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Fmcg 1 Fmcg 1 Document Transcript

  • Abstract Consumer Behaviour It is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy Product or business product. It blends elements from psychology, sociology, and economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics and behavioural variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups, and society. Customer behaviour study is based on consumer buying behaviour, with the customer playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Relationship marketing is an influential asset for customer behaviour analysis as it has a keen interest in the re-discovery of the true meaning of marketing through the re-affirmation of the importance of the customer or buyer. A greater importance is also placed on consumer retention, customer relationship management, personalisation, customisation and one-to-one marketing. Social functions can be categorized into social choice and welfare functions. Perception Customers perception is an approximation of reality. Their brain attempts to make sense out of the stimuli to which we are exposed. Several sequential factors influence customers perception. Exposure involves the extent to which we encounter a stimulus. Interpretation involves making sense out of the stimulus. Surprising stimuli are likely to get more attention.
  • INTRODUCTION What is Marketing? Marketing is about identifying and meeting human and social needs. One of the shortest and good definition for marketing is “meeting needs profitability”. According to American Marketing Association, Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to the customers and for managing customers relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders. Coping with these exchange processes calls for a considerable amount of work and skill. Marketing management takes place when at least one party to a potential exchange thinks about the means of acheiving desired responses from other parties. Thus we see marketing management as the art and science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping, and growing customers through creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value. Topic: A Study of Bathing Soap (FMGC Products) in South Bangalore City. Introduction of topic We are conducting a project on Consumers’ Behaviour on Bathing Soap (FMCG Product). We are trying to study about the consmers’ behavior which effect purchasing intension towards a product. We will study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy product.We are conducting survey on consumers about bathing soap. By this project, we will be able to know that what are the main elements or factors which effects the consumers’ behavior during buying a product. At this time the consumer compares the brands and products that are in their evoked set. How can the marketing organization increase the likelihood that their brand is part of the consumer's evoked (consideration) set? Consumers evaluate alternatives in terms of the functional and psychological benefits that they offer. The marketing organization needs to understand what benefits consumers are seeking and therefore which attributes are most important in terms of making a decision. Once the
  • alternatives have been evaluated, the consumer is ready to make a purchase decision. Sometimes purchase intention does not result in an actual purchase. The marketing organization must facilitate the consumer to act on their purchase intention. The organisation can use variety of techniques to achieve this. The provision of credit or payment terms may encourage purchase, or a sales promotion such as the opportunity to receive a premium or enter a competition may provide an incentive to buy now. The relevant internal psychological process that is associated with purchase decision is integration.Once the integration is achieved, the organisation can influence the purchase decisions much more easily. By studying consumers’ behavior, we will know the tastes, preferences, likes and dislikes of consumers. After this project, we can evaluate the elements which effects the consumers’ behavior and the company can improve the existing product which is according to preferences, likes and dislikes of the consumers. Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) FMCG industry, alternatively called as CPG (Consumer packaged goods) industry primarily deals with the production, distribution and marketing of consumer packaged goods. The Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) are those consumables which are normally consumed by the consumers at a regular interval. Some of the prime activities of FMCG industry are selling, marketing, financing, purchasing, etc. The industry also engaged in operations, supply chain, production and general management. FMCG industry provides a wide range of consumables and accordingly the amount of money circulated against FMCG products is also very high. The competition among FMCG manufacturers is also growing and as a result of this, investment in FMCG industry is also increasing, specifically in India, where FMCG industry is regarded as the fourth largest sector with total market size of US$13.1 billion. FMCG Sector in India is estimated to grow 60% by 2010. FMCG industry is regarded as the largest sector in New Zealand which accounts for 5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Market potentiality of FMCG industry Some of the merits of FMCG industry, which made this industry as a potential one are low operational cost, strong distribution networks, presence of renowned FMCG companies. Population growth is another factor which is responsible behind the success of this industry.
  • Common FMCG products Some common FMCG product categories include food and dairy products, glassware, paper products, pharmaceuticals, consumer electronics, packaged food products, plastic goods, printing and stationery, household products, photography, drinks etc. and some of the examples of FMCG products are coffee, tea, dry cells, greeting cards, gifts, detergents, tobacco and cigarettes, watches, soaps etc. Leading FMCG companies Some of the well known FMCG companies are Sara Lee, Nestlé, Reckitt Benckiser, Unilever, Procter & Gamble, Coca-Cola, Carlsberg, Kleenex, General Mills, Pepsi and Mars etc. Soaps Soap is a mixture of sodium salts of various naturally occurring fatty acids. Air bubbles added to a molten soap will decrease the density of the soap and thus it will float on water. If the fatty acid salt has potassium rather than sodium, a softer lather is the result. Soap is produced by a saponification or basic hydrolysis reaction of a fat or oil. Currently, sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide is used to neutralize the fatty acid and convert it to the salt. General overall hydrolysis reaction: fat + NaOH ---> glycerol + sodium salt of fatty acid Although the reaction is shown as a one step reaction, it is in fact two steps. The net effect as that the ester bonds are broken. The glycerol turns back into an alcohol (addition of the green H's). The fatty acid portion is turned into a salt because of the presence of a basic solution of the NaOH. In the carboxyl group, one oxygen (red) now has a negative charge that attracts the positive sodium ion. Types of Soap: The type of fatty acid and length of the carbon chain determines the unique properties of various soaps. Tallow or animal fats give primarily sodium stearate (18 carbons) a very hard, insoluble soap. Fatty acids
  • with longer chains are even more insoluble. As a matter of fact, zinc stearate is used in talcum powders because it is water repellent. Coconut oil is a source of lauric acid (12 carbons) which can be made into sodium laurate. This soap is very soluble and will lather easily even in sea water. Fatty acids with only 10 or fewer carbons are not used in soaps because they irritate the skin and have objectionable odors. Early History The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon. A formula for soap consisting of water, alkali and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC. The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) indicates that ancient Egyptians bathed regularly and combined animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to create a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents mention that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving. Soap nuts and bark of the Acacia concinna have been used on the Indian sucontinent for thousands of years. Medieval history Soap-makers in Naples were members of a guild in the late sixth century, and in the 8th century, soap-making was well-known in Italy and Spain. Soaps made from vegetable oils (such as olive oil), aromatic oils (such as thyme oil) and lye (al-Soda al-Kawia) were first produced bychemists. From the beginning of the 7th century, soap was produced in Nablus (West Bank), Kufa (Iraq) and Basra (Iraq). Soap was perfumed and colored, some of the soaps were liquid and others were solid. They also had special soap for shaving. It was sold for 3 Dirhams (0.3 Dinars) a piece in 981 AD. The Persian chemist Al-Razi wrote a manuscript on recipes for true soap. A recently discovered manuscript from the 13th century details more recipes for soap making; e.g. take some sesame oil, a sprinkle of potash, alkali and some
  • lime, mix them all together and boil. When cooked, they are poured into molds and left to set, leaving hard soap. Modern History Finer soaps were later produced in Europe from the 16th century, using vegetable oils (such as olive oil) as opposed to animal fats. Many of these soaps are still produced, both industrially and by small scale artisans. Castile soap is a popular example of the vegetable-only soaps derived by the oldest "white soap" of Italy. In modern times, the use of soap has become universal in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms. Industrially manufactured bar soaps first became available in the late eighteenth century, as advertising campaigns in Europe and the United States promoted popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health.