A macule is a small, flat, distinct, colored area of skin that is less than 10 millimeters in diameter, and does not include a change in skin texture or thickness. A papule is a skin lesion that is small, solid, and raised. Reye&apos;s syndrome (RS) is primarily a children&apos;s disease, although it can occur at any age. It affects all organs of the body but is most harmful to the brain and the liver--causing an acute increase of pressure within the brain and, often, massive accumulations of fat in the liver and other organs. RS is defined as a two-phase illness because it generally occurs in conjunction with a previous viral infection, such as the flu or chicken pox. The disorder commonly occurs during recovery from a viral infection, although it can also develop 3 to 5 days after the onset of the viral illness. RS is often misdiagnosed as encephalitis, meningitis, diabetes, drug overdose, poisoning, sudden infant death syndrome, or psychiatric illness. Symptoms of RS include persistent or recurrent vomiting, listlessness, personality changes such as irritability or combativeness, disorientation or confusion, delirium, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. If these symptoms are present during or soon after a viral illness, medical attention should be sought immediately. The symptoms of RS in infants do not follow a typical pattern; for example, vomiting does not always occur. The cause of RS remains a mystery. However studies have shown that using aspirin or salicylate-containing medications to treat viral illnesses increases the risk of developing RS.
zosterFunction: nounEtymology: Latin, from Greek zOstEr girdle; akin to Greek zOnE zone: SHINGLES Post-herpetic neuralgia is constant pain or periods of pain that can continue after the skin has healed. It can last for months or even years and is more common in older people. The use of medication in the early stages of the zoster may help prevent this complication. Since shingles occurs in an area of the skin that is supplied by sensory fibers of a single nerve--called a dermatome--the rash usually appears in a well-defined band on one side of the body, typically the torso; or on one side of the face, around the nose and eyes. (Shingles&apos; peculiar name derives from the Latin cingulum, which means girdle or belt.) If a diagnosis is in doubt, lab tests can confirm the presence of the virus.
Onychomycosis, also referred to as fungal nails or tinea unguium, is a common and annoying condition for many adult patients. The disease is characterized by a gradual thickening of the nails with an accompanying change in color of the nail plate.The condition can be caused by fungi, yeast or mold, but the most common causative agent is the fungi trichophyton. Predisposing damage or trauma to the nail plate can give the fungi an unfair advantage in infecting the nail. This, combined with the warm moist enviroment of shoes allows the fungi to live in the perfect breeding ground. Prevalence The prevalence of this condition dramatically increases with age. Twenty percent of people over the age of 60 are affected with this condition, while one-third of the entire diabetic population can expect to come in contact with this condition during their lifetime. Patients at high risk for the development of onychomycosis include people who are HIV positive, those undergoing immunosuppressive therapy and those with conditions that cause the immune system to become compromised. Signs and Symptoms Onychomycosis typically presents with discolored nails, mostly of a yellowish hue and thickening of the nails. Some patients describe their nails as beginning to grow up more than out. Debris can be found beneath the nail plate, which is a good medium for fungi to thrive. Fungi favor warm and moist environments, which is typical inside a shoe.
Scabies is a disease of worldwide importance caused by burrowing of the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei into the lower stratum corneum of the epidermis. Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei causes an allergic type skin reaction with visible hypersensitivity lesions and pruritus and results in significant morbidity primarily due to secondary infections with pathogenic bacteria. Until very recently there were no molecular studies on scabies because of the difficulty of obtaining mites. We have solved this problem by constructing a library of expressed Sarcoptes scabiei sequences from mites obtained from skin shed into the bedding of patients with the severe form of the disease, crusted scabies.
What is Chlamydia trachomatis? Chlamydia trachomatis is a small bacterium that cannot grow outside a living cell. In this respect it resembles a virus, but it is actually a very sophisticated organism. There are two other related organisms: Chlamydia psittaci is widespread in animals and can be transmitted to humans. This organism in humans is an uncommon cause of severe pneumonia particularly when acquired from infected birds of the parrot (Psittacine) family, and occasionally of abortion following contact with infected sheep. The more recently described Chlamydia pneumoniae (also known as the TWAR agent - Taiwan Acute Respiratory, after the designations of the first two isolates), may prove to be a frequent cause of upper and lower respiratory infection transmitted from person to person by infected droplets. Which diseases does it cause? Worldwide, the most important disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis is trachoma, one of the commonest infectious causes of blindness. In some parts of the developing world, over 90% of the population becomes infected. However, the specific strains of Chlamydia trachomatis which cause trachoma and the epidemiological conditions for its spread, are not found in the UK. In Britain, the organism often causes genital tract infection. In men, Chlamydia trachomatis is the commonest cause of non-gonococcal or (less correctly) non-specific urethritis. In women, the organism may infect both the cervix and the urethra. Epididymitis may complicate infection in men, whilst in women infection in the upper genital tract - the endometrium and the fallopian tubes, may lead to acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent cause of PID and its long term consequences include chronic pain, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. In both sexes, conjunctivitis (that does not progress to blindness) and joint inflammation may occur. Babies born to mothers with infection of their genital tract frequently present with chlamydial eye infection within a week of birth (chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum), and may subsequently develop pneumonia. What are the symptoms and signs? Symptoms and signs are non-specific, and variable. In men, a mucopurulent urethral discharge, with or without pain on passing urine appears between one and three weeks after exposure. In women, cervical infection may produce vaginal discharge. It is impossible to exclude other genital infections such as gonorrhoea or bacterial vaginosis on clinical examination alone and laboratory examination of the discharge is essential to make the diagnosis. Mixed infections are common. In both men and women, asymptomatic infection is not uncommon. Abdominal pain and raised temperature may indicate PID in women. This condition may be difficult to distinguish from other causes of abdominal pain.