It is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy Product
or business product. It blends elements from psychology, sociology, and
economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both
individually and in groups. It studies characteristics of individual consumers
such as demographics and behavioural variables in an attempt to understand
people's wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups
such as family, friends, reference groups, and society.
Customer behaviour study is based on consumer buying behaviour, with the
customer playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Relationship
marketing is an influential asset for customer behaviour analysis as it has a
keen interest in the re-discovery of the true meaning of marketing through the
re-affirmation of the importance of the customer or buyer. A greater
importance is also placed on consumer retention, customer relationship
management, personalisation, customisation and one-to-one marketing. Social
functions can be categorized into social choice and welfare functions.
Customers perception is an approximation of reality. Their brain attempts to
make sense out of the stimuli to which we are exposed. Several sequential
factors influence customers perception.
Exposure involves the extent to which we encounter a stimulus.
Interpretation involves making sense out of the stimulus.
Surprising stimuli are likely to get more attention.
What is Marketing?
Marketing is about identifying and meeting human and social needs. One of
the shortest and good definition for marketing is “meeting needs profitability”.
According to American Marketing Association, Marketing is an organizational
function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering
value to the customers and for managing customers relationships in ways that
benefit the organization and its stakeholders. Coping with these exchange
processes calls for a considerable amount of work and skill.
Marketing management takes place when at least one party to a
potential exchange thinks about the means of acheiving desired responses
from other parties. Thus we see marketing management as the art and science
of choosing target markets and getting, keeping, and growing customers
through creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value.
A Study of Bathing Soap (FMGC Products) in South Bangalore City.
Introduction of topic
We are conducting a project on Consumers’ Behaviour on Bathing Soap
(FMCG Product). We are trying to study about the consmers’ behavior which
effect purchasing intension towards a product. We will study of when, why,
how, and where people do or do not buy product.We are conducting survey on
consumers about bathing soap. By this project, we will be able to know that
what are the main elements or factors which effects the consumers’ behavior
during buying a product. At this time the consumer compares the brands and
products that are in their evoked set. How can the marketing organization
increase the likelihood that their brand is part of the consumer's evoked
Consumers evaluate alternatives in terms of the functional and
psychological benefits that they offer. The marketing organization needs to
understand what benefits consumers are seeking and therefore which
attributes are most important in terms of making a decision. Once the
alternatives have been evaluated, the consumer is ready to make a purchase
decision. Sometimes purchase intention does not result in an actual purchase.
The marketing organization must facilitate the consumer to act on
their purchase intention. The organisation can use variety of techniques to
achieve this. The provision of credit or payment terms may encourage
purchase, or a sales promotion such as the opportunity to receive a premium
or enter a competition may provide an incentive to buy now. The relevant
internal psychological process that is associated with purchase decision is
integration.Once the integration is achieved, the organisation can influence
the purchase decisions much more easily. By studying consumers’ behavior,
we will know the tastes, preferences, likes and dislikes of consumers.
After this project, we can evaluate the elements which effects the
consumers’ behavior and the company can improve the existing product which
is according to preferences, likes and dislikes of the consumers.
Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)
FMCG industry, alternatively called as CPG (Consumer packaged goods)
industry primarily deals with the production, distribution and marketing of
consumer packaged goods. The Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) are
those consumables which are normally consumed by the consumers at a
regular interval. Some of the prime activities of FMCG industry are selling,
marketing, financing, purchasing, etc. The industry also engaged in
operations, supply chain, production and general management.
FMCG industry provides a wide range of consumables and accordingly the
amount of money circulated against FMCG products is also very high. The
competition among FMCG manufacturers is also growing and as a result of
this, investment in FMCG industry is also increasing, specifically in India, where
FMCG industry is regarded as the fourth largest sector with total market size of
US$13.1 billion. FMCG Sector in India is estimated to grow 60% by 2010. FMCG
industry is regarded as the largest sector in New Zealand which accounts for
5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Market potentiality of FMCG industry
Some of the merits of FMCG industry, which made this industry as a potential
one are low operational cost, strong distribution networks, presence of
renowned FMCG companies. Population growth is another factor which is
responsible behind the success of this industry.
Common FMCG products
Some common FMCG product categories include food and dairy products,
glassware, paper products, pharmaceuticals, consumer electronics, packaged
food products, plastic goods, printing and stationery, household products,
photography, drinks etc. and some of the examples of FMCG products are
coffee, tea, dry cells, greeting cards, gifts, detergents, tobacco and cigarettes,
watches, soaps etc.
Leading FMCG companies
Some of the well known FMCG companies are Sara Lee, Nestlé, Reckitt
Benckiser, Unilever, Procter & Gamble, Coca-Cola, Carlsberg, Kleenex, General
Mills, Pepsi and Mars etc.
Soap is a mixture of sodium salts of various naturally occurring fatty acids. Air
bubbles added to a molten soap will decrease the density of the soap and thus
it will float on water. If the fatty acid salt has potassium rather than sodium, a
softer lather is the result.
Soap is produced by a saponification or basic hydrolysis reaction of a fat or oil.
Currently, sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide is used to neutralize the
fatty acid and convert it to the salt.
General overall hydrolysis reaction:
fat + NaOH ---> glycerol + sodium salt of fatty acid
Although the reaction is shown as a one step reaction, it is in fact two steps.
The net effect as that the ester bonds are broken. The glycerol turns back into
an alcohol (addition of the green H's). The fatty acid portion is turned into a
salt because of the presence of a basic solution of the NaOH. In the carboxyl
group, one oxygen (red) now has a negative charge that attracts the positive
Types of Soap: The type of fatty acid and length of the carbon chain
determines the unique properties of various soaps. Tallow or animal fats give
primarily sodium stearate (18 carbons) a very hard, insoluble soap. Fatty acids
with longer chains are even more insoluble. As a matter of fact, zinc stearate is
used in talcum powders because it is water repellent.
Coconut oil is a source of lauric acid (12 carbons) which can be made into
sodium laurate. This soap is very soluble and will lather easily even in sea
Fatty acids with only 10 or fewer carbons are not used in soaps because they
irritate the skin and have objectionable odors.
The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates
back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon. A formula for soap consisting of
water, alkali and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around
The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) indicates that ancient Egyptians bathed
regularly and combined animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to create a
soap-like substance. Egyptian documents mention that a soap-like substance
was used in the preparation of wool for weaving. Soap nuts and bark of
the Acacia concinna have been used on the Indian sucontinent for thousands
Soap-makers in Naples were members of a guild in the late sixth century, and
in the 8th century, soap-making was well-known in Italy and Spain.
Soaps made from vegetable oils (such as olive oil), aromatic oils (such
as thyme oil) and lye (al-Soda al-Kawia) were first produced bychemists. From
the beginning of the 7th century, soap was produced in Nablus (West
Bank), Kufa (Iraq) and Basra (Iraq). Soap was perfumed and colored, some of
the soaps were liquid and others were solid. They also had special soap for
shaving. It was sold for 3 Dirhams (0.3 Dinars) a piece in 981 AD.
The Persian chemist Al-Razi wrote a manuscript on recipes for true soap. A
recently discovered manuscript from the 13th century details more recipes for
soap making; e.g. take some sesame oil, a sprinkle of potash, alkali and some
lime, mix them all together and boil. When cooked, they are poured into molds
and left to set, leaving hard soap.
Finer soaps were later produced in Europe from the 16th century, using
vegetable oils (such as olive oil) as opposed to animal fats. Many of these
soaps are still produced, both industrially and by small scale artisans. Castile
soap is a popular example of the vegetable-only soaps derived by the oldest
"white soap" of Italy.
In modern times, the use of soap has become universal in industrialized
nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the
population size of pathogenic microorganisms. Industrially manufactured bar
soaps first became available in the late eighteenth century, as advertising
campaigns in Europe and the United States promoted popular awareness of
the relationship between cleanliness and health.