RUSTAMJI INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY
PRESENTATION ON

SPINTRONICS
SUBMITTED BY
PRINCE KUSHWAHA

0902EC1010053
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CONTENTS

Introduction to Spintronics
Future Demands
Advantages of...
Introduction to Spintronics
*Conventional electronic devices
ignore the spin property and
rely strictly on the transport
o...
Future Demands
• Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors
on a silicon chip will roughly double every eighteen
mo...
Advantages of Spin
• Information is stored into spin as one of two possible
orientations
• Spin lifetime is relatively lon...
GMR
• 1988 France, GMR discovery is accepted as birth
of spintronics.
• A Giant MagnetoResistive device is made of at
leas...
Parallel Current GMR
• Current runs parallel between the ferromagnetic
layers.
• Most commonly used in magnetic read heads...
Spin Valve
• Simplest and most successful spintronic
device
• Used in HDD to read information in the
form of small magneti...
Perpendicular Current GMR
• Easier to understand theoretically, think
of one FM layer as spin polarizer and
other as detec...
Tunnel Magnetoresistance
• Tunnel Magnetoresistive effect combines the two spin
channels in the ferromagnetic materials an...
MRAM
• MRAM uses magnetic storage elements instead of
electric used in conventional RAM
• Tunnel junctions are used to rea...
MRAM
• Attempts were made to control bit writing by using
relatively large currents to produce fields
• This proves unprac...
Spin Transfer
• Current passed through a magnetic field becomes spin
polarized
• This flipping of magnetic spins applies a...
MRAM
• The spin transfer mechanism can be used to write
to the magnetic memory cells
• Currents are about the same as read...
MRAM
• MRAM promises:
– Density of DRAM
– Speed of SRAM
– Non-volatility like flash
Spin Transistor
• Ideal use of MRAM would utilize control of the
spin channels of the current
• Spin transistors would all...
Datta Das Spin Transistor
• The Datta Das Spin
Transistor was first spin
device proposed for
metal-oxide geometry,
1989
• ...
Magnetic Semiconductors
• Materials like magnetite are magnetic
semiconductors
• Development of materials similar to conve...
Current Research
• Weitering et al. have made numerous advances
– Ferromagnetic transition temperature in excess of
100 K ...
Current Research
• Material science
– Many methods of
magnetic doping

• Spin transport in
semiconductors
Conclusion
Interest in spintronics arises, in part, from the looming
problem of exhausting the fundamental physical limits...
References
1. http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/materials-science/alternativeenergy-materials/magnetic-materials/tutorial/spintr...
THANK YOU…
ANY
QUERIES…
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presentation on spintronics by prince kushwaha

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Conventional electronic devices
ignore the spin property and
rely strictly on the transport
of the electrical charge of
electrons
*Adding the spin degree of
freedom provides new effects,
new capabilities and new
functionalities.
Advantages of Spin
Information is stored into spin as one of two possible orientations
Spin lifetime is relatively long, on the order of nanoseconds
Spin currents can be manipulated
Spin devices may combine logic and storage functionality eliminating the need for separate components
Magnetic storage is nonvolatile
Binary spin polarization offers the possibility of applications as qubits in quantum computers

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  • New technology has been proposed which would involve a complete set of new materials, new handling and processing techniques, and altered circuit design. Such developments include single-electron transistors and molecular-electronic devices based on organic materials or carbon nanotubes.
  • Charge state can be destroyed by interactions with impurities or other charges
  • Think of optical polarizers
  • 230% with sputtering deposition
  • Non volatile, instant-on computers
  • DRAM stores one bit in only one capacitor and transistor, very dense but very power hungry because capacitor loses charge, must be frequently refreshedSRAM stores one bit in six transistors, faster than DRAM but less dense
  • Rashba effect – consequence of spin orbit interaction, proportional to electric field in a structure with inversion asymmetry
  • Ideally, each Mn dopant atom represents an acceptor that introduces a local spin and a hole carrier
  • “The crystalline quality, surface topography, and thermal stability of the films indicate the possibility of growing epitaxial Ge on top of Mn5Ge3 so that epitaxial trilayers or ‘spin valves’ and perhaps even multilayer structures can be fabricated for spintronics research and applications.”
  • 2006 Princeton, A. Yazdani et al. used STM to carefully place individual atoms on GaAs substrateSwarms of bees, spin polarized currents
  • presentation on spintronics by prince kushwaha

    1. 1. RUSTAMJI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PRESENTATION ON SPINTRONICS SUBMITTED BY PRINCE KUSHWAHA 0902EC1010053
    2. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. CONTENTS Introduction to Spintronics Future Demands Advantages of Spin GMR Parallel Current GMR Spin Valve Perpendicular Current GMR Tunnel Magnetoresistance MRAM Spin Transfer Spin Transistor Datta Das Spin Transistor Magnetic Semiconductors Current Research Conclusion References
    3. 3. Introduction to Spintronics *Conventional electronic devices ignore the spin property and rely strictly on the transport of the electrical charge of electrons *Adding the spin degree of freedom provides new effects, new capabilities and new functionalities
    4. 4. Future Demands • Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors on a silicon chip will roughly double every eighteen months • By 2015, it is projected that the width of the electrodes in a microprocessor will be 45nm across • As electronic devices become smaller, quantum properties of the wavelike nature of electrons are no longer negligible • Spintronics devices offer the possibility of enhanced functionality, higher speed, and reduced power consumption
    5. 5. Advantages of Spin • Information is stored into spin as one of two possible orientations • Spin lifetime is relatively long, on the order of nanoseconds • Spin currents can be manipulated • Spin devices may combine logic and storage functionality eliminating the need for separate components • Magnetic storage is nonvolatile • Binary spin polarization offers the possibility of applications as qubits in quantum computers
    6. 6. GMR • 1988 France, GMR discovery is accepted as birth of spintronics. • A Giant MagnetoResistive device is made of at least two ferromagnetic layers separated by a spacer layer. • When the magnetization of the two outside layers is aligned, lowest resistance • Conversely when magnetization vectors are antiparallel, high R. • Small fields can produce big effects. • parallel and perpendicular current.
    7. 7. Parallel Current GMR • Current runs parallel between the ferromagnetic layers. • Most commonly used in magnetic read heads. • Has shown 200% resistance difference between zero point and antiparallel states
    8. 8. Spin Valve • Simplest and most successful spintronic device • Used in HDD to read information in the form of small magnetic fields above the disk surface
    9. 9. Perpendicular Current GMR • Easier to understand theoretically, think of one FM layer as spin polarizer and other as detector • Has shown 70% resistance difference between zero point and antiparallel states • Basis for Tunneling MagnetoResistance
    10. 10. Tunnel Magnetoresistance • Tunnel Magnetoresistive effect combines the two spin channels in the ferromagnetic materials and the quantum tunnel effect • TMR junctions have resistance ratio of about 70% • MgO barrier junctions have produced 230% MR
    11. 11. MRAM • MRAM uses magnetic storage elements instead of electric used in conventional RAM • Tunnel junctions are used to read the information stored in Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory, typically a”0” for zero point magnetization state and “1” for antiparallel state
    12. 12. MRAM • Attempts were made to control bit writing by using relatively large currents to produce fields • This proves unpractical at nanoscale level
    13. 13. Spin Transfer • Current passed through a magnetic field becomes spin polarized • This flipping of magnetic spins applies a relatively large torque to the magnetization within the external magnet • This torque will pump energy to the magnet causing its magnetic moment to precess • If damping force is too small, the current spin momentum will transfer to the nanomagnet, causing the magnetization will flip • Unwanted effect in spin valves • Possible applications in memory writing
    14. 14. MRAM • The spin transfer mechanism can be used to write to the magnetic memory cells • Currents are about the same as read currents, requiring much less energy
    15. 15. MRAM • MRAM promises: – Density of DRAM – Speed of SRAM – Non-volatility like flash
    16. 16. Spin Transistor • Ideal use of MRAM would utilize control of the spin channels of the current • Spin transistors would allow control of the spin current in the same manner that conventional transistors can switch charge currents • Using arrays of these spin transistors, MRAM will combine storage, detection, logic and communication capabilities on a single chip • This will remove the distinction between working memory and storage, combining functionality of many devices into one
    17. 17. Datta Das Spin Transistor • The Datta Das Spin Transistor was first spin device proposed for metal-oxide geometry, 1989 • Emitter and collector are ferromagnetic with parallel magnetizations • The gate provides magnetic field • Current is modulated by the degree of precession in electron spin
    18. 18. Magnetic Semiconductors • Materials like magnetite are magnetic semiconductors • Development of materials similar to conventional • Research aimed at dilute magnetic semiconductors – Manganese is commonly doped onto substrate – However previous manganese-doped GaAs has transition temp at -88oC • Curie temperatures above room must be produced.
    19. 19. Current Research • Weitering et al. have made numerous advances – Ferromagnetic transition temperature in excess of 100 K in (Ga,Mn)As diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS's). – Spin injection from ferromagnetic to non-magnetic semiconductors and long spin-coherence times in semiconductors. – Ferromagnetism in Mn doped group IV semiconductors. – Room temperature ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)N, (Ga,Mn)P, and digital-doped (Ga,Mn)Sb. – Large magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic semiconductor tunnel junctions.
    20. 20. Current Research • Material science – Many methods of magnetic doping • Spin transport in semiconductors
    21. 21. Conclusion Interest in spintronics arises, in part, from the looming problem of exhausting the fundamental physical limits of conventional electronics. However, complete reconstruction of industry is unlikely and spintronics is a “variation” of current technology The spin of the electron has attracted renewed interest because it promises a wide variety of new devices that combine logic, storage and sensor applications. Moreover, these "spintronic" devices might lead to quantum computers and quantum communication based on electronic solid-state devices, thus changing the perspective of information technology in the 21st century.
    22. 22. References 1. http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/materials-science/alternativeenergy-materials/magnetic-materials/tutorial/spintronics.html 2. http://www.crocus-technology.com/pr-12-08-11.html 3. S. Datta and B. Das (1990). "Electronic analog of the electrooptic modulator". Applied Physics Letters 56 (7): 665–667. Bibcode:1990ApPhL..56..665D. doi:10.1063/1.102730. 4. Baibich, M. N.; Broto, J. M.; Fert, A.; Van Dau, F. N.; Petroff, F.; Etienne, P.; Creuzet, G.; Friederich, A. et al. (1988). "Giant Magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr Magnetic Superlattices". Physical Review Letters 61 (21): 2472–2475. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.2472. PMID 10039127. edit 5. Electronic measurement and control of spin transport in silicon : Abstract : Nature
    23. 23. THANK YOU…
    24. 24. ANY QUERIES…
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