides a used for recreation or tourism. measure of Governments’ will to protect bio- diversity. It does not measure the effective- In addition to protecting biodiversity, protect- ness of policy tools in reducing biodiversity ed areas have become places of high social loss, which ultimately depends on a range of and economic value: supporting local liveli- management and implementation factors not hoods; protecting watersheds from erosion; covered by the indicator.58
  • 67. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources WORLD CONSERVATION MONITORING CENTREThe indicator provides no information on areas (2003). World Database on Protected Areas.that are not designated as protected but that Internet site http://sea.unep-wcmc.org .may also be important for conserving biodi- Cambridge, United Kingdom.versity. WORLD CONSERVATION UNION (IUCN). Biodiversity Policy Coordination Division.The data also do not include sites protected Internet site http://www.iucn.org/themes/under local or provincial law. biodiversity. WORLD CONSERVATION UNION, WORLDNo quantified target has been established for COMMISSION OF PROTECTED AREAS with thethis indicator. assistance of the WORLD CONSERVATION MONITORING CENTRE (1994). Guidelines forREFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA Protected Area Management Categories.COMPARISONS Cambridge, United Kingdom. Available from ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND http://www.wcmc.org.uk/protected_area/ DEVELOPMENT/DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE categories/eng. COMMITTEE (2003). Biodiversity and equality between women and men. In Tipsheets for AGENCIES Improving Gender Equality. Available from Ministries of environment http://www1.oecd.org/dac/gender/htm/ United Nations Environment Programme, tipsheets.htm. Paris. World Conservation Monitoring Centre RAMSAR CONVENTION BUREAU and UNITED IUCN–World Conservation Union NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Internet site http://www.ramsar.org. Geneva. 27 ENERGY USE PER $1 GROSS EQUIVALENT) (KILOGRAM OIL UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of DOMESTIC PRODUCT (PPP) Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6. DEFINITION Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ Energy use (kilogram oil equivalent) per $1 sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm. gross domestic product (PPP) is commercial UNITED NATIONS. ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR energy use measured in units of oil equivalent EUROPE. CONFERENCE OF EUROPEAN STATISTICS per $1 of gross domestic product converted (1989). ECE Standard Statistical Classifica- from national currencies using purchasing tion of Land Use. Geneva. Available from power parity conversion factors. http://www.unescap.org/stat/envstat/ stwes-class-landuse.pdf. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). The MAB Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustain- Programme: World Network of Biosphere able development into country policies and Reserves. Internet site http://www.unesco. programmes and reverse the loss of environ- org/mab/wnbr.htm. Paris. mental resources UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). World Heritage. RATIONALE Internet site http://whc.unesco.org/nwhc/ The indicator provides a measure of energy pages/home/pages/homepage.htm. Paris. intensity (it is the inverse of energy efficiency). UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME– Differences in this ratio over time and across 59
  • 68. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals countries reflect structural changes in the INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (annual). Energy economy, changes in the energy efficiency of Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris. particular sectors and differences in fuel mixes. INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (annual). In principle, the lower the ratio, the better the Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris. energy efficiency. UNITED NATIONS (1987). Energy Statistics – Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion METHOD OF COMPUTATION Factors, Series F, No. 44. Sales No. Total commercial energy consumption is con- E.86.XVII.21. Available from http://unstats. verted to metric ton oil equivalence using un.org/unsd/ pubs. (E, F, R, S) standard tables. GDP data must be converted UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of using PPP tables so that real output is compared Sustainable Development: Guidelines and with real energy input. National total GDP is Methodologies. Department of Economic deflated (currently to 1995 US PPP dollars) by and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable reference to PPP tables derived from the Development Sales No. E.01.II.A.6. International Comparison Programme. Energy Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ input is divided by GDP to derive the ratio. sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm. UNITED NATIONS (2003). Energy Statistics. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Internet site http://unstats.un.org/unsd/ Energy consumption is calculated from national energy. energy balance sheets. Real GDP comes from UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium the national income accounts deflated by Indicators Database. Statistics Division reference to PPP tables prepared by the Internet site http://millenniumindicators. International Comparison Programme. un.org. Traditional fuels, such as animal and vegetable UNITED NATIONS. COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN waste, fuel wood and charcoal, are excluded. COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT DEVELOPMENT and WORLD BANK (1994). Data are available annually. System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No. DISAGGREGATION ISSUES E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates from This is a relatively crude indicator and needs http://unstats. un.org/unsd/sna1993. to be broken down by sector of industry to be WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World interpreted. Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. Washington, D.C. Available in part from COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS http://www.worldbank.org/data . As the input is commercial energy, it should be compared with the output from that ener- AGENCIES gy, deflated by the purchasing power parities International Energy Agency relevant to that output. Changes in the ratio World Bank over time are influenced almost as much by United Nations Statistics Division changes in the structure of the economy as by changes in sectoral energy intensities. REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA COMPARISONS INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (2003). Internet site http://www.iea.org . Paris.60
  • 69. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources programmes and reverse the loss of environ-28 CARBON AND CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA DIOXIDE EMISSIONS OF mental resources OZONE-DEPLETING CHLOROFLUORO- RATIONALE CARBONS (ODP TONS) The indicators signify the commitment to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and progressDEFINITION in phasing out the consumption of CFCs byCarbon dioxide emissions per capita is the countries that have ratified the Montrealtotal amount of carbon dioxide emitted by a Protocol. Carbon dioxide emissions are largelycountry as a consequence of human (produc- a by-product of energy production and use.tion and consumption) activities, divided by They account for the largest share of green-the population of the country. In the global house gases associated with global warming.carbon dioxide emission estimates of theCarbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Vienna Convention for the Protection ofof Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the the Ozone Layer (1985) and the MontrealUnited States, the calculated country emis- Protocol (1987) are now recognized as havingsions of carbon dioxide include emissions been successful in preventing the global envi-from consumption of solid, liquid and gas ronmental catastrophe that could have beenfuels; cement production; and gas flaring. caused by stratospheric ozone depletion. TheNational reporting to the United Nations Montreal Protocol aims to reduce and eventu-Framework Convention on Climate Change, ally eliminate the emissions of anthropogenicwhich follows the Intergovernmental Panel on ozone-depleting substances by ceasing theirClimate Change guidelines, is based on production and consumption. The phasing outnational emission inventories and covers all of ozone-depleting substances and theirsources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide replacement with less harmful substances oremissions as well as carbon sinks (such as new processes are aimed at the recovery offorests). the ozone layer.Consumption of ozone-depleting chlorofluoro- CFCs are considered most representative ofcarbons (CFCs) in ODP (ozone-depleting poten- the protocol’s efforts to phase out the use oftial) tons is the sum of the consumption of the ozone-depleting substances since they wereweighted tons of the individual substances in the first to be targeted for elimination.the group—metric tons of the individual sub-stance (defined in the Montreal Protocol on METHOD OF COMPUTATIONSubstances that Deplete the Ozone Layer) Carbon dioxide emissions per capita are cal-multiplied by its ozone-depleting potential. culated by dividing carbon dioxide emissionsAn ozone-depleting substance is any sub- by the number of people in the national pop-stance containing chlorine or bromine that ulation. Carbon dioxide emission estimatesdestroys the stratospheric ozone layer. The from 1950 to the present are derived primari-stratospheric ozone layer absorbs most of the ly from energy statistics published by thebiologically damaging ultraviolet radiation. United Nations, using the methods outlined in “Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels: aGOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED procedure for estimation and results forGoal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 1950–82”. National reporting to the UnitedTarget 9. Integrate the principles of sustain- Nations Framework Convention on Climateable development into country policies and Change is based on the Intergovernmental 61
  • 70. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals Panel on Climate Change guidelines. Carbon ecosystem response. dioxide emissions can be expressed in terms REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA of carbon dioxide or converted to carbon con- COMPARISONS tent. CARBON DIOXIDE INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTRE (CDIAC) (2003). Global, Regional, and The consumption of CFCs is the national pro- National Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions: duction plus imports, minus exports, minus http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/meth_ destroyed quantities, minus feedstock uses of reg.htm. Oak Ridge, Tennessee. individual CFCs. National annual consump- CARBON DIOXIDE INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTRE tion of CFCs is the sum of the weighted tons (CDIAC) (2003). Internet site (consumption in metric tons multiplied by the http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/. Oak Ridge, estimated ozone-depleting potential) of the Tennessee. individual CFCs. MARLAND, G., and R.M. ROTTY (1984). Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels: DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE a procedure for estimation and results for National carbon dioxide emissions are esti- 1950–82. Tellus, 36(B): 232–61. mated from detailed data on emission sources, UNITED NATIONS (1996). Glossary of using source-specific emission factors. Emission Environmental Statistics, Series F, No. 67 inventories are usually compiled by energy or (United Nations publication, Sales No. environment ministries. Annex I parties (dev- E.96.XVII.12). Available from eloped countries) to the United Nations http://unstats. un.org/unsd/pubs. (A, C, E, Framework Convention on Climate Change sub- F, R, S) mit their data on greenhouse gas emissions to UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of the organization’s secretariat through an Sustainable Development: Guidelines and annual reporting format. Reporting of Non- Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6. annex I parties is voluntary and occasional. Available from http:// www.un.org/esa/ Where national emission inventories are absent, sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm. official sources are supplemented by other UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME sources and estimates. (2002). Production and Consumption of Ozone-Depleting Substances under the Estimation of the consumption of CFCs requires Montreal Protocol, 1986-2000. Available data on national production plus imports, from http://www.unep.ch/ozone/15-year- minus exports, minus stocks destroyed. data-report.pdf. Nairobi. Those can be derived from national produc- UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME tion and international trade statistics. (2003). The Ozone Secretariat. Internet site http://www.unep.org/ozone/. Nairobi. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON Data are usually collected annually. CLIMATE CHANGE (2003). Greenhouse Gas Inventory Database (GHG). Internet site COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS http://ghg.unfccc.int. Bonn, Germany. For carbon dioxide emissions, trend data are UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON more reliable than data comparisons between CLIMATE CHANGE (2003). Internet site countries. http://www.unfccc.int. Bonn, Germany. WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World For ozone depletion, the indicator does not Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. reveal much about current trends in deterio- Washington, D.C. Available in part from ration of the ozone layer owing to delays in http://www.worldbank.org/data.62
  • 71. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION AND complex phenomenon and depends on inter- UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME. actions of pollution source (fuel and stove type), INTER-GOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE pollution dispersion (housing and ventilation) (2003). Internet site http://www.ipcc.ch. and the time-activity budget of household Geneva. members. The type of fuel and participation in WORLD RESOURCE INSTITUTE (2003). cooking tasks have consistently been the EarthTrends: The Environment Information most important predictors of exposure. Portal. Internet site http://earthtrends. wri.org. Washington, D.C. METHOD OF COMPUTATION The indicator is computed as the ratio ofAGENCIES households using one or more unprocessed solidCarbon dioxide: fuels (dung and crop residues, wood, char-United Nations Framework Convention on coal, and coal) for cooking and heating, to theClimate Change total population, expressed as a percentage.United Nations Statistics DivisionChlorofluorocarbons: DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCEUnited Nations Environment Programme, Data can be derived from household surveys,Ozone Secretariat such as Living Standard Measurement study surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys and from population censuses. Standard questions for inclusion in all nationally repre- 29 PROPORTION FUELS POPULATION USING SOLID OF THE sentative household surveys have not yet been developed and no internationally com-DEFINITION parable data are available.Proportion of population using solid fuels isthe proportion of the population that relies on GENDER ISSUESbiomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues and More than half the world’s households cookdung) and coal as the primary source of with unprocessed solid fuels, exposing prima-domestic energy for cooking and heating. rily women and children to indoor air pollu- tion, which can result in serious health prob-GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED lems, such as acute respiratory diseases. InGoal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability addition, women spend more time than menTarget 9. Integrate the principles of sustain- gathering wood for fuel.able development into country policies andprogrammes and reverse the loss of environ- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSmental resources Development of standard questions for inclu- sion in all nationally representative householdRATIONALE surveys and censuses is needed to obtainIncomplete and inefficient combustion of data for calculating the indicator and allowingsolid fuels results in the emission of hundreds comparisons across countries.of compounds, many of which are health-damaging pollutants or greenhouse gases Since the use of solid fuels affects both thethat contribute to global climate change. There environment and the population as a wholeare also important linkages between house- and the health status of those directlyhold solid fuel use, indoor air pollution, defor- exposed, guidelines should clearly set defini-estation and soil erosion and greenhouse gas tions and measurement standards for what isemissions. Exposure to indoor air pollution is a intended by “exposure”. 63
  • 72. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA 30 PROPORTION OF ACCESS TO WITH SUSTAINABLE POPULATION AN COMPARISONS IMPROVED WATER SOURCE, URBAN BRUCE, NIGEL, ROGELIO PEREZ-PADILLA and AND RURAL RACHEL ALBALAK (2000). Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environ- DEFINITION mental and public health challenge. Bulletin The proportion of the population with sustain- of the World Health Organization 78 (9), able access to an improved water source, 1078-1092 Geneva. urban and rural, is the percentage of the pop- STAKEHOLDER FORUM (2002). Earth Summit ulation who use any of the following types of Forum 2002. Internet site http://www.earth water supply for drinking: piped water, public summit2002.org/es/issues/gender/gen- tap, borehole or pump, protected well, pro- der.htm. tected spring or rainwater. Improved water UNITED NATIONS (1982). Concepts and sources do not include vendor-provided Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special water, bottled water, tanker trucks or unpro- Reference to Energy Accounts and tected wells and springs. Balances: A Technical Report, Series F, No. 29. Sales No. E.82.XVII.13 and corrigen- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED dum. Available from http://unstats.un.org/ Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability. unsd/pubs (E, F, R). Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of UNITED NATIONS (1987). Energy Statistics – people without sustainable access to safe Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion drinking water and basic sanitation. Factors, Series F, No. 44. Sales No. E.86.XVII.21. Available from http://unstats. RATIONALE un.org/unsd/pubs (E, F, R, S). The indicator monitors access to improved WORLD BANK (2003). Briefing Notes on water sources based on the assumption that Gender and Development - Energy. improved sources are more likely to provide Available from http://www.worldbank.org/ safe water. Unsafe water is the direct cause of gender/resources/briefing. Washington, many diseases in developing countries. D.C. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002). World METHOD OF COMPUTATION Health Report 2002 – Reducing Risks, The indicator is computed as the ratio of the Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva. Available number of people who use piped water, public from http://www.who.int/whr/en. tap, borehole or pump, protected well, protected spring or rainwater to the total population, The World Health Organization has produced expressed as a percentage. The same method estimates of regional aggregates for this indi- applies for the urban and rural breakdown. cator. However, no country data series are available to allow comparison across coun- Access to safe water refers to the percentage tries or assessment of trends. of the population with reasonable access to an adequate supply of safe water in their AGENCIES dwelling or within a convenient distance of National statistical offices their dwelling. The Global Water Supply and World Health Organization Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report defines reasonable access as “the availability of 20 litres per capita per day at a distance no longer than 1,000 metres”. However, access64
  • 73. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesand volume of drinking water are difficult to GENDER ISSUESmeasure, so sources of drinking water that Women and men usually have different rolesare thought to provide safe water are used as in water and sanitation activities. The differ-a proxy. ences are particularly pronounced in rural areas. Women are most often the users,The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) providers and managers of water in ruraland the World Health Organization (WHO), households and the guardians of householdthrough the Joint Monitoring Programme, hygiene. If a water system breaks down,assess trends in “access to improved drinking women are more likely to be affected thanwater sources” by drawing a regression line men because they have to travel farther forthrough the available household survey and water or use other means to meet the house-census data for each country (details are avail- hold’s water and sanitation needs.able at http://www.childinfo.org). Regionaland global estimates are aggregated from the DISAGGREGATION ISSUESnational estimates, using population-weight- The indicator should be monitored separatelyed averages. for urban and rural areas. Because of nation- al differences in characteristics that distin-DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE guish urban from rural areas, the distinctionSince the late 1990s, data have routinely been between urban and rural population is notcollected at the national and subnational levels amenable to a single definition applicable toin more than 100 countries using censuses and all countries. National definitions are mostsurveys by national Governments, often with commonly based on size of locality, with ruralsupport from international development agen- population as the residual of population thatcies. Two data sources are common: administra- is not considered urban.tive or infrastructure data that report on newand existing facilities, and data from household COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSsurveys, including Multiple Indicator Cluster When data from administrative sources areSurveys, Demographic and Health Surveys and used, they generally refer to existing sources,Living Standards Measurement study surveys. whether used or not. Despite official WHO defi-Before the population-based data were avail- nitions, the judgment about whether a waterable, provider-based data were used. source is safe is often subjective. In addition, the existence of a water supply does not necessari-Evidence suggests that data from surveys are ly mean that it is safe or that local people use it.more reliable than administrative records and For those and other reasons, household surveyprovide information on facilities actually used data are generally better than administrativeby the population. data, since survey data are based on actual use of sources by the surveyed population ratherPERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT than the simple existence of the sources.Administrative data are often available annu-ally. Household surveys are generally con- While access is the most reasonable indicatorducted every three to five years. for water supply, it still involves severe method- ological and practical problems. Among them:WHO and UNICEF annually compile interna- I The data are not routinely collected by “thetional data and prepare regional and global sector” but by others outside the sector asestimates based on household survey data. part of more general surveys. I Water quality is not systematically addressed. I The timing of collection and analysis of 65
  • 74. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals household survey data is irregular, with long WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and intervals between surveys annual). World Health Report. Geneva. Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA en. COMPARISONS WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION AND UNITED ORC MACRO (2003). Demographic and NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2000). Global Health Surveys – Providing Information for Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment Informed Decisions in Population, Health 2000 Report, pp.77-78. Geneva. Available and Nutrition. Internet site http://www. from http://www.who.int/docstore/water_ measuredhs.com. Calverton, Maryland. sanitation_health/Globassessment/GlobalTO UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and C.htm. Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No. AGENCIES 67, Rev. 1. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Available National statistical offices from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs (A, United Nations Children’s Fund E, F, S). World Health Organization UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6. Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ 31 PROPORTION OF POPULATION WITH ACCESS TO IMPROVED SANITATION, sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm. URBAN AND RURAL UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators Database. Statistics Division Internet site DEFINITION http://millenniumindicators.un.org. Proportion of the urban and rural population UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2003). with access to improved sanitation refers to Progress since the World Summit for the percentage of the population with access Children. New York. Available from http:// to facilities that hygienically separate human www.childinfo.org. excreta from human, animal and insect con- UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (annual). tact. Facilities such as sewers or septic tanks, The State of the World’s Children. New York. poor-flush latrines and simple pit or ventilat- WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World ed improved pit latrines are assumed to be Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. adequate, provided that they are not public, Washington, D.C. Available in part from according to the World Health Organization http://www.worldbank.org/data. and United Nations Children’s Fund’s Global WORLD BANK (2003). Briefing Notes on Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Gender Development - Water and Sanitation. Report. To be effective, facilities must be cor- Washington, D.C. Available from http:// rectly constructed and properly maintained. www.worldbank.org/gender/resources/ briefing. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED WORLD BANK (2003). The Living Standards Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability Measurement Study of the World Bank Target 10. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of (LSMS). Internet site http://www.world- people without sustainable access to safe bank.org/lsms. Washington, D.C. drinking water and basic sanitation WORLD BANK (2003). Toolkit on Gender in Water and Sanitation. Washington, D.C. RATIONALE Available from http://www.worldbank.org/ Good sanitation is important for urban and rural gender/resources/sectoraltools.htm. populations, but the risks are greater in urban66
  • 75. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesareas where it is more difficult to avoid con- holds and the guardians of household hygiene.tact with waste. If a water system breaks down, women are more likely to be affected than men becauseMETHOD OF COMPUTATION they have to travel farther for water or useThe indicator is computed as the ratio of the other means to meet the household’s waternumber of people in urban or rural areas with and sanitation needs.access to improved excreta-disposal facilitiesto the total urban or rural population, expressed DISAGGREGATION ISSUESas a percentage. The indicator should be monitored separately for urban and rural areas. Owing to nationalDATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE differences in characteristics that distinguishSince the late 1990s, data have routinely been urban from rural areas, the distinctioncollected at national and subnational levels in between urban and rural population is notmore than 100 countries using censuses and amenable to a single definition applicable tosurveys by national Governments, often with all countries. National definitions are mostsupport from international development commonly based on size of locality, with ruralagencies. Two data sources are common: ad- population as the residual of population thatministrative or infrastructure data that report is not considered urban.on new and existing facilities, and data fromhousehold surveys including Multiple Indicator COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSCluster Surveys, Demographic and Health When data are from administrative sources,Surveys, and LSMS surveys. Before those they generally refer to existing sanitationpopulation-based data were available, facilities, whether used or not. Household sur-provider-based data were used. vey data are therefore generally better than administrative data, since survey data areEvidence suggests that data from surveys are based on actual use of facilities by the sur-more reliable than administrative records and veyed population rather than the simple exis-provide information on facilities actually used tence of the facilities.by the population. While access is the most reasonable indicatorRural and urban population statistics come for sanitation facilities, it still involves severedirectly from population censuses. methodological and practical problems, including the following:PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT I The data are not routinely collected by “theAdministrative data are often available annu- sector” but by others outside the sector asally. Household surveys are generally conducted part of more general surveysevery three to five years. WHO and UNICEF I Facility quality is not systematicallyannually compile international data and pre- addressedpare regional and global estimates based on I The timing of collection and analysis ofhousehold survey data. household survey data is irregular, with long intervals between surveysGENDER ISSUESWomen and men usually have different roles The definition of access to improved sanita-in water and sanitation activities. The differ- tion facilities and methods for assessing it areences are particularly pronounced in rural even more contentious than those for water,areas. Women are most often the users, pro- with national definitions of “acceptable” sani-viders and managers of water in rural house- tation varying widely. 67
  • 76. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA COMPARISONS 32 PROPORTION OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO SECURE TENURE ORC MACRO (2003). Demographic and Health Surveys – Providing Information for DEFINITION Informed Decisions in Population, Health The proportion of households with access to and Nutrition. Internet site http://www. secure tenure is 1 minus the percentage of measuredhs.com. Calverton, Maryland. the urban population that lives in slums. In the UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and absence of data on number of slum dwellers, Recommendations for Population and the United Nations Human Settlements Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No. Programme (UN-HABITAT) produces estimates 67, Rev. 1. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Available based on a definition of slums as agreed by from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs (A, the Expert Group Meeting on Urban Indicators E, F, S). in 2002. Those indicators will be adjusted, UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of and the definitions of secure tenure and Sustainable Development: Guidelines and slums will be refined through future consulta- Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6. tions with Expert Group Meeting participants Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ and their related networks of professionals. sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm. UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators Secure tenure refers to households that own Database. Statistics Division Internet site or are purchasing their homes, are renting pri- http://millenniumindicators.un.org. vately or are in social housing or subtenancy. UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2003). Households without secure tenure are defined Progress since the World Summit for Children. as squatters (whether or not they pay rent), New York. Available from http://www. homeless and households with no formal childinfo.org . agreement. WORLD BANK (2003) The Living Standards Measurement Study of the World Bank UN-HABITAT defines a slum household as a (LSMS). Internet site http://www.worldbank. group of individuals living under the same org/lsms. Washington, D.C. roof who lack one or more (in some cities, two WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION AND UNITED or more) of the following conditions: security NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2000). Global of tenure, structural quality and durability of Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment dwellings, access to safe water, access to 2000 Report. Geneva. Available from sanitation facilities and sufficient living area. http://www.who.int/docstore/ water_sani- tation_health/Globassessment/GlobalTOC. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED htm . Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability Target 11. By 2020, to have achieved a signifi- AGENCIES cant improvement in the lives of at least 100 National statistical offices million slum dwellers United Nations Children’s Fund World Health Organization RATIONALE The indicator is intended to provide an overview of the share of urban population liv- ing in conditions of poverty and physical and environmental deprivation.68
  • 77. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesMETHOD OF COMPUTATION REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAThe indicator is computed as 1 minus the ratio COMPARISONSof the number of households in urban areas CENTER ON HOUSING RIGHTS AND EVICTIONSthat lack one or more of the above-mentioned (2003). Women and housing rights. Inconditions listed under “Definition”to the num- Housing Rights. Geneva. Available fromber of urban households, expressed as a per- http://www.cohre.org/hrframe.htm.centage. UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators Database. Statistics Division Internet siteDATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE http://millenniumindicators.un.org.Data come mainly from household surveys UNITED NATIONS. COMMISSION ON HUMANsuch as the Demographic and Health Surveys, RIGHTS. Women’s equal ownership of,Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Joint access to and control over land and theMonitoring Programme questionnaires. In equal rights to own property and to ade-countries without such data from surveys, quate housing. Official Records of thedata can be derived from population and Economic and Social Council, Fifty-sixthhousing censuses, which usually include Session Supplemjent No. 3 (E/200/23-questions about housing tenure. E/CN.4/2000/167), resolution 2000/13. Geneva. Available from http://www.UN-HABITAT produces slum population esti- unhabitat.org/programmes/landtenure/mates based on those national sources for 13.asp.assessing regional and global trends. UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT) (2002). Expert Group MeetingPERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT on Urban Indicators – Secure Tenure, SlumsHousehold surveys are generally conducted and Global Sample of Cities. Nairobi.every three to five years. Censuses are con- Available from http://www.unhabitat.org/ducted every 10 years. programmes/guo/documents/EGM final report 4 Dec 02.pdf.GENDER ISSUES UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMMEFor women (more than for men), housing— (UN-HABITAT) (2003). Global Urbanbeyond basic shelter—also often functions as Observatory. Internet site http://www.an important place of employment and social unhabitat.org/programmes/guo. Nairobi.interaction, and a place to care for children. It UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMMEmay offer respite from social instability and (UN-HABITAT) (2003). Guide to Monitoringviolence. Discriminatory social and economic Target 11: Improving the Lives of 100practices within and outside the household Million Slum Dwellers–Progress towards themay result in women being excluded from Millennium Development Goals. Nairobi.many aspects of housing, including policy Available from http://www.unhabitat.org/development, control over housing resources, mdg.rights of inheritance and ownership, commu- UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMMEnity organizing or the construction of hous- (UN-HABITAT) (2003). The Globaling. Such exclusion can threaten women’s Campaign for Secure Tenure. Internet sitesecurity of tenure by preventing women from http://www.unhabitat.org/campaigns/owning, inheriting, leasing, renting or remain- tenure. Nairobi.ing in housing and on land. UN-HABITAT produces regional and globalCOMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS estimates of percentage of slum dwellersData are not yet generally available. based on national data. Internationally 69
  • 78. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals comparable data series at country level Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial have not yet been produced. Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, AGENCY Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, the United Nations Human Settlements Niger, Rwanda, Saõ Tomé and Principe, Programme Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, the Sudan, Togo, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia; Asia and the Pacific: 33 NET ODA, TOTAL AND TO THEALEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, AS PER- Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Kiribati, the Lao People’s Democratic CENTAGE OF OECD/DAC DONORS’ Republic, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Samoa, GROSS NATIONAL INCOME Solomon Islands, Timor Leste, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Yemen; Latin America and the DEFINITION Caribbean: Haiti. Official development assistance comprises grants or loans to developing countries and ter- GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED ritories on the Organisation for Economic Co- Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- operation and Development/Development opment Assistance Committee (OECD/DAC) list of aid Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, recipients that are undertaken by the official predictable, non-discriminatory trading and sector with promotion of economic develop- financial system. Includes a commitment to ment and welfare as the main objective and at good governance, development and poverty concessional financial terms (if a loan, having a reduction—both nationally and internationally grant element of at least 25 per cent). Technical Target 13. Address the special needs of the cooperation is included. Grants, loans and cred- least developed countries. Includes: tariff and its for military purposes are excluded. Also quota-free access for least developed coun- excluded is aid to more advanced developing tries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt and transition countries as determined by DAC. relief for heavily indebted poor countries and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and Donors’ gross national income (GNI) at market more generous ODA for countries committed prices is the sum of gross primary incomes to poverty reduction receivable by resident institutional units and Target 14. Address the special needs of land- sectors. GNI at market prices was called gross locked countries and small island developing national product (GNP) in the 1953 System of States (through the Programme of Action for National Accounts. In contrast to gross domes- the Sustainable Development of Small Island tic product (GDP), GNI is a concept of income Developing States and the outcome of the (primary income) rather than value added. twenty-second special session of the General Assembly) The General Assembly, on the recommenda- Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt tion of the Committee for Development Policy, problems of developing countries through through the Economic and Social Council, national and international measures in order decides on the countries to be included in the to make debt sustainable in the long term list of least developed countries (LDCs). As of January 2004, the list included the following RATIONALE countries, by region: Africa: Angola, Benin, Goal 8 addresses the way developed coun- Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central tries can assist developing countries to African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic achieve the other seven goals through more70
  • 79. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesdevelopment assistance, improved access to UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEANmarkets and debt relief. The International COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND,Conference on Financing for Development, ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION andheld in Monterrey, Mexico in 2002, stimulated DEVELOPMENT AND WORLD BANK (1994).commitments from major donors to start to System of National Accounts 1993 (SNAreverse the decline in official development 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No.assistance and focus more on poverty reduc- E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates attion, education and health to help countries http://unstats. un.org/unsd/sna1993.realize the Millennium Development Goals. UNITED NATIONS OFFICE OF THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPEDMETHOD OF COMPUTATION COUNTRIES, LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIESGNI is equal to GDP (which at market prices AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (2003).represents the final result of the production Internet site http://www.un.org/ohrlls.activity of resident producer units) less pri-mary incomes payable to non-resident units AGENCYplus primary incomes receivable from non- Organisation for Economic Co-operationresident units. In other words, GNI is equal to and Development, Development AssistanceGDP less taxes (less subsidies) on production Committeeand imports, compensation of employees andproperty income payable to the rest of theworld plus the corresponding items receivablefrom the rest of the world. 34 PROPORTION OF TOTAL BILATERAL, SECTOR-ALLOCABLE ODA OF OECD/ DAC DONORS TO BASIC SOCIALDATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE SERVICES (BASIC EDUCATION, PRI-Data are compiled by the Development MARY HEALTH CARE, NUTRITION,Assistance Committee of OECD. SAFE WATER AND SANITATION)PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT DEFINITIONAnnual. Official development assistance comprises grants or loans to developing countries and ter-REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA ritories on the OECD Development AssistanceCOMPARISONS Committee list of aid recipients that are under- ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND taken by the official sector with promotion of DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE economic development and welfare as the main COMMITTEE (2003). Internet site http://www. objective and at concessional financial terms (if oecd.org/dac . Paris. a loan, having a grant element of at least 25 per ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND cent). Technical cooperation is included. Grants, DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE loans and credits for military purposes are COMMITTEE (annual). Development Co-opera- excluded. Also excluded is aid to more tion Report. Paris. advanced developing and transition countries ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND as determined by DAC. Bilateral official develop- DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE ment assistance is from one country to another. COMMITTEE (annual). International Development Statistics. CD-ROM. Paris. Basic education comprises primary education, UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators basic life skills for youth and adults and early Database. Statistics Division Internet site childhood education. Primary health care http://millenniumindicators.un.org. includes basic health care, basic health infra- 71
  • 80. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals structure, basic nutrition, infectious disease DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE control, health education and health person- Compiled by the Development Assistance nel development. (For safe water and sanita- Committee of the OECD. tion, see INDICATORS 30 and 31.) PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED Annual. Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- opment COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, Aid to water supply and sanitation is defined predictable, non-discriminatory trading and as part of basic social services only if poverty financial system. Includes a commitment to focused. good governance, development and poverty REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA reduction—both nationally and internationally. COMPARISONS Target 13. Address the special needs of the ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION least developed countries. Includes: tariff and AND DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE quota-free access for least developed coun- COMMITTEE (2003). Internet site http://www. tries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt oecd.org/dac. Under Topics, select: Aid sta- relief for heavily indebted poor countries and tistics, Aid effectiveness and donor prac- cancellation of official bilateral debt; and tices or Millennium Development Goals. more generous ODA for countries committed Paris. to poverty reduction ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION Target 14. Address the special needs of land- AND DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE locked countries and small island developing COMMITTEE (annual). Development Co-opera- States (through the Programme of Action for tion Report. Paris. the Sustainable Development of Small Island ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION Developing States and the outcome of the AND DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE twenty-second special session of the General COMMITTEE (annual). International Development Assembly) Statistics CD-ROM. Paris. Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators problems of developing countries through Database. Statistics Division Internet site national and international measures in order http://millenniumindicators.un.org . to make debt sustainable in the long term AGENCY RATIONALE Organisation for Economic Co-operation and The World Summit on Social Development at Development/Development Assistance Copenhagen in 1995 suggested the possibili- Committee ty of “mutual commitment between interest- ed developed and developing country part- ners to allocate, on average, 20 per cent of ODA and 20 per cent of the national budget, 35 PROPORTION OF BILATERAL UNTIED OECD/DAC DONORS THAT IS ODA OF respectively, to basic social programmes”. These programmes comprise basic education, DEFINITION basic health, population and reproductive Official development assistance (ODA) com- health programmes, and poverty-focused prises grants or loans to developing countries water and sanitation projects. and territories on the OECD Development Assistance Committee list of aid recipients that are undertaken by the official sector with72
  • 81. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcespromotion of economic development and wel- effectiveness. Recognizing this, OECD/DACfare as the main objective and at concession- member countries have raised the share ofal financial terms (if a loan, having a grant ele- their aid that is untied. The share of untied aidment of at least 25 per cent). Technical coop- to the least developed countries has risen rel-eration is included. Grants, loans and credits atively slowly, but the situation is likely tofor military purposes are excluded. Also improve with the implementation of the newexcluded is aid to more advanced developing DAC Recommendation on Untying Officialand transition countries as determined by the Development Assistance to the LeastCommittee. Bilateral official development Developed Countries.assistance is from one country to another.Untied bilateral official development assis- DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCEtance is assistance from country to country Data are compiled by the Developmentfor which the associated goods and services Assistance Committee of OECD.may be fully and freely procured in substan-tially all countries. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT Annual.GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSEDGoal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAopment COMPARISONSTarget 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION ANDpredictable, non-discriminatory trading and DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEEfinancial system. Includes a commitment to (2003). Internet site http://www.oecd.org/good governance, development and poverty dac . Under Topics, select: Aid statistics, Aidreduction—both nationally and internationally effectiveness and donor practices orTarget 13. Address the special needs of the Millennium Development Goals. Paris.least developed countries. Includes: tariff and ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION ANDquota-free access for least developed coun- DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEEtries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt (annual). Development Co-operationrelief for heavily indebted poor countries and Report. Paris.cancellation of official bilateral debt; and ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION ANDmore generous ODA for countries committed DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEEto poverty reduction (annual). International DevelopmentTarget 14. Address the special needs of land- Statistics. CD-ROM. Paris.locked countries and small island developing UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium IndicatorsStates (through the Programme of Action for Database. Statistics Division Internet sitethe Sustainable Development of Small Island http://millenniumindicators.un.org .Developing States and the outcome of the UNITED NATIONS. OFFICE OF THE HIGHtwenty-second special session of the General REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPEDAssembly) COUNTRIES, LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIESTarget 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (2003).problems of developing countries through Internet site http://www.un.org/ohrlls .national and international measures in orderto make debt sustainable in the long term AGENCY Organisation for Economic Co-operation andRATIONALE Development, Development AssistanceTying procurement from aid contracts to sup- Committeepliers in the donor country reduces its cost- 73
  • 82. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals 36 ODA RECEIVED PROPORTION OF COUNTRIES AS IN LANDLOCKED predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to THEIR GROSS NATIONAL INCOMES good governance, development and poverty reduction—both nationally and internationally DEFINITION Target 13:. Address the special needs of the Official development assistance comprises least developed countries. Includes: tariff and grants or loans to developing countries and quota-free access for least developed coun- territories on the OECD Development tries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt Assistance Committee list of aid recipients relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official that are undertaken by the official sector with bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for promotion of economic development and wel- countries committed to poverty reduction fare as the main objective and at concession- Target 14. Address the special needs of land- al financial terms (if a loan, having a grant ele- locked countries and small island developing ment of at least 25 per cent). Technical coop- States (through the Programme of Action for eration is included. Grants, loans and credits for the Sustainable Development of Small Island military purposes are excluded. Also excluded Developing States and the outcome of the is aid to more advanced developing and tran- twenty-second special session of the General sition countries as determined by DAC. Assembly) Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt Recipient countries’ gross national income problems of developing countries through (GNI) at market prices is the sum of gross pri- national and international measures in order mary incomes receivable by resident institu- to make debt sustainable in the long term tional units and sectors. GNI at market prices was called gross national product (GNP) in the RATIONALE 1953 System of National Accounts. In con- The indicator addresses the special needs of trast to gross domestic product (GDP), GNI is landlocked countries to achieve their develop- a concept of income (primary income) rather ment goals. than value added. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE The land-locked developing countries are, by Data are compiled by the Development region: Africa: Botswana, Burkina Faso, Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, Economic Co-operation and Development Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT Zimbabwe; Asia and the Pacific: Afghanistan, Annual. Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA Mongolia, Nepal, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and COMPARISONS Uzbekistan; Europe: The former Yugoslav ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND Republic of Macedonia and the Republic of DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE Moldova (expected from 2003); Latin America (2003). Internet site http://www.oecd. and the Caribbean: Bolivia and Paraguay. org/dac. Under Topics, select: Aid statis- tics, Aid effectiveness and donor practices GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED or Millennium Development Goals. Paris. Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND opment DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, (annual). Development Co-operation Report.74
  • 83. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources Paris. ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND Recipient countries’ gross national income at DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE market prices is the sum of gross primary (annual). International Development incomes receivable by resident institutional Statistics. CD-ROM. Paris. units and sectors. GNI at market prices was UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators called gross national product in the 1953 Database. Statistics Division Internet site System of National Accounts. In con- http://millenniumindicators.un.org. trast to gross domestic product, GNI is a con- UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN cept of income (primary income) rather than COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, value added. ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT and WORLD BANK (1994). The small island developing States are by System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA region: Africa: Cape Verde, Comoros, Guinea- 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No. Bissau, Mauritius, Saõ Tomé and Principe, and E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates at Seychelles; Asia and the Pacific: Bahrain, Cook http://unstats.un.org/unsd/sna1993. Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Maldives, Marshall UNITED NATIONS. OFFICE OF THE HIGH Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPED Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, COUNTRIES, LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Timor AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (2003). Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu; Internet site http://www.un.org/ohrlls. Europe: Cyprus and Malta; Latin America and the Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba,AGENCY the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cuba,Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada,Development/Development Assistance Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles,Committee. St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. 37 ODA RECEIVED IN SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES AS PROPOR- GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED TION OF THEIR GROSS NATIONAL Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- INCOMES opment Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,DEFINITION predictable, non-discriminatory trading andOfficial development assistance comprises financial system. Includes a commitment togrants or loans to developing countries and good governance, development and povertyterritories on the OECD Development reduction—both nationally and internationallyAssistance Committee list of aid recipients Target 13. Address the special needs of thethat are undertaken by the official sector with least developed countries. Includes: tariff andpromotion of economic development and wel- quota-free access for least developed coun-fare as the main objective and at concession- tries’ exports; enhanced programme of debtal financial terms (if a loan, having a grant ele- relief for heavily indebted poor countries andment of at least 25 per cent). Technical coop- cancellation of official bilateral debt; anderation is included. Grants, loans and credits for more generous ODA for countries committedmilitary purposes are excluded. Also excluded to poverty reductionis aid to more advanced developing and tran- Target 14. Address the special needs of land-sition countries as determined by DAC. locked countries and small island developing 75
  • 84. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals States (through the Programme of Action for ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND the Sustainable Development of Small Island DEVELOPMENT and WORLD BANK (1994). Developing States and the outcome of the System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA twenty-second special session of the General 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No. Assembly) E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates from Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt http://unstats.un.org/ unsd/sna1993. problems of developing countries through UNITED NATIONS. OFFICE OF THE HIGH national and international measures in order REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPED to make debt sustainable in the long term COUNTRIES, LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (2003). RATIONALE Internet site http://www.un.org/ohrlls. The indicator addresses the special needs of small island developing States. That group of AGENCY countries has very diverse incomes per capita, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and ranging from the least developed countries to Development/Development Assistance high-income countries. The least developed Committee countries need continued aid, which should be monitored closely. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE 38 PROPORTION OF TOTAL DEVELOPED COUNTRY IMPORTS (BY VALUE AND Data are compiled by the Development EXCLUDING ARMS) FROM DEVEL- Assistance Committee of OECD. OPING COUNTRIES AND FROM THE LEASE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT ADMITTED FREE OF DUTY Annual. DEFINITION REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA Imports and imported value of goods (mer- COMPARISONS chandise) are goods that add to the stock of ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND material resources of a country by entering DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE its economic territory. Goods simply being (2003). Internet site http://www.oecd.org/ transported through a country (goods in tran- dac. Under Topics, select: Aid statistics, Aid sit) or temporarily admitted (except for goods effectiveness and donor practices or for inward processing) do not add to the stock Millennium Development Goals. Paris. of material resources of a country and are not ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND included in international merchandise trade DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE statistics. In many cases, a country’s econom- (annual). Development Co-operation Report. ic territory largely coincides with its customs Paris. territory, which is the territory in which the ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND customs laws of a country apply in full. DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE (annual). International Development Statistics. Goods admitted free of duties are exports of CD-ROM. Paris. goods (excluding arms) received from devel- UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators oping countries and admitted without tariffs Database. Statistics Division Internet site to developed countries. http://millenniumindicators.un.org. UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN There is no established convention for the COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, designation of developed and developing76
  • 85. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcescountries or areas in the United Nations system. least developed countries. Includes: tariff andIn common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada quota-free access for least developed coun-and the United States in North America, tries’ exports; enhanced programme of debtAustralia and New Zealand in Oceania and relief for heavily indebted poor countries andEurope are considered “developed” regions or cancellation of official bilateral debt; andareas. In international trade statistics, the more generous ODA for countries committedSouthern African Customs Union is also treat- to poverty reductioned as a developed region, and Israel is treated Target 14. Address the special needs of land-as a developed country; countries emerging locked countries and small island developingfrom the former Yugoslavia are treated as States (through the Programme of Action fordeveloping countries; and countries of east- the Sustainable Development of Small Islandern Europe and European countries of the for- Developing States and the outcome of themer Soviet Union are not included under twenty-second special session of the Generaleither developed or developing regions. Assembly) Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debtThe General Assembly, on the recommenda- problems of developing countries throughtion of the Committee for Development Policy, national and international measures in orderthrough the Economic and Social Council to make debt sustainable in the long termdecides on the countries to be included in thelist of least developed countries (LDCs). As of RATIONALEJanuary 2004, the list included the following The indicator monitors the international effortcountries, by region: Africa: Angola, Benin, made to remove barriers to trade for develop-Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, the ing countries, to encourage the achievementCentral African Republic, Chad, Comoros, the of the Millennium Development Goals. PoorDemocratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, people in developing countries work primarilyEquatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, the in agriculture and labour-intensive manufac-Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, turing, sectors that confront the greatestLiberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, trade barriers. Removing barriers to merchan-Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Saõ Tomé and dise trade, therefore, could increase growth inPrincipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, the those countries by a significant amount.Sudan, Togo, Uganda, the United Republic ofTanzania and Zambia; Asia and the Pacific: METHOD OF COMPUTATIONAfghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, To value their exports, countries can chooseKiribati, the Lao People’s Democratic free-on-board (f.o.b.) values, which includeRepublic., Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Samoa, only the transaction value of the goods andSolomon Islands, Timor Leste, Tuvalu, the value of services performed to deliverVanuatu and Yemen; Latin America and the goods to the border of the exporting country,Caribbean: Haiti. or cost, insurance and freight (c.i.f.) values, which add to this the value of the servicesGOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED performed to deliver the goods from the bor-Goal 8:. Develop a global partnership for devel- der of the exporting country to the border ofopment the importing country. It is recommended thatTarget 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, imported goods be valued at c.i.f. prices forpredictable, non-discriminatory trading and statistical purposes. Specific duties—notfinancial system. Includes a commitment to good expressed as a proportion of the declaredgovernance, development and poverty reduc- value—may or may not be included in calcu-tion—both nationally and internationally lations of goods admitted free of duties.Target 13. Address the special needs of the 77
  • 86. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE The indicator is calculated by the United Nations AGENCY Conference on Trade and Development in col- World Trade Organization. laboration with the World Bank and the World Trade Organization, from the Trade Analysis 39 AVERAGE TARIFFS IMPOSED BY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES ON AGRI- and Information System (TRAINS) CD-ROM, CULTURAL PRODUCTS AND CLOTH- version 8 (2002). ING FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS DEFINITION Indicator data available only at the world level. Average tariffs are the simple average of all applied ad valorem tariffs (tariffs based on REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA the value of the import) applicable to the COMPARISONS bilateral imports of developed countries. Agri- UNITED NATIONS (1998). International cultural products comprise plant and animal Merchandise Trade Statistics – Concepts products, including tree crops but excluding and Definitions, Series M, No. 52, Rev. 2. timber and fish products. Clothing and textiles Sales No. E.98.XVII.16. Available from include natural and synthetic fibers and fabrics http:// unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs (A, C, E, and articles of clothing made from them. F, R, S). UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED Database. Statistics Division Internet site Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- http://millenniumindicators.un.org. opment UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND financial system. Includes a commitment to DEVELOPMENT and WORLD BANK (1994). good governance, development and poverty System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA reduction—both nationally and internationally 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No. Target 13. Address the special needs of the E.94.XVII.4, para. 7.66 for import duties. least developed countries. Includes: tariff and Available with updates at http://unstats. quota-free access for least developed coun- un.org/unsd/sna 1993. tries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND relief for heavily indebted poor countries and DEVELOPMENT (2003). Trade Analysis and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and Information System (TRAINS). Internet site more generous ODA for countries committed http://r0.unctad.org/trains. Geneva. to poverty reduction UNITED NATIONS. OFFICE OF THE HIGH Target 14. Address the special needs of land- REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPED locked countries and small island developing COUNTRIES, LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES States (through the Programme of Action for AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (2003). the Sustainable Development of Small Island Internet site http://www.un.org/ohrlls. Developing States and the outcome of the WORLD CUSTOMS ORGANIZATION (1996). twenty-second special session of the General Harmonized Commodity Description and Assembly) Coding Systems, Second Edition (HS). Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt Brussels. English, French. problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order Data discrepancies across countries limit to make debt sustainable in the long term international comparison.78
  • 87. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesRATIONALE www.oecd.org. Agricultural Market AccessThe indicator monitors the international Database, http://www.amad.org.effort made to remove barriers to trade fordeveloping countries in order to encourage theachievement of the Millennium Development COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSGoals. Poor people in developing countries work There are two types of average tariffs—sim-primarily in agriculture and labour-intensive ple average tariffs, which are used for goalsmanufacturing, sectors that confront the monitoring, and the weighted average. Simplegreatest trade barriers. Removing barriers to averages are frequently a better indicator ofmerchandise trade, therefore, could increase tariff protection than weighted averages,growth in those countries by a significant which, because higher tariffs discourageamount. trade and reduce the weights applied to them, are biased downward .METHOD OF COMPUTATIONTo calculate average tariffs, each Harmonized REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATASystem six-digit bilateral trade flow is given COMPARISONSthe same weight. The results for each developed UNITED NATIONS (1998). Internationalcountry are then aggregated using the stan- Merchandise Trade Statistics – Concepts anddard import pattern as the weighting scheme Definitions, Series M, No. 52, Rev. 2. Salesfor all importers. The standard weighting No. E.98.XVII.16. Available from http://scheme would be the average import structure unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs (A, C, E, F, R, S).of all developed markets for imports from the UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicatorsleast developed countries and from developing Database. Statistics Division Internet sitecountries. The tariff rates used are the avail- http://millenniumindicators.un.org.able ad valorem rates, including most- WORLD CUSTOMS ORGANIZATION (1996).favoured nation and non-most-favoured- Harmonized Commodity Description andnation (largely preferential) rates. As it is not Coding System (HS), Second Edition.possible to convert non-ad valorem rates to Brussels. English, French.ad valorem equivalents, all tariff lines withnon-ad valorem rates are excluded from the Data discrepancies across countries limitcalculation. This affects, in particular, agricul- international comparison.tural products, where almost 25 per cent ofthe Harmonized System six-digit product cat- AGENCYegories contain at least one non-ad valorem World Trade Organizationtariff line. Therefore, the agricultural part ofthe indicator is excluded from the initial dataset until an appropriate methodology for treat-ing non-ad valorem tariffs is developed. 40 AGRICULTURAL SUPPORT ESTIMATE FOR OECD COUNTRIES AS A PER- CENTAGE OF THEIR GROSS DOMES-DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE TIC PRODUCTThe indicator is calculated by the United NationsConference on Trade and Development and DEFINITIONthe World Trade Organization in consultation Agricultural support is the annual monetarywith the World Bank from the Trade Analysis value of all gross transfers from taxpayers andand Information System (TRAINS) CD-ROM, consumers, both domestic and foreign (in theversion 8 (2002). Organisation for Economic form of subsidies arising from policy measuresCo-operation and Development database, that support agriculture), net of the associated 79
  • 88. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals budgetary receipts, regardless of their objec- tively address both domestic and international tives and impacts on farm production and goals while ensuring well-functioning markets. income, or consumption of farm products. For agricultural products, the total support METHOD OF COMPUTATION estimate represents the overall taxpayer and The agricultural total support estimate consumer costs of agricultural policies. When includes support to individual farmers from expressed as a percentage of GDP, the total trade barriers that keep domestic farm prices support estimate is an indicator of the cost to above those on world markets, budget-financed the economy as a whole. payments, input subsidies, consumer food subsidies and support to general services pro- GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED vided to the agricultural sector as a whole. Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- opment PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, Annual. predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS good governance, development and poverty Differences across countries in total support reduction—both nationally and internationally estimates as a percentage of GDP reflect the Target 13. Address the special needs of the level of support and the share of agricultural least developed countries. Includes: tariff and output in the economy. Changes over time quota-free access for least developed coun- reflect changes in the level of support and in tries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt the share of agriculture in GDP, as well as the relief for heavily indebted poor countries and growth of the economy. cancellation of official bilateral debt; and REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA more generous ODA for countries committed COMPARISONS to poverty reduction ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND Target 14. Address the special needs of land- DEVELOPMENT (2003). Producer and Consumer locked countries and small island developing Support Estimates, OECD Database 1986- States (through the Programme of Action for 2002, User’s Guide. Paris. Available from the Sustainable Development of Small Island http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/47/20/43 Developing States and the outcome of the 51287.pdf. twenty-second special session of the General ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND Assembly) DEVELOPMENT (2003). Producer and Consumer Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt Support Estimates, OECD Database 1986- problems of developing countries through 2002. Internet site http://www.oecd.org, national and international measures in order Select Statistics/Agriculture and Fisheries. to make debt sustainable in the long term Paris. ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND RATIONALE DEVELOPMENT (annual). Agricultural Policies In penetrating foreign markets, developing in OECD Countries, Monitoring and countries face not only tariffs but also competi- Evaluation. Paris. tion from products in developed countries that UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators benefit from government subsidies. The chal- Database. Statistics Division Internet site lenge linked to the Doha Development Agenda is http://millenniumindicators.un.org. to further reduce production and trade-distort- UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN ing support and implement policies that effec- COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND,80
  • 89. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND Those activities are further classified by the DEVELOPMENT and WORLD BANK (1994). First Joint WTO/OECD Report on Trade-Related System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA Technical Assistance and Capacity-Building 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No. (2002) under two main categories, trade pol- E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates from icy and regulations (divided into nineteen http://unstats.un.org/unsd/sna1993. subcategories) and trade development (divid- ed into six subcategories).AGENCYOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSEDDevelopment Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- opment Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, 41 PROPORTION OF ODA PROVIDED TO HELP BUILD TRADE CAPACITY predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development and povertyDEFINITION reduction—both nationally and internationallyOfficial development assistance comprises Target 13. Address the special needs of thegrants or loans to developing countries and least developed countries. Includes: tariff andterritories on the OECD Development quota-free access for least developed coun-Assistance Committee list of aid recipients tries’ exports; enhanced programme of debtthat are undertaken by the official sector with relief for heavily indebted poor countries andpromotion of economic development and wel- cancellation of official bilateral debt; andfare as the main objective and at concession- more generous ODA for countries committedal financial terms (if a loan, having a grant ele- to poverty reductionment of at least 25 per cent). Technical coop- Target 14. Address the special needs of land-eration is included. Grants, loans and credits locked countries and small island developingfor military purposes are excluded. Also States (through the Programme of Action forexcluded is aid to more advanced developing the Sustainable Development of Small Islandand transition countries as determined by Developing States and the outcome of theDAC. twenty-second special session of the General Assembly)Activities to help build trade capacity enhance Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debtthe ability of the recipient country problems of developing countries throughI To formulate and implement a trade devel- national and international measures in order opment strategy and create an enabling to make debt sustainable in the long term environment for increasing the volume and value-added of exports, diversifying export RATIONALE products and markets and increasing for- At the Fourth Ministerial Conference of the eign investment to generate jobs and trade World Trade Organization, held in Doha inI To stimulate trade by domestic firms and 2001, donors committed to providing encourage investment in trade-oriented increased support to help developing coun- industries tries, especially the least developed coun-I To participate in the benefit from the insti- tries, build the capacity to trade and to inte- tutions, negotiations and processes that grate into world markets. shape national trade policy and the rules and practices of international commerce Data collected for the indicator will help mon- itor the following aspects of trade-related 81
  • 90. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals official development assistance: There are also differences in the methodology I Transparency of trade-related technical used for reporting trade development activi- assistance delivered ties among donors who replied to the requests I Sharing of information for information. A number of donors isolated I Minimization and avoidance of duplication the trade components of each activity, whereas I Estimation of progress in the implementa- others reported the whole activity as trade tion of the Doha mandates on technical related. The total amounts of trade-related cooperation and capacity-building technical assistance and capacity building per I Coordination and coherence donor in this category should therefore be I Achievement of the objectives mandated in interpreted with caution. paragraph 41 of the Ministerial Declaration adopted by the Conference at Doha The joint report also highlights the need to refine the activity categories to better identi- METHOD OF COMPUTATION fy general trade development activities, such See “Comments and limitations”. as trade fairs, trade information, publications or general export training. At present, most of DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE those activities appear under “business sup- The World Trade Organization and the OECD port services and institutions”. have compiled the Doha Development Agenda Trade Capacity-Building Database (TCBDB) These issues are being addressed in the first that lists and quantify activities by bilateral update to the data, with results online by and multilateral donors from 2001 onwards. August 2003. The database lists both the number and the value of activities. REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA Data are reported from bilateral donors and COMPARISONS multilateral and regional agencies that replied ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND to the requests for information sent in May DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE 2002 and April 2003 by the director-general of (2003). Internet site http://www.oecd.org/dac. the World Trade Organization and the secretary- Under topics, select: Aid statistics, Aid general of the Organisation for Economic Co- effectiveness and donor practices or operation and Development. Millennium Development Goals. Paris. ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE Donors differ in defining what constitutes a (annual). Development Co-operation single “activity”. Some donors split individual Report. Paris. activities into components in order to obtain ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND detailed data on aid allocated to each subcat- DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE egory. Others classify the whole activity under (annual). International Development the most relevant subcategory. For some Statistics CD-ROM. Paris. donors, the number of records in the database WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND ORGANISATION is larger than the actual number of activities. FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT In the Joint Report by the World Trade (2003 and annual). Joint WTO/OECD Report Organization and the Organisation for on Trade-Related Technical Assistance and Economic Co-operation and Development, the Capacity-Building, Management of Trade data are based on the actual number of activ- Capacity-Building. Paris and Geneva. ities. Available from http://tcbdb.wto.org/stat- analysis.asp.82
  • 91. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources relief for heavily indebted poor countries andAGENCIES cancellation of official bilateral debt; andOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and more generous ODA for countries committedDevelopment to poverty reductionWorld Trade Organization Target 14. Address the special needs of land- locked countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for42 TOTAL REACHEDOF COUNTRIESDECI- HAVE NUMBER THEIR HIPC THAT the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the SION POINTS AND NUMBER THAT twenty-second special session of the General HAVE REACHED THEIR HIPC COM- Assembly) PLETION POINTS (CUMULATIVE) Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries throughDEFINITION national and international measures in orderThe HIPC decision point is the date at which a to make debt sustainable in the long termheavily indebted poor country with an estab-lished track record of good performance RATIONALEunder adjustment programmes supported by A global partnership for development requiresthe International Monetary Fund (IMF) and increased debt reduction for heavily indebtedthe World Bank commits to undertake addi- poor countries. The indicator will monitor thetional reforms and to develop and implement Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative, aa poverty reduction strategy. major international effort targeted specifical- ly at improving developing countries’ debtThe HIPC completion point is the date at which sustainability. Launched in 1996 and enhancedthe country successfully completes the key in 1999 to broaden and accelerate debt relief,structural reforms agreed at the decision the HIPC Initiative marked the first time thatpoint, including the development and imple- multilateral, official bilateral and commercialmentation of its poverty reduction strategy. creditors united in a joint effort to reduce theThe country then receives the bulk of debt external debt of the world’s most debt-ladenrelief under the HIPC Initiative without any poor countries to sustainable levels.further policy conditions. METHOD OF COMPUTATION See “Definition”.GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSEDGoal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCEopment Information is compiled by the IMF and WorldTarget 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, Bank from their HIPC decision and completionpredictable, non-discriminatory trading and point documents (see “References”).financial system. Includes a commitment togood governance, development and poverty PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENTreduction—both nationally and international- Twice a year.lyTarget 13. Address the special needs of the COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSleast developed countries. Includes: tariff and The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiativequota-free access for least developed coun- was launched in 1996. The earliest availabletries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt data are for 2000 and the most recent avail- 83
  • 92. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals able data are for 2002. predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA good governance, development and poverty COMPARISONS reduction—both nationally and internationally INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (2003). Debt Target 13. Address the special needs of the Relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor least developed countries. Includes: tariff and Countries (HIPC) Initiative. Internet site quota-free access for least developed coun- http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts tries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt /hipc.htm. Washington, D.C. relief for heavily indebted poor countries and UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators cancellation of official bilateral debt; and Database. Statistics Division Internet site more generous ODA for countries committed http://millenniumindicators.un.org. to poverty reduction Target 14. Address the special needs of land- World Bank, www.worldbank.org/hipc. locked countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for AGENCIES the Sustainable Development of Small Island International Monetary Fund Developing States and the outcome of the World Bank twenty-second special session of the General Assembly) Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt 43 DEBT INITIATIVE HIPC RELIEF COMMITTED UNDER problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term DEFINITION Debt relief committed under HIPC Initiative (in RATIONALE United States dollars) as a component of offi- A global partnership for development requires cial development assistance has been record- increased debt reduction for heavily indebted ed in different ways over time. Up through poor countries. The indicator will monitor the 1992, forgiveness of non-official develop- Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative, a ment assistance debt that met the tests of major international effort targeted specifically official development assistance was at improving developing countries’ debt sus- reportable as ODA. During 1990–1992 it tainability. Launched in 1996 and enhanced in remained reportable as part of a country’s 1999 to broaden and accelerate debt relief, ODA, but was excluded from the Development the HIPC Initiative marked the first time that Assistance Committee total. Since 1993, for- multilateral, official bilateral and commercial giveness of debt originally intended for mili- creditors united in a joint effort to reduce the tary purposes has been reportable as “other external debt of the world’s most debt-laden official flows”, while forgiveness of other non- poor countries to sustainable levels. ODA loans (mainly export credits) recorded as ODA has been included in both country data METHOD OF COMPUTATION and total Committee ODA, as it was until See “Definition” and The DAC Journal: 1989. Development Cooperation Report and the OECD/DAC International Development GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED Statistics CD-ROM for notes on definitions. Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- opment DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, Information is compiled by the International84
  • 93. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesMonetary Fund and the World Bank from their exporting country are included in exports ofHIPC decision and completion point docu- goods. Other transactions involving a mixture ofments (see “References”). goods and services, such as expenditures by foreign travellers in the domestic market, mayPERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT all have to be recorded under services in the restAnnual. of the world account. Export receipts along with worker remittances received from abroad pro-DISAGGREGATION ISSUES vide the foreign exchange proceeds for meetingFigures are available by country. external debt service obligations.REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSEDCOMPARISONS Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (2003). Debt opment Relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, Countries (HIPC) Initiative. Internet site predictable, non-discriminatory trading and http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts financial system. Includes a commitment to /hipc.htm. Washington, D.C. good governance, development and poverty UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators reduction—both nationally and internationally Database. Statistics Division Internet site Target 13. Address the special needs of the http://millenniumindicators.un.org. least developed countries. Includes: tariff and WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World quota-free access for least developed coun- Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. tries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt Washington, D.C. Available in part from relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official http://www.worldbank.org/data. bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for WORLD BANK (2003). Debt Initiative for the countries committed to poverty reduction Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs). Target 14. Address the special needs of land- Internet site http://www.worldbank.org/hipc. locked countries and small island developing Washington, D.C. States (through the Programme of Action for theAGENCIES Sustainable Development of Small Island Dev-International Monetary Fund eloping States and the outcome of the twenty-World Bank second special session of the General Assembly) Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through 44 DEBT SERVICE AS A PERCENTAGE OF EXPORTS OF GOODS AND SERVICES national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long termDEFINITION RATIONALEExternal debt service refers to principal repay- The targets on debt relief also address thements and interest payments made to non- need to make debt sustainable in the longresidents in foreign currency, goods or services. term. The indicator is one measure of whetherLong-term refers to debt that has an original debt levels are sustainable.or extended maturity of more than one year. METHOD OF COMPUTATIONExports of goods and services comprise sales, The indicator is calculated as the ratio ofbarter or gifts or grants of goods and services external debt service to exports of goods andfrom residents to non-residents. Where exports services, expressed as a percentage.of goods are valued f.o.b., the costs of trans-portation and insurance up to the border of the DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE 85
  • 94. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals The World Bank collects data on indicators Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs). of finance, published annually in Global Internet site http://www.worldbank.org/hipc. Development Finance. Washington, D.C. WORLD BANK (annual). Global Development PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT Finance, vol. 2, Country Tables. Annual. Washington, D.C. COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS AGENCIES Small, open economies may have relatively International Monetary Fund high levels of exports (and imports) and yet may World Bank face problems in meeting debt service obliga- tions, particularly when debt service payments due on public debt are high relative to gov- ernment revenue. A large economy may have 45 UNEMPLOYMENT RATE OF YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15–24 YEARS, EACH proportionately smaller exports and still find its SEX AND TOTAL dept payments sustainable. For this reason, it is useful to look at other indicators, such as the DEFINITION ratio of total debt to gross national income, the Unemployment rate of young people aged size of international reserves relative to total 15–24 years is the number of unemployed debt and debt maturing within a year’s time, people ages 15–24 divided by the labour in forming a picture of debt sustainability. force of the same age group. Unemployed people are all those who are not employed REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA during a specified reference period but are COMPARISONS available for work and have taken concrete INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (2003). Debt steps to seek paid employment or self- Relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor employment. In situations where the conven- Countries (HIPC) Initiative. Internet site tional means of seeking work are of limited http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts relevance, where the labour market is largely /hipc.htm. Washington, D.C. unorganized or of limited scope, where labour UNITED NATIONS (1998). International absorption is temporarily inadequate or Merchandise Trade Statistics – Concepts and where the labour force is largely self- Definitions, Series M, No. 52, Rev. 2. Sales employed, a relaxed definition of unemploy- No.E.98.XVII.16. Available from ment can be applied, based on only the first http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs (A, C, E, F, R, two criteria (without work and currently avail- S). able for work). UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators Database. Statistics Division Internet site The labour force consists of those who are http://millenniumindicators.un.org. employed plus those who are unemployed UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN during the relevant reference period. It is the COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, economically active portion of the population. ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND Employment refers to being engaged in an DEVELOPMENT and WORLD BANK (1994). economic activity during a specified reference System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA period or being temporarily absent from such 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No. an activity, while economic activity refers to E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates from the production of goods and services for pay http://unstats.un.org/unsd/sna1993. or profit or for use by own household. WORLD BANK (2003). Debt Initiative for the86
  • 95. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesGOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED tence work and, more often than men, work inGoal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- the informal sector. In those settings, womenopment are seldom employed, although they mayTarget 16. In cooperation with developing often be underemployed. Furthermore,countries, develop and implement strategies women may not have easy access to formalfor decent and productive work for youth channels for seeking employment, particularly in rural areas, and often face social and cul-RATIONALE tural barriers when looking for a job. ThusThe indicator monitors the degree to which official labour statistics may undercountthe youth labour force is utilized in the econ- women’s unemployment (unless the relaxedomy and therefore serves as a measure of the definition of unemployment is used and ade-success of strategies to create jobs for youth. quate criteria are adopted in data collection).METHOD OF COMPUTATION DISAGGREGATION ISSUESThe number of people aged 15–24 years who In most countries, data are available sepa-are unemployed is divided by the number of rately for men and women.people in the labour force of the same agegroup. INTERNATIONAL DATA COMPILATIONS ILO compiles internationally comparable dataDATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE series on unemployment and youth unem-Country data are available from labour force ployment.surveys, administrative records, official nationalestimates and population censuses. Labour Bulletin of Labour Statistics, 2002–4.force surveys generally provide the most com- International Labour Organization. Geneva.prehensive and comparable source of infor- Key Indicators of the Labour Market (annu-mation. Concepts and definitions adopted for al). International Labour Organization.data collection in labour force surveys also Available in part fromgenerally conform to International Labour http://www.ilo.org/kilm.Organization (ILO) resolutions and recom-mendations, such as the International COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSConference of Labour Statisticians resolution The concepts of employment and unemploy-on international standards for unemployment ment have different relevance depending onand youth unemployment. the level of labour market development and the presence of a market economy. PeoplePERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT living in regions of a country where there is lit-Results from population censuses are normally tle or no formal employment would not usual-available every 10 years. Labour force surveys ly be classified as “unemployed” even if theymay be available annually or even more fre- are without work and would accept a job ifquently in OECD countries and generally every offered one (discouraged workers).three to five years in developing countries Unemployment is but one dimension of theGENDER ISSUES employment problem faced by young people.Female unemployment rates are often signifi- A disproportionately large number of youth incantly higher than male unemployment rates. many countries are underemployed. Some workHowever, unemployment data do not ade- fewer hours than they would like to, and othersquately reflect the situation of women in the work long hours with little economic gain.labour market, especially in developing coun- Stagnation and decline of employment oppor-tries where women are engaged in subsis- tunities in the formal sector of most developing 87
  • 96. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals countries have intensified the problem in Employment/ Statistics/Indicators. recent years, with young women bearing a dis- UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators proportionate share of the burden. Therefore, Database. Statistics Division Internet site indicators measuring underemployment, the http://millenniumindicators.un.org. informal sector, educational access and labour UNITED NATIONS, AND INTERNATIONAL LABOUR force participation, among others, should ORGANIZATION BUREAU OF STATISTICS (2002). supplement the information obtained from Collection of Economic Characteristics in the youth unemployment indicator. Population Censuses. Technical report. ST/ESA/STAT/119. Limitations to comparability arise from vari- WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World ous causes, including different sources, Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. measurement methodologies, number of Washington, D.C. Available in part from observations per year and coverage. http://www.worldbank.org/data. Comparability may also be limited by concep- tual variations, involving issues such as the AGENCIES definition of job search or whether to include Ministries of labour discouraged workers who are not currently National statistical offices looking for work. International Labour Organization REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA COMPARISONS INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (1990). Surveys of Economically Active Population, Employment, Unemployment and Under- employment: An ILO Manual on Concepts and Methods. Geneva. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000). Current International Recommendations on Labour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2003). Laborsta—an International Labour Office database on labour statistics operated by the ILO Bureau of Statistics. Internet site http://laborsta.ilo.org . Geneva. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual). Key Indicators of the Labour Market. Geneva. Available in part from http://www. ilo.org/kilm. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual). Yearbook of Labour Statistics. Tables 3A- 3E. Geneva. Available from http://laborsta. ilo.org. ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (2003). Standardized Un- employment rates for OECD countries. In Main Economic Indicators. Paris. Available from http://www.oecd.org. Select:88
  • 97. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources 46 PROPORTION OF POPULATION WITH ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, ESSENTIAL DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE DRUGS ON A SUSTAINABLE BASIS The Action Programme on Essential Drugs of the World Health Organization periodicallyDEFINITION interviews experts in each country about theThe proportion of population with access to pharmaceutical situation, asking them to rateaffordable essential drugs on a sustainable access by the population to essential drugs atbasis is the percentage of the population that less than 50 per cent, 50–80 per cent, 80–95has access to a minimum of 20 most essential per cent or more than 95 per cent (WHOdrugs. Access is defined as having drugs con- Expert Committee on Essential Drugs,tinuously available and affordable at public or November 1999).private health facilities or drug outlets thatare within one hour’s walk of the population. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENTEssential drugs are drugs that satisfy the National data series are currently available forhealth care needs of the majority of the pop- 1995 and 1997. Regional aggregates are cur-ulation. The World Health Organization has rently available for 1987 and 1999.developed the Model List of Essential Drugs,which is regularly updated through widespread REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAconsultations with member States and other COMPARISONSpartners. Progress in access to essential med- UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicatorsicines is thus the result of combined effort by Database. Statistics Division Internet sitegovernments, strategic partners such as United http://millenniumindicators.un.org.Nations agencies, public-private partnerships, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1997). Thenon-governmental organizations and profes- WHO Model List of Essential Medicines- Thesional associations (WHO Expert Committee 13th Model List of Essential Medicines.on Essential Drugs, November 1999). Geneva. Available from http://www.who. int/medicines.GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1998).Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- Progress of WHO Member States inopment Developing National Drug Policies and inTarget 17. In cooperation with pharmaceutical Revising Essential Drugs Lists. WHO/DAP/companies, provide access to affordable, 98.7. Geneva. Available from http://www.essential drugs in developing countries who.int/medicines.RATIONALE WHO produces country data series andMillions of people die prematurely or suffer regional aggregates.unnecessarily each year from diseases orconditions for which effective medicines or AGENCIESvaccines exist. Essential drugs save lives and Ministries of healthimprove health, but their potential can only be World Health Organizationrealized if they are accessible, rationally usedand of good quality.METHOD OF COMPUTATIONThe World Health Organization regularlymonitors access to a minimum of 20 mostessential drugs. 89
  • 98. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals 47 TELEPHONE LINES100 POPULATION SUBSCRIBERS PER AND CELLULAR METHOD OF COMPUTATION Total telephone lines (see “DEFINITION”) are divided by the population and multiplied by 100. DEFINITION Total cellular subscribers (see “DEFINITION”) are Telephone lines refer to the number of tele- divided by the population and multiplied by 100. phone lines connecting subscribers’ terminal equipment to the public switched network DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE and that have a dedicated port in the tele- Data on telephone lines and cellular subscribers phone exchange equipment. are collected through annual questionnaires that the International Telecommunication Cellular subscribers refers to users of cellular Union (ITU) sends to government telecommu- telephones who subscribe to an automatic nication agencies. The questionnaire is sup- public mobile telephone service that provides plemented by annual reports of industry access to the public switched telephone net- organizations to cross-check accuracy and to work using cellular technology. obtain data for countries that do not reply to the questionnaire. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT opment Annual. Target 18. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technolo- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS gies, especially information and communica- Data for telephone lines come from adminis- tions trative records compiled by national regulatory authorities or telecommunication operators RATIONALE and tend to be timely and complete. However, Indicator 47 and indicators 48A and B are there are comparability issues for mobile sub- important tools for monitoring progress scribers owing to the prevalence of prepaid towards Goal 8, because effective communi- subscriptions. Those issues arise from differ- cation among those involved in the develop- ences in the time period chosen for determin- ment process is not possible without the nec- ing when a prepaid subscription is considered essary infrastructure. Personal computers no longer active. and telephones allow people to exchange experiences and learn from each other, REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA enabling higher returns on investment and COMPARISONS avoiding problems of duplication or missing INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION information. The use of information and com- (2003). World Telecommunication Indicators munication technologies can make Database. Geneva. Available from http:// Governments more transparent, thereby www.itu.int/ITU–D/ict/publications/world/ reducing corruption and leading to better world.html. governance. It can help people in rural areas INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION find out about market prices and sell their (annual). Yearbook of Statistics. Geneva. products at a better price. It can also over- Available from http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ come traditional barriers to better education ict. by making books available online and opening UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators the door to e-learning. Database. Statistics Division Internet site http://millenniumindicators.un.org.90
  • 99. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesAGENCY munication Union sends to government tele-International Telecommunication Union communication agencies. In the absence of data from countries, the number of PCs is estimated using industry sales data or PC imports data. 48 PERSONAL COMPUTERS IN USE PER 100 POPULATION DISAGGREGATION ISSUES Data for PCs come from administrative andDEFINITION operational records that do not disaggregatePersonal computers (PCs) are computers de- the data.signed to be operated by a single user at a time. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENTGOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED Annual.Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSopment Very few countries have a precise measure ofTarget 18. In cooperation with the private sec- the number of PCs. For some small developingtor, make available the benefits of new tech- economies, neither sales nor import data arenologies, especially information and commu- available. PC data are quite recent, so longnication technologies time series exist only for developed countries and major developing countries.RATIONALEIndicators 47 and 48 are important tools for REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATAmonitoring progress towards Goal 8, because COMPARISONSeffective communication among those INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNIONinvolved in the development process is not (2003). World Telecommunication Indicatorspossible without the necessary infrastructure. Database. Geneva. Available from http://www.Personal computers and telephone lines allow itu.int/ITU–D/ict/publications/world/world.people to exchange experiences and learn html.from each other, enabling higher returns on INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNIONinvestment and avoiding problems of duplica- (annual). Yearbook of Statistics. Geneva.tion or missing information. The use of infor- Available from http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/mation and communication technologies can ict.make Governments more transparent, there- UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicatorsby reducing corruption and leading to better Database. Statistics Division Internet sitegovernance. It can help people in rural areas http://millenniumindicators.un.org.find out about market prices and sell theirproducts at a better price. It can also over- AGENCYcome traditional barriers to better education International Telecommunication Unionby making books available online and openingthe door to e-learning.METHOD OF COMPUTATION 48 INTERNET USERS PER 100 POPULATIONThe total number of PCs in a country is divid-ed by the population and multiplied by 100. DEFINITION The Internet is a linked global network ofDATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE computers in which users at one computer, ifData are based largely on responses to a ques- they have permission, get information fromtionnaire that the International Telecom- other computers in the network. 91
  • 100. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals the number of users per subscriber. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel- GENDER ISSUES opment Surveys have been conducted by some coun- Target 18. In cooperation with the private sec- tries providing a breakdown between male and tor, make available the benefits of new tech- female Internet users. The surveys indicate nologies, especially information and commu- that more men than women use the Internet. nications Since the availability of gender-disaggregated statistics for this indicator is limited, however, RATIONALE little is known about use by gender. Indicators 47 and 48 are important tools for monitoring progress towards Goal 8, because DISAGGREGATION ISSUES effective communication among those Internet user data can be disaggregated by involved in the development process is not gender, age, frequency of use, household possible without the necessary infrastructure. income, location of access and other vari- Personal computers and telephone lines allow ables. However, this information is available people to exchange experiences and learn only for a limited number of countries that from each other, enabling higher returns on collect data on information and communica- investment and avoiding problems of duplica- tion technology use in household surveys. tion or missing information. The use of infor- mation and communication technologies can PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT make Governments more transparent, there- Annual. by reducing corruption and leading to better governance. It can help people in rural areas COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS find out about market prices and sell their The quality of Internet user data varies, and products at a better price. It can also over- the quality of data for smaller developing come traditional barriers to better education countries is uncertain. The data can also be by making books available online and opening misleading owing to multiple prepaid Internet the door to e-learning. accounts, free Internet access accounts or public Internet access such as Internet cafés. METHOD OF COMPUTATION The total number of Internet users is divided REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA by the population and multiplied by 100. COMPARISONS INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE (2003). World Telecommunication Internet user statistics are based largely on Indicators Database. Geneva. Available responses to an annual questionnaire that the from http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publica- International Telecommunication Union tions/ world/world.html. sends to government telecommunication INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION agencies. For most developed and larger (annual). Yearbook of Statistics. Geneva. developing countries, Internet user data are Available from http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ based on methodologically sound user sur- ict. veys conducted by national statistical agen- UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators cies or industry associations. The data are Database. Statistics Division Internet site either provided directly to the ITU by each http://millenniumindicators.un.org. country, or the ITU does the necessary research to obtain the data. For countries AGENCY where Internet user surveys are not available, International Telecommunication Union the ITU uses average multipliers to estimate92
  • 101. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesANNEX 1 PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT Results from population censuses are normallyAdditional socio-economic available every 10 years. Labour force surveyscommon country assessment may be available annually or more frequentlyindicators in developed countries, but are generally available every three to five years in develop- ing countries. The other surveys are produced CCA PROPORTION OF CHILDREN UNDER only occasionally. 19 AGE 15 WHO ARE WORKING GENDER ISSUES DEFINITION The available data indicate that boys are more Proportion of children under age 15 who are likely to be economically active than girls. Girls working refers to children who are employed are more often engaged in household services. in an economic activity for pay, profit or fam- ily gain. Economic activity covers the produc- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS tion of goods and services for pay or profit or Reliable estimates of child labour are difficult for use by own household. Employed means to obtain. In many countries child labour is being engaged in an economic activity during assumed not to exist and therefore is excluded a specified reference period or being tem- from official statistics. Some estimates cover porarily absent from such an activity. only children ages 10–14. Others cover chil- dren ages 5–14. Still others cover different GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED age ranges. Goal. Reduce child labour Target. Elimination of child labour (World Not all work is harmful to a child’s develop- Summit on Sustainable Development, 1995) ment. The International Labour Organization has addressed this concern, for example, by RATIONALE differentiating acceptable work from unac- The indicator monitors the degree to which ceptable labour. The United Nations Children’s the youth labour force is utilized in the econ- Fund sometimes also distinguishes between omy and therefore serves as a measure of the different types of work and different ages of success of strategies to create jobs for youth. children. METHOD OF COMPUTATION REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA The number of children who are employed is COMPARISONS divided by the number of children of the same HUSSMANNS, R., F. MEHRAN AND V. VERMA age group in the population. (1990). Surveys of Economically Active Population, Employment, Unemployment DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCES and Underemployment: An ILO Manual on Data come from population censuses, labour Concepts and Methods. Geneva. force surveys, special child labour surveys, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000). Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (http:// Current International Recommendations on www.childinfo.org), Demographic and Health Labour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva. Surveys (http://www.measuredhs.com), INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2002). Living Standards Measurement Study surveys Every Child Counts: New Global Estimates (http://www.worldbank.org/lsms) and Core on Child Labour. Geneva. Welfare Indicators Questionnaires (http:// INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2003). www4.worldbank.org/afr/stats/cwiq.cfm). International Programme on the Elimination 93
  • 102. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals of Child Labour: IPEC. Geneva. Internet site older from those younger than 15 years old. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/stan- dards/ipec/. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual). Goal. Creation of full employment Yearbook of Labour Statistics. Geneva. Target. Universal access to paid employment Available from http://laborsta.ilo.org. (World Summit on Sustainable Development, 1995) UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (2003). Progress since the World Summit for METHOD OF COMPUTATION Children. New York. Available from http:// The number of people who are employed is www.childinfo.org. Select: Quick Access/ divided by the total number of people in the Child labour. selected age interval for working age, gener- UNITED NATIONS, AND INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ally 15–64. ORGANIZATION (2002). Collection of Economic Characteristics in Population Censuses. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Technical Report. ST/ESA/STAT/119. Data are collected through population cen- WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World suses, labour force surveys and official Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. national estimates. Notes to table 2.3. Washington, DC. Available in part from http://www.worldbank.org/ PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT data. Results from population censuses are normally available every 10 years. Labour force surveys AGENCIES may be available annually or more frequently International Labour Organization in developed countries, but are generally United Nation’s Children’s Fund available every three to five years in develop- ing countries. The other surveys are produced occasionally. CCA EMPLOYMENT TO POPULATION OF 30 WORKING AGE RATIO GENDER ISSUES Male employment rates are generally higher DEFINITION than female employment rates. Female Population of working age covers people ages employment rates are often underestimated 15–64. Employment is defined according to because many economic activities in which international definitions and refers to being women dominate are not recorded as employ- engaged in an economic activity during a speci- ment. This may influence the international fied reference period, or being temporarily comparability of employment rates. absent from such an activity. Economic activity covers all production of goods and services COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS for pay or profit or for use by own household. Measuring employment is more straightfor- ward where labour markets are well devel- Working age is usually determined on the oped and a large proportion of the population basis of national circumstances, such as the gains its livelihood from a market economy. age at which most children have completed compulsory education and the age at which REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA any general old age pension system can be COMPARISONS claimed. The United Nations recommends that HUSSMANNS, R., F. MEHRAN and V. VERMA population census tabulations on the (1990). Surveys of Economically Active employed distinguish those 15 years and Population, Employment, Unemployment94
  • 103. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources and Underemployment: An ILO Manual on Summit on Sustainable Development 1995) Concepts and Methods. Geneva. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000). METHOD OF COMPUTATION Current International Recommendations on The number of people who are unemployed is div- Labour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva. ided by the number of people in the labour force. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual). Yearbook of Labour Statistics. Geneva. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Available from http://laborsta.ilo.org. Data are collected from population censuses, UNITED NATIONS (2003). Methods and Classif- labour force surveys, Demographic and Health ications. Statistics Division Internet site Surveys (http://www.measuredhs.com), Living http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods.htm . Standards Measurement Study surveys UNITED NATIONS, AND INTERNATIONAL LABOUR (http://www.worldbank.org/lsms) and Core ORGANIZATION (2002). Collection of Welfare Indicators Questionnaires (http:// Economic Characteristics in Population www4.worldbank.org/afr/stats/cwiq.cfm). Censuses Technical Report. ST/ESA/STAT/ 119. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World Results from population censuses are normally Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. available every 10 years. Labour force sur- Notes to table 2.3 and 2.4. Washington, DC. veys may be available annually or more fre- Available in part from http://www.world- quently in developed countries, but are gen- bank.org/data. erally available every three to five years in developing countries. The other surveys areAGENCY produced only occasionally.International Labour Organization GENDER ISSUES Female unemployment rates are often signifi-CCA UNEMPLOYMENT RATE cantly higher than male unemployment rates. 31 COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSDEFINITION The concepts of employment and unemploy-Unemployment covers all people who, during ment have different relevance depending ona specified reference period, are not employed, the level of labour market development andare available for work and have taken con- the presence of a market economy. People liv-crete steps to seek paid employment or self- ing in regions of a country where there is littleemployment during a recent period. The labour or no formal employment would not usuallyforce consists of those who are employed plus be classified as “unemployed” even if they arethose who are unemployed during the relevant without work and would accept a job if offeredreference period. Employed means being en- one (discouraged workers). Unemploymentgaged in an economic activity during a specified estimates can also understate problems inreference period or being temporarily absent labour markets when people are discouragedfrom such an activity. Economic activity refers from seeking work because jobs are scarce orto all production of goods and services for pay nonexistent.or profit or for use by own household. Only household surveys can give reliable esti-GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED mates according to the international definition.Goal. Creation of full employment Employment services and unemploymentTarget. Universal access to paid employment (World compensation schemes that are well 95
  • 104. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals developed (such as those in OECD countries) rations) as defined by the System of National can derive reliable unemployment estimates Accounts 1993; they produce at least some of from records of unemployment registration or their goods or services for sale or barter; they from national insurance records. are engaged in non-agricultural activities (including secondary non-agricultural activi- REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA ties of enterprises in the agricultural sector); COMPARISONS and their size (in number of employees) is below HUSSMANNS, R., F. MEHRAN and V. VERMA a specified threshold, determined according (1990). Surveys of Economically Active to national circumstances, or they are not Population, Employment, Unemployment registered under specific forms of national and Underemployment: An ILO Manual on legislation (such as commercial acts, tax or Concepts and Methods. Geneva. social security laws, professional groups, reg- INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000). ulatory acts, or similar acts, laws or regula- Current International Recommendations on tions established by national legislative bod- Labour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva. ies), or none of their employees is registered. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual). Households producing domestic or personal Yearbook of Labour Statistics. Geneva. services in employing paid domestic employ- available from http://laborsta.ilo.org. ees may be included. UNITED NATIONS, and INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2002). Collection of Economic Employed means being engaged in an eco- Characteristics in Population Censuses. nomic activity during a specified reference Technical Report. ST/ESA/STAT/119. period or being temporarily absent from such WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World an activity. Economic activity refers to all pro- Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. duction of goods and services for pay or profit Notes to 2.5. Washington, DC. Available in or for use by own household part from http://www.worldbank.org/data. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED AGENCY Goal. Creation of full employment International Labour Organization Target. Universal access to paid employment (World Summit on Sustainable Development, 1995) CCA INFORMAL SECTOR EMPLOYMENT AS 32 A PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYMENT METHOD OF COMPUTATION The number of people classified as employed DEFINITION in the informal sector in their main or second Informal sector employment includes all peo- jobs is divided by the total number of people ple who, during a given reference period, were employed in the same geographical areas, employed in at least one informal sector branches of economic activity, age group or enterprise, irrespective of their status in other defining characteristic. employment (employer, own-account worker, contributing family worker, employee or DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCES member of a producers cooperative) or Data are collected through informal sector whether it was their main or second job. surveys, Labour force surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Informal sector enterprises are defined by the following criteria: they are household unincor- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT porated enterprises (excluding quasi-corpo- Informal sector surveys are generally carried96
  • 105. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sourcesout ad hoc, often with intervals of five or AGENCYmore years. Labour force surveys tend to be International Labour Organizationconducted more frequently, generally everythree to five years in developing countries. CCA NUMBER OF PERSONS PER ROOM, ORGENDER ISSUES 41 AVERAGE FLOOR AREA PER PERSONThere are large gender-specific differences ininformal sector employment in most countries. DEFINITION Number of persons per room, or average floorINTERNATIONAL DATA COMPARISONS area per person, is a measure of crowding.Major limitations on the international compa- Number of persons per room is the number ofrability of data result from the inclusion or rooms in the living quarters of a householdexclusion of agricultural activities from the per person in the household. Average floor areascope of the informal sector, the inclusion or (in square metres) per person is the medianexclusion of informal sector activities under- usable floor area per person.taken as second jobs, differences in the geo-graphical coverage of informal sector surveys The number of rooms excludes kitchens,and similar factors. bathrooms, toilets, verandas, rooms used for business and rooms let to tenants.COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSStatistics on employment in the informal sec- Floor area includes kitchens, bathrooms,tor tend to be available only for developing internal corridors and closets. Covered, semi-countries and transition countries, where the private spaces such as corridors, inner court-informal sector plays a significant role in yards or verandas are included in the flooremployment and income generation. Informal area if they are used for cooking, eating,employment outside informal sector enter- sleeping or other domestic activities.prises is not covered by the enterprise-baseddefinition of the informal sector. Although GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSEDthere are international standards, definitions Goal. Adequate shelter for allmay vary among countries. Target. Provision of sufficient living space and avoidance of overcrowding (United NationsREFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA Conference on Human Settlements, [Habitat II],COMPARISONS 1996) INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (2002). Women and Men in the Informal Economy: A statis- RATIONALE tical picture. Geneva. available from Crowding, or housing density, is a key meas- http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employ- ure of housing quality. The three most com- ment/gems/download/women.pdf. monly used measures of crowding are per- INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual). sons per room, floor area per person and Key Indicators of the Labour Market. Table households per dwelling unit. Surveys have 7. Geneva. Available in part from shown that floor area per person is the more http://www.ilo.org/kilm. precise and more policy sensitive of the three. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000). Current International Recommendations on METHOD OF COMPUTATION Labour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva. The number of persons per room is calculated by dividing the number of people who live in the household by the total number of rooms 97
  • 106. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals they occupy. A low indicator denotes low E.01.XVII.5. crowding (density). UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and The area per person is calculated by dividing Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6. the floor area in square metres by the number Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ of people in the household. A low indicator susdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm. denotes high crowding (density). UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT) (1995). Human DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE Settlement Interventions: Addressing The data are mainly collected from population Crowding and Health Issues. (HS/374/95/E). censuses and from household surveys such as Nairobi. Living Standards Measurement Study surveys UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS (http://www.worldbank.org/lsms), Multiple PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT) (2003). Global Indicator Cluster Surveys (http://www.childinfo. Urban Observatory. Internet site http://www. org), Demographic and Health Surveys unhabitat.org/programmes/guo. Nairobi. (http://www.measuredhs.com) and Core UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS Welfare Indicators Questionnaires PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT) (2003). Internet (http://www4.worldbank.org/afr/stats/cwiq. site http://www.unhabitat.org and http:// cfm). www.unhabitat.org/mdg. Nairobi. WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World GENDER ISSUES Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM. In many countries, households headed by Notes to table 3.11. Washington, DC. women are more crowded than those headed Available in part from http://www. by men. worldbank.org/data . PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT AGENCY Population censuses are every 10 years or less. United Nations Human Settlements Programme Household surveys are generally conducted every three to five years. CCA NUMBER OF INTENTIONAL HOMI- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS 43 CIDES PER 100,000 INHABITANTS Data on the two indicators were collected during the first phase of the joint DEFINITION UN–HABITAT–World Bank Housing Indicators Homicide is defined by the United Nations Programme (1992). Results vary considerably Interregional Crime and Justice Research when collected in different areas: urban, rural Institute as the killing of any human being by and national. Informal settlements and disad- the act, procurement or omission of another. vantaged groups tend to have less space. (The term murder is usually applied to unlaw- Housing size and housing quality are not ful and premeditated homicide.) always linked, for economic and cultural rea- sons. Floor area is preferred for accuracy and sensitivity to policy, but some censuses and GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED surveys collect only number of rooms. Goal. Improve crime prevention Target. Eliminate/significantly reduce violence REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA and crime (United Nations Congress on the COMPARISONS Prevention of Crime and Treatment of UNITED NATIONS (2001). Compendium of Offenders, 1995) Human Settlements Statistics. Sales No.98
  • 107. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesMETHOD OF COMPUTATIONThe indicator is calculated as the ratio ofnumber of the intentional homicides to thetotal population multiplied by 100,000.DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCECrime data, including homicide data, arederived mainly from the administration recordsof criminal justice ministries. Population datacome from censuses.GENDER ISSUESWomen commit fewer crimes than men gen-erally, including homicide. Women are alsoless often the victims of homicide.PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENTAdministrative data on crimes are normallyavailable annually. Census data are usuallycollected every 10 years.COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONSSince crime data are dependent on nationaldefinitions and reporting procedures, they areoften not comparable internationally.More comparable and more consistent dataare derived from household crime victim sur-veys, but such surveys are not universal andare often taken only in capital cities.REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATACOMPARISONS UNITED NATIONS CRIME AND JUSTICE INFORMATION NETWORK(UNCJIN) (2003). Internet site http://www.uncjin.org. Vienna. UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME (2003). Internet site http://www.odccp. org/odccp/crime_cicp_sitemap.html. Vienna.AGENCIESUnited Nations Office on Drugs and CrimeUnited Nations Interregional Crime andJustice Research Institute 99
  • 108. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals ANNEX 2 DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are Household surveys and sponsored by the United States Agency for other national data sources International Development and undertaken by Macro International, Inc. They were first con- ducted in 1984 as successors to the Annex 2 reviews Multiple Indicator Cluster International Statistical Institute World Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, Fertility Surveys. The Demographic Health Living Standards Measurement Studies, Core Surveys are now in their fourth series. The Welfare Indicators Questionnaires in Africa, abbreviated name was changed in 1997 to household budget surveys, labour force sur- DHS+. They have been undertaken in over 60 veys, household surveys with an institutional countries. Some countries have had only one component, censuses of population and DHS, but others have had several. Most sur- housing, other surveys and administrative veys are addressed to about 5,000 house- data. holds. All household surveys and censuses provide Most questions refer to demography and to data by gender and age and by many other health including nutrition, but they also classifying variables. TABLE A2 at the end of the include other topics, such as education. TABLE present annex shows the topics covered by A2 shows the indicators likely to be covered by the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Demo- the DHS. More information can be found at graphic and Health Surveys, Living Standards www.measuredhs.com. Measurement Studies and Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaires in Africa. LIVING STANDARDS MEASUREMENT STUDY The first Living Standards Measurement MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY Study (LSMS) surveys were launched by the To provide recent data for assessing progress World Bank in Côte d’Ivoire and Peru in 1985. towards the 1990 World Summit for Children Since then there have been about 40 surveys goals, the United Nation’s Children’s Fund in 25 countries. They have been sponsored by developed the Multiple Indicator Cluster various donors, including the World Bank and Surveys (MICS) in 1994 to obtain data on a the United States Agency for International small subset of the goals. Experience from Development, and by some countries. this work was used in developing a revised and expanded Survey (known as MICS2) for assess- Although the first few LSMS surveys followed ing progress at end-decade. The surveys were a similar format, they have varied consider- conducted in 66 countries during 1999– ably since then. There are standard LSMS 2001, primarily by national government min- modules, but they are often omitted. The istries with support from a variety of partners. organization of the fieldwork also varies. Most are one-off sample surveys, but a four- wave panel was also undertaken in the Kagera The main subjects of MICS2 are health and region of Tanzania. education; TABLE A2 shows which indicators are likely to be included. MICS2 is modular and so TABLE A2 shows the indicators likely to be cov- the surveys may not be identical. More infor- ered by LSMS. More information can be found mation can be found at http://www.childinfo.org. at http://www.worldbank.org/lsms.100
  • 109. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources ducted there approximately every five yearsCORE WELFARE INDICATORS QUESTIONNAIRE since 1985.SURVEY IN AFRICAThe Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire LABOUR FORCE SURVEYS(CWIQ) survey is relatively new. Developed by Labour force surveys (LFS) have becomethe World Bank, it was piloted in Kenya in 1996 widespread in industrialized countries, butand in Ghana in 1997. The questionnaires are are more rare in developing countries. Theyrelatively short (about eight sides), but other are intended to provide information onmodules may be added. The surveys are employment and unemployment, but theyintended to be annual and to have samples of also frequently seek information on education5,000 to 15,000 households. The question- and training and may include other variables.naire is designed to complement other sur- They occasionally include questions onveys as part of a national monitoring package. income from employment. For reasons of effi-It is intended to contribute to statistical ciency, they generally cover the non-institu-capacity-building in developing countries. The tional population. In developing countries,results are intended to be available within a they are often undertaken only in urban areasfew weeks of data collection. SURVEYS WITH AN INSTITUTIONAL COMPONENTTABLE A2 shows the indicators likely to be cov- Some household surveys are also accompa-ered by the CWIQ. More information can be nied by surveys addressed to local institu-found at http://www4.worldbank.org/afr/ tions, including schools and hospitals. Thestats/cwiq.cfm. Zimbabwe Sentinel Surveillance Survey, for example, includes institutional componentsHOUSEHOLD BUDGET SURVEYS addressed to schools and to health establish-Household budget surveys (HBS) are intended ments. Thus they are able to provide data onfor various purposes, including measurement facilities serving households.of poverty and of household consumption ofgoods and services for weighting consumer CENSUSES OF POPULATION AND HOUSINGprices. Their value as sources of other data A population census is the primary source ofderive from the inclusion of a variety of ques- information about the number of people in ations among basic or general variables. This country and the characteristics of the popula-offers the possibility of cross-classifying them tion. Several features distinguish a censusagainst many other variables, including from survey-based sources of data. It canincome and urban or rural location as well as all achieve complete coverage of the population.the common classifiers such as age and gender. It offers possibilities for relating individual characteristics of the population with thoseThe surveys are complex and expensive, so of households. It provides details about sub-they are not conducted very frequently in national population groups. Owing to its highdeveloping countries. They are undertaken cost, it has the disadvantage of being able tooften enough (perhaps every five years or so) provide data only once every 10 years, orin many countries to provide fairly up-to-date sometimes less, and the questionnaires haveand fairly frequent data, however. to be relatively short.The Income Consumption and Expenditure The census is the unique basic source of bench-Survey (ICES) in Zimbabwe is an example of a mark demographic data, such as number ofhousehold budget survey. The 2001 survey is people by age and gender. Demographic datathe most recent, and the ICES has been con- are used as denominators for ratios of all 101
  • 110. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals kinds, on school enrolment for example, and (Joint United Nations Programme on for many other common country assessment HIV/AIDS) and Millennium Development Goals indica- I Tuberculosis/DOTS (notification pro- tors. However, population estimates have to gramme); Roll Back Malaria (World Health be updated between censuses, and national Organization) methods and standards can differ. Many I Pilot surveys in selected countries to international agencies use United Nations test/improve methodologies of data collec- estimates of population as denominators for tion on labour force (International Labour ratios in order to be consistent between Organization) countries. Nevertheless, the United Nations I Child labour survey (International Labour population estimates, which are revised every Organization) two years, are often different from the I Informal sector surveys (International national estimates, mainly (but not always) as Labour Organization) a result of international standardization. I Pilot surveys in selected countries to test/improve methodologies of data collec- Censuses are also sometimes used as sam- tion on nutrition (Food and Agriculture pling frames for sample surveys. Organization of the United Nations) I Pilot small-scale studies on education/lit- REFERENCES : eracy (United Nations Educational, UNITED NATIONS. (1998). Principles and Scientific and Cultural Organization) Recommendations for Population and I Access to personal computers and the Housing Censuses, Revision 1. Series M, No. Internet (International Telecommunication 67. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Union) UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (2002). I Secure tenure and slum improvement Population and Housing Censuses: Strategies (United Nations Human Settlements for Reducing Costs. Available from: Programme) http://www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_ file/24_filename_pophousingcensus.pdf. ADMINISTRATIVE SOURCES UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (2003). The most commonly used sources of data for Counting the People: Constraining Census education, and often for health, are adminis- Costs and Assessing Alternative Approaches. trative sources—data derived from the admin- Available from: http://www.unfpa.org/ istration of education or health. Unemploy- upload/ lib_pub_file/184_filename_popdev- ment data are also frequently derived from strat-7.pdf. administrative registrations of employment offices. The data are made available by min- OTHER SURVEYS istries and sometimes by national statistical There are also many household surveys of offices. Data on births and deaths are also variable frequency, or ad hoc, that are either frequently drawn from administrative sources, general in their purpose or have a limited usually vital statistics registration systems. range of purposes. There are special surveys on particular topics, such as some limited Administrative sources can potentially pro- aspect of health. vide data for very small areas. Their disadvan- tages include bias, application of national Survey programmes pertinent to the data for standards and definitions, and non-response. common country assessment and Millennium For vital statistics, such as births and deaths, Development Goals indicators, in addition to and for many other indicators, the data often those mentioned above, include the following: do not exist or are incomplete. I HIV/AIDS, various epidemiological surveys102
  • 111. TABLE A2. Comparison of indicator coverage of four survey types a GOALS LSMS DHS CWIQ MICS GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER Proportion of population below $1 per day b •c Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty] • Share of poorest quintile in national consumption • Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age • • • • Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption d GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION Net enrolment ratio in primary education e ( •) ( •) ( •) ( •) Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 • • • • Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds • • • • GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education f ( •) ( •) ( •) ( •) Ratio of literate women to men, 15–24 years old Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector • • • • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament • • GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY Under-five mortality rate • • Infant mortality rate • • Proportion of 1-year-old children immunized against measles • • GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH Maternal mortality ratio • • Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel • • GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES HIV prevalence among aged pregnant women 15–24 years Contraceptive prevalence rate g • • Number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria •i Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures h Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Proportion of land area covered by forest Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP) Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons) Proportion of population using solid fuels Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural j • • • • Proportion of urban and rural population with access to improved sanitation • • • • Proportion of households with access to secure tenure ( • )k 103
  • 112. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals TABLE A2 (CONTINUED) NOTES a. The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is made up of modules, and not all modules were used in all countries. This column is based on the full questionnaire using all modules. b. For monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on national poverty lines should be used, where available. c. This indicator also requires the calculation of a national PPP, which in turn is derived from inter- nationally coordinated price collection conducted by the International Comparison Programme. d. National data are provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations based on a statistical modeling technique. e. All surveys collect school attendance, rather than enrolment. However, it could be argued that this has greater policy relevance at the national level. Enrolment rates in international reporting are based on administrative records. f. The ratio is of attendance rates, not enrolment rates. g. Among contraceptive methods, only condoms are effective in preventing HIV transmission. The contraceptive prevalence rate is also useful in tracking progress in other health, gender and poverty goals. Since the condom use rate is measured only among women in union, it is sup- plemented by an indicator on condom use in high-risk situations (indicator 19A) and an indi- cator on HIV/AIDS knowledge (indicator 19B). h. Prevention can be measured by the percentage of children under five sleeping under insecticide- treated bednets. Treatment can be measured by the percentage of children under five who are appropriately treated. i. For children under five only. j. All surveys measure access to improved source, but do not assess whether it is sustainable. k. Surveys typically ask about type of dwelling and tenure. They may not explicitly address the issue of how secure is, for example, a rental agree- ment, but that could be covered in the future.104
  • 113. Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and SourcesANNEX 3 UNEP. Land use. Available from http://www. unep.org/themes/landWeb sites United Nations Educational, Scientific and(see also references in the metadata sheets) Cultural Organization. http://www.unesco. org United Nations. Millennium Development UNESCO Institute for Statistics. http:// Goals. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals www.uis.unesco.org United Nations Statistics Division. United Nations Children’s Fund. http:// Millennium Indicators Database. www.unicef.org and http://www.childinfo. http://millenniumindicators.un.org org United Nations Statistics Division. http:// United Nations Framework Convention on unstats.un.org/unsd Climate Change. http://unfccc.int World Bank. Millennium Development United Nations Population Fund. http:// Goals. http://www.developmentgoals. org www.unfpa.org Organisation for Economic Co-operation United Nations Human Settlements and Development. http://www.oecd.org/ Programme. http://www.unhabitat.org dac. Under Topics, select: Aid statistics, and http://www.unhabitat.org/campaigns/ Aid effectiveness and donor practices or tenure/introduction.asp Millennium Develoment Goals Cities in a Globalizing World. Available from Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire http://www. earthscan.co.uk/cities (CWIQ) surveys. Available from http:// United Nations Interregional Crime and www4.worldbank.org/afr/stats/cwiq.cfm Justice Research Institute. http://www. Demographic and Health Surveys. http:// unicri.it www.measuredhs.com World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Food and Agriculture Organization of the Protected area data unit. http://www. United Nations. http://www.fao.org wcmc.org.uk/data International Labour Organization. http:// Joint United Nations Programme on www.ilo.org/stat HIV/AIDS. http://www.unaids.org/hivaids World Health Organization/United Nations info Environment Programme Intergovernmental World Health Organization. Directly Panel on Climate Change. http://www.ipcc. observed treatment short course (for ch tuberculosis). Available from http://www. IUCN–World Conservation Union. http:// who.int/gtb/dots www.iucn.org Stop TB Partnership. http://www.stoptb.org Living Standards Measurement Study World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/data (LSMS). http://www.worldbank.org/lsms World Bank. World Development Indicators. Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Available from http://www.worldbank.org/ Available from http://www.childinfo.org data Organisation for Economic Co-operation World Resources Institute. http://www. and Development. Development Assistance earthtrends.wri.org Committee. http://www.oecd.org/dac Biosphere reserves. http://www.unesco. United Nations Development Group. org/mab http://www.undg.org Heritage sites. http://www.unesco.org/ United Nations Development Programme. whc Human Development Report. Available Wetlands. http://www.ramsar.org/sitelist. from http://www. undp.org/hdr2003 pdf United Nations Environment Programme. http://www.unep.org 105
  • 114. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals ANNEX 4 World summits and conferences World Food Summit, Rome, 1996 International Conference on Primary Health World Conference of Ministers Responsible Care, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 1978 for Youth, Lisbon, 1998 World Conference to Review and Appraise Twentieth special session of the General Achievements of the United Nations Decade Assembly on the world drug problem, New for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, York, 1998 Nairobi, 1985 Global Conference on the Sustainable World Conference on Education for All, Development of Small Island Developing Jomtien, Thailand, 1990 States, New York, 1999 World Summit for Children, New York, 1990 Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of International Conference on Nutrition, Offenders, Vienna, 2000 Rome, 1992 World Education Forum, Dakar, 2000 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992 Twenty-fourth special session of the General Assembly: World Summit for Social World Conference on Human Rights, Development and beyond: achieving social Vienna, 1993 development for all in a globalizing word, Geneva, 2000 Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing World Summit on Sustainable Development, States, Bridgetown, 1994 Johannesburg, South Africa, 2002 International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994 Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995 Ninth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Cairo, 1995 World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, 1995 United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), Istanbul, 1996106