1.1. The main part or foundation of a wordThe main part or foundation of a word
2.2. The plane that separates the front from the back.The plane that separates the front from the back.
3.3. Tissues combine to form theseTissues combine to form these
4.4. Suffix meaning inflammationSuffix meaning inflammation
5.5. The transverse plane separates the _____ from theThe transverse plane separates the _____ from the
Integumentary SystemIntegumentary System
MEDL 2350MEDL 2350
March 3, 2003March 3, 2003
What is the Integument?What is the Integument?
• The INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM includes all theThe INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM includes all the
structures and tissues related to the skin.structures and tissues related to the skin.
• This includes:This includes:
1. skin1. skin
a. Epidermisa. Epidermis
b. Dermisb. Dermis
2. accessory organs2. accessory organs
a. Haira. Hair
b. Nailsb. Nails
c. Glandsc. Glands
• The skin covers the entire body andThe skin covers the entire body and
provides protection against injuries,provides protection against injuries,
infection, and toxic compounds.infection, and toxic compounds.
• The system contains many nerve endingsThe system contains many nerve endings
that act as RECEPTORS for pain,that act as RECEPTORS for pain,
temperature, touch, and pressure.temperature, touch, and pressure.
Anatomy of the SkinAnatomy of the Skin
• Upper layer of skin is called EPIDERMISUpper layer of skin is called EPIDERMIS
EPI- means on top ofEPI- means on top of
DERMIS means skinDERMIS means skin
• The lower layer of skin is called theThe lower layer of skin is called the
The EpidermisThe Epidermis
• Is multilayered.Is multilayered.
• Contains is superficial layer of dead skinContains is superficial layer of dead skin
cells called STRATUM CORNEUM.cells called STRATUM CORNEUM.
• The stratum corneum is composed of cellsThe stratum corneum is composed of cells
called KERATIN.called KERATIN.
• Is AVASCULAR (no blood vessels)Is AVASCULAR (no blood vessels)
• Has no nerve tissue (can’t feel pain)Has no nerve tissue (can’t feel pain)
The DermisThe Dermis
• Has two distinct layers:Has two distinct layers:
1. Papillary Layer (more superficial)1. Papillary Layer (more superficial)
2. Reticular Layer (deeper)2. Reticular Layer (deeper)
• Accessory organs begin the dermis.Accessory organs begin the dermis.
• Some of the accessory organs end orSome of the accessory organs end or
cross into the epidermis.cross into the epidermis.
• The dermis contains blood vessels andThe dermis contains blood vessels and
nerve tissue.nerve tissue.
Subcutaneous Fat and SuperficialSubcutaneous Fat and Superficial
• The SubQ fat is found deep to the dermis.The SubQ fat is found deep to the dermis.
• It contains the larger blood vessels of theIt contains the larger blood vessels of the
• It is composed of adipose (fat) tissue, aIt is composed of adipose (fat) tissue, a
form of connective tissue.form of connective tissue.
• Deep to the subQ layer is the fascial layerDeep to the subQ layer is the fascial layer
that covers the muscles beneath.that covers the muscles beneath.
Combining FormsCombining Forms
All mean FAT
Abnormal condition of fat
Tumor of fat
Pertaining to under the skin
Study of the skin
Pertaining to under the skin
Hidro/o sweatHidro/o sweat
Anhidrosis - abnormal condition of sweatAnhidrosis - abnormal condition of sweat
Kerat/o horny tissueKerat/o horny tissue
keratosis- - abnormal condition of hard tissuekeratosis- - abnormal condition of hard tissue
Myc/o fungusMyc/o fungus
Onychomycosis – abnormal condition of fungal toenailsOnychomycosis – abnormal condition of fungal toenails
softenting of nailssoftenting of nails
A Pilonidal cyst
Is a cyst that pertains to a nest
Is a disease of the hair
Means dryMeans dry
means dry skinmeans dry skin
derm / o / tomederm / o / tome
An instrument to cut
Remember, the dermisRemember, the dermis
contains the haircontains the hair
follicles, sweatfollicles, sweat
glands, andglands, and
sebaceous glands (oilsebaceous glands (oil
The term “diaphoresis” is meant to denoteThe term “diaphoresis” is meant to denote
excessive sweating.excessive sweating.
The combining form for sweat isThe combining form for sweat is
Don’t get confused!!!Don’t get confused!!!
Hidr/o means sweatHidr/o means sweat
Hydr/o means waterHydr/o means water
Hidrosis is an abnormal condition of sweatHidrosis is an abnormal condition of sweat
that causes blistering and peeling of thethat causes blistering and peeling of the
palms and soles.palms and soles.
Anhidrosis is an abnormal condition ofAnhidrosis is an abnormal condition of
diminished or absent sweat.diminished or absent sweat.
A hidradenoma is aA hidradenoma is a
tumor of the sweattumor of the sweat
Recall, the dermis isRecall, the dermis is
attached to theattached to the
underlying structuresunderlying structures
of the skin byof the skin by
subcutaneous tissue.subcutaneous tissue.
The subcutaneousThe subcutaneous
tissue formstissue forms
lip/o/cytes, or fat cells.lip/o/cytes, or fat cells.
A suction lipectomy is theA suction lipectomy is the
removal of theremoval of the
subcutaneous fat tissuesubcutaneous fat tissue
using a blunt-tippedusing a blunt-tipped
cannula (tube) introducedcannula (tube) introduced
into the fatty area throughinto the fatty area through
a small incision. Suctiona small incision. Suction
is then applied and fatis then applied and fat
tissue is removed.tissue is removed.
Therefore, dermatosclerosis is literally translated as a disease
that results in the hardening of the skin. Also known as
scleroderma, this disease is an autoimmune disease that
results in scarring of the vital organs resulting in death.
• The oil secreting glands of the skin areThe oil secreting glands of the skin are
called the SEBACEOUS GLANDS.called the SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
• The sweat glands are known asThe sweat glands are known as
SUDORIFEROUS GLANDS.SUDORIFEROUS GLANDS.
A mycodermatitis is an inflammatory
disease of the skin caused by a
fungus. A common example of this is
ATHLETE’S FOOT or TINEA PEDIS.
Test YourselfTest Yourself
Condition of eating only dry
A fungal disease of the hair
A hernia of fat cells
Plastic surgery of the skin
MoreMore CombiningCombining FormsForms ofof ColorColor
Cyan/o BlueCyan/o Blue
Erythr/o RedErythr/o Red
Melan/o BlackMelan/o Black
Xanth/o YellowXanth/o Yellow
Leuk/o whiteLeuk/o white
The pigment that causes skin coloration isThe pigment that causes skin coloration is
Melanosis is the abnormal condition ofMelanosis is the abnormal condition of
A melanoma is a tumor of black pigment.A melanoma is a tumor of black pigment.
A person with bluish discoloration of the skinA person with bluish discoloration of the skin
Cyanosis or cyanodermaCyanosis or cyanoderma
• A BASAL CELL CARCINOMA is a type of skinA BASAL CELL CARCINOMA is a type of skin
cancer that affects the basal skin layer of thecancer that affects the basal skin layer of the
• A MELANOMA is characterized by asymmetry,A MELANOMA is characterized by asymmetry,
irregular borders, and lack of a uniformirregular borders, and lack of a uniform
• A DECUBITUS ULCER is a bedsore thatA DECUBITUS ULCER is a bedsore that
penetrates both epidermis and dermis.penetrates both epidermis and dermis.
PSORIASIS is a chronic disease that isPSORIASIS is a chronic disease that is
characterized by red lesions covered by silverycharacterized by red lesions covered by silvery
ABRASIONS are scrapesABRASIONS are scrapes
ALOPECIA is an absence or loss of hair.ALOPECIA is an absence or loss of hair.
CONTUSION is a collection of dried blood beneathCONTUSION is a collection of dried blood beneath
the skin. Commonly called bruises.the skin. Commonly called bruises.
CYSTs are closed sacs containing fluid or solidCYSTs are closed sacs containing fluid or solid
ECCHYMOSIS is discoloration of the skin due to aECCHYMOSIS is discoloration of the skin due to a
ECZEMA is an inflammatory skin disease with red,ECZEMA is an inflammatory skin disease with red,
itchy skin. Sometimes has associated blistersitchy skin. Sometimes has associated blisters
FISSURE is a crack in the skin. Usually associated withFISSURE is a crack in the skin. Usually associated with
dry, scaly skin.dry, scaly skin.
HIRSUTISM is a condition characterized by excessive hairHIRSUTISM is a condition characterized by excessive hair
IMPETIGO is an inflammatory skin disease with isolatedIMPETIGO is an inflammatory skin disease with isolated
pustules that rupture.pustules that rupture.
LACERATION is a tearing of the skin. Irregular borders.LACERATION is a tearing of the skin. Irregular borders.
MACULEs are flat, discolored lesions.MACULEs are flat, discolored lesions.
NODULEs are palpable lesions larger than aNODULEs are palpable lesions larger than a
macule. Usually between 1-2 cmmacule. Usually between 1-2 cm
PAPULEs are solid elevated lesionsPAPULEs are solid elevated lesions