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  • 1. Lumpy skin disease Dr Eeva Tuppurainen and Professor Philip Mellor Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, Ash Road Pirbright, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom Tel.: (+44-1483) 23.24.41, Fax: (+44-1483) 23.24.48 philip.mellor@bbsrc.ac.uk, eeva.tuppurainen@bbsrc.ac.uk, website http://www.iah.bbsrc.ac.uk/ Summary of general activities related to the disease 1. Test(s) in use/or available for the specified disease at your laboratory Test For Specificity Total Lamb testis cells or bovine dermis cells Virus isolation Group 5 Electron microscopy Antigen Group 0 VN Antibody Group 0 SNT Antibody Group 100 PCR Nucleic acid Group 6 2. Production and distribution of diagnostic reagents Capripoxvirus positive antiserum was produced in experimentally infected cattle in January/February 2007. All lumpy skin disease virus isolates with a known history and which are held in Reference Laboratory’s stocks have been re-passaged and confirmed by capripoxvirus PCR. Lumpy skin disease virus nucleic acid is extracted for use in the PCR as required. Reagent Production Own use OIE Member Country use LSD virus (Neethling strain) 1 × 1 ml vial, Gama Group, New Technology, Egypt LSD virus (Neethling strain) 1 × 1 ml vial, CISA Spain Capripoxvirus positive antiserum 2 × 1 ml vial, CISA Spain Extracted DNA from LSD virus (Neethling strain) Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Activities specifically related to the mandate of OIE Reference Laboratories 3. International harmonisation and standardisation of methods for diagnostic testing or the production and testing of vaccines The following institutes were provided with LSD-positive antiserum and/or freeze dried LSD virus for setting up serum/virus neutralisation tests for the detection of Capripox virus antibodies: Gama Group, New Technology, Egypt and Centro de Investigacion en Sanidal Animal (CISA) Spain. Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2007 1
  • 2. Lumpy skin disease A Capripoxvirus reference laboratory meeting was held on 23.03.07 in South Africa between Dr T. Gerdes and Dr D. Wallace from Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI) South Africa, and Dr E. Tuppurainen, IAH-Pirbright. Potential collaborations, projects and harmonization of tests between reference laboratories were discussed. The following institutes/countries sent participants to attend the training course prepared and given by Dr E. Tuppurainen, Capripoxvirus Reference Laboratory IAH (14.05-18.05.07) entitled, “Diagnostic methods for the detection of Capripox virus antigen or antibody”: Animal Health and Epidemiology Centre, China; Central Veterinary Laboratory, Yemen; and Institute for Scientific Researches, Kuwait. Each participant was provided with the method sheets for all the diagnostic tests which are currently used in the Capripoxvirus Reference Lab for the detection Capripoxvirus antigen or antibody. An MSc student from the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel visited the Capripoxvirus Reference Laboratory at IAH for two week’s training on “Diagnostic methods for the detection of Capripox virus antigen or antibody” during the period 1.10.07-12.10.07. The training course was prepared and given by Dr E. Tuppurainen. The Koret School of Veterinary Medicine was provided with the method sheets for all of the diagnostic tests which are currently used in the Capripoxvirus Reference Lab at IAH for the detection Capripoxvirus antigen or antibody. The Koret School of Veterinary Medicine was also provided with extracted DNA from LSD (Neethling strain) for setting up the real time and conventional PCR tests. 4. Preparation and supply of international reference standards for diagnostic tests or vaccines No international standard reagents available. 5. Research and development of new procedures for diagnosis and control Diagnosis Work towards the development of an ELISA for the detection of Capripoxvirus antibodies at IAH and other laboratories is ongoing. Development of a real time PCR method for the detection of viral nucleic acid is also underway. To restore and upgrade the historically important world-wide collection of Capripoxvirus isolates held in the reference laboratory’s stocks at IAH, goat pox and lumpy skin disease virus isolates have been re-passaged on lamb testis cells. To validate the conventional Capripoxvirus PCR currently in use in the IAH Capripoxvirus Reference Laboratory, the above-mentioned goat pox and lumpy skin disease virus isolates have been confirmed with the PCR. The re-passage of sheep pox isolates and the PCR confirmation is ongoing. Control Due to the recent LSD outbreak in the Middle East and the difficulties experienced in controlling the spread of the disease by vaccination, movement restrictions and modified stamping-out, animal challenge experiments to test the efficacy and potency of three live, attenuated sheep pox vaccines currently used against LSD in Egypt, Israel, the Gaza Strip and, based on the South African LSD (Neethling strain) are planned - subject to funding. Transmission studies on the role of arthropods in transmission of LSD virus, in collaboration with Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, South Africa are in progress. Virus isolation and PCR methods for the detection of Capripoxvirus from arthropods have been developed. 2 Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2007
  • 3. Lumpy skin disease 6. Collection, analysis and dissemination of epizootiological data relevant to international disease control A serological survey (LSD) on cattle sera from the Cameroon using the serum neutralisation test, in collaboration with Dr B.M Bronsvoort, CTVM, University of Edinburgh, is ongoing. Collaboration with Dr Eyal Klement, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine involving a serological survey of samples collected from cattle during LSD outbreak in Israel 2006 and 2007, is in progress. 7. Provision of consultant expertise to OIE or to OIE Member Countries Dr Chris Oura, Head of Non-Vesicular Reference Laboratories, IAH-Pirbright, gave a presentation on recent sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease outbreaks, and the potential threat of LSD to the Balkan/Aegean area, as part of the FAO-EU FMD/OIE Tripartite Group Meeting on control of FMD and other exotic diseases in the southern Balkans/Aegean region on 28th Nov 2007. Consultancy and assistance on setting up a laboratory with a full diagnostic capacity for Capripoxviruses to Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel is ongoing. 8. Provision of scientific and technical training to personnel from other OIE Member Countries A lumpy skin disease lecture was given by Dr E. Tuppurainen on a DEFRA training course for UK state veterinarians (19-20.04.07) A training course on diagnostic methods for the detection of Capripox virus antigen or antibodies (14 -18.05.07) was prepared and given by Dr E. Tuppurainen. Participants were from China (1), Yemen (1) and Kuwait (1). A training course was also provided for an MSc student from the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Hebrew, Israel (01.10.07 - 12.10.07). The course was prepared and given by Dr E. Tuppurainen and provided instruction on diagnostic methods for detecting Capripoxvirus antigen or antibodies in blood, serum, tissue and insect samples. Assistance on setting up a laboratory with a full diagnostic capacity for Capripoxviruses at the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine is ongoing. 9. Provision of diagnostic testing facilities to other OIE Member Countries Skin biopsies (5), collected from cattle infected with LSD virus in Israel in 2006 tested positive using the PCR. Lumpy skin disease virus was isolated and added to Capripoxvirus Reference Laboratory’s virus stocks. Cattle sera (100) collected from the Cameroon were tested against LSD antibodies A Ugandan cattle tissue sample (1) tested positive using the PCR. 10. Organisation of international scientific meetings on behalf of OIE or other international bodies No activity during this reporting period 11. Participation in international scientific collaborative studies Ongoing research projects: A serological survey (LSD) on cattle sera from the Cameroon using the serum neutralisation test, in collaboration with Dr B.M Bronsvoort, CTVM, University of Edinburgh, is ongoing. Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2007 3
  • 4. Lumpy skin disease Collaboration with Dr Eyal Klement, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine involving a serological survey of samples collected from cattle and, transmission studies using biting flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) collected from animal facilities during LSD outbreak in Israel 2006 and 2007, is in progress. Lumpy skin disease- tick transmission studies. A preliminary investigation in involving “The attempted detection of LSD virus in ticks collected from experimentally and naturally infected animals in South Africa” in collaboration with Prof. JAW Coetzer, Prof. E.H. Venter, Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa and Dr D. Wallace, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI), South Africa has been initiated. 12. Publication and dissemination of information relevant to the work of OIE (including list of scientific publications, internet publishing activities, presentations at international conferences)  Presentations at international conferences and meetings Dr Chris Oura, Head of Non-Vesicular Reference Laboratories, IAH-Pirbright, gave a presentation on recent sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease outbreaks and the potential threat of LSD to the Balkan/Aegean area, as part of an FAO-EU FMD/OIE Tripartite Group Meeting on control of FMD and other exotic diseases in the southern Balkans/Aegean region on 28th Nov 2007.  Other communications A new chapter on Camel Pox has been written for the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and is now in print. A methodology for the PCR has been written for the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. _______________ 4 Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2007

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