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Diseases
Chapters 21-26
Microorganisms and human
Disease
• Things to cover
– Diseases of Skin and Eyes
– Diseases of the Nervous system
– Diseases...
How I will tackle these
• Structure and function.
• Normal Microbiota
• Some of the diseases (More diseases to
come)
– Bac...
Skin and Eyes
Ch 21
• Physical and chemical barrier against
microbes
• Moist areas have greater number of
bacteria
• Epidermis contains flattened cells of keratin
and is essentially waterproof.
• Dermis is the living part, contains folli...
What does the integument system
do?
Microbiota
• Divide rapidly, resistant to desiccation and
high salt.
• Mostly gram positive cocci.
• Never completely abse...
Staphylococcal Skin Infections
• Folliculitis
– Infections of hair follicles
• Sty
– Folliculitis of an eyelash
• Furuncle...
Staphylococcal Skin Infections
• Impetigo of the
newborn
• Toxemia
• Scalded skin
syndrome
• Toxic shock
syndrome
Figure 2...
• Streptococcu
s pyogenes
• Group A
beta-
hemolytic
streptococci
• M proteins
Streptococcal Skin Infections
Figure 21.5
• Erysipelas
• Impetigo
Streptococcal Skin Infections
Figure 21.6, 7
• Streptokinases
• Hyaluronidase
• Exotoxin A,
superantigen
• Cellulitis
• Necrotizing
fasciitis
Invasive Group A
Streptoc...
• Pseudomonas aeruginosa
– Gram-negative, aerobic rod
– Pyocyanin produces a blue-green pus
• Pseudomonas dermatitis
• Oti...
• Papillomaviruses
– Treatment:
• Removal
– Imiquimod (stimulate interferon production)
– Interferon
Warts
• Smallpox
(Variola)
– Smallpox virus
(Orthopox virus)
– Variola major has
20% mortality
– Variola minor has
<1% mortality...
• Measles virus
• Transmitted by
respiratory route
• Macular rash and Koplik's
spots
• Prevented by vaccination
• Encephal...
• Dermatomycoses: tineas or ringworm
• Metabolize keratin
• Trichophyton infects hair, skin,
nails
• Epidermophyton infect...
Cutaneous Mycoses
Figure 21.16
• Candida albicans (yeast)
• Candidiasis may result from suppression of
competing bacteria by antibiotics
• Occurs in skin...
Candidiasis
Figure 21.17
• Pediculus
humanus capitis
(head louse)
• P. h. corporis
(body louse)
– Feed on blood
– Lay eggs (nits) on
hair
– Treatme...
• Conjunctivitis (pinkeye)
– Haemophilus influenzae
– Various microbes
– Associated with unsanitary contact lenses
• Neona...
Nervous System
Ch22
• CNS is brain and spinal cord. Is encased
and protected by bone and membranes.
• PNS are nerves outsi...
More nervous
• Cerebrospinal fluid instead of blood
circulates between the arachnoid and
piamater in the subarachnoid spac...
• Meningitis is an infection of the meninges
• Encephalitis is an infection of the brain.
What does the Nervous system do?
Normal Microbiota?
• Fever, headache, stiff neck
• Followed by nausea and vomiting
• May progress to convulsions and coma
• Diagnosis by Gram...
Bacterial Meningitis
Table 22.1
• Clostridium tetani
• Gram-positive, endospore-forming, obligate
anaerobe
• Grows in deep wounds
• Tetanospasmin released...
• Clostridium botulinum
• Gram-positive, endospore-forming, obligate
anaerobe
• Intoxication due to ingesting botulinal to...
• Treatment: supportive care and antitoxin
• Infant botulism results from C. botulinum
growing in intestines
• Wound botul...
• Caused by prions
– Sheep scrapie
– Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
– Kuru
– Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
• Transmitted by ...
Transmissible Spongiform
Encephalopathies
Figure 22.17a
Cardiovascular and Lymphatic
Systems Ch 23
• Consists of heart, blood and blood vessels
• Lymph, lymph vessels, lymph node...
Body Fluids and Flow
• Heart circulates substances to and from
tissue cells.
• Blood is a mixture of plasma and cells.
• M...
Normal Microbiota?
• Life Loads?
• Sepsis
– Bacteria
growing in the
blood
• Severe sepsis
– Decrease in
blood pressure
• Septic shock
– Low blood
pressure
...
• Gram-negative Sepsis
– Endotoxins caused blood pressure decrease
– Antibiotics can worsen condition by killing
bacteria
...
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Classic
Yellow fever Flavivirus Aedes aegypti Monkeys
Dengue & DHF Flavivirus • A. aegypti
• A.
a...
• Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, P malariae, P.
falciparum
• Anopheles mosquito
Malaria
12.31b
Respiratory System Ch 24
• Most common type of infection
• Usually first on way to infection.
Microbial Diseases of
the Upper Respiratory
System
• Laryngitis: S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes,
viruses
• Tonsillitis: S. pne...
• Upper respiratory: nose, pharynx, middle
ear and auditory tubes.
• Filtration by coarse hairs
• Ciliated mucous membrane...
Lower respiratory system
• Larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes and
alveoli.
• Ciliary escalator prevents microbes from
reachi...
• Bacteria, viruses, & fungi cause:
– Bronchitis
– Bronchiolitis
– Pneumonia
Microbial Diseases of the
Lower Respiratory S...
What do the lungs do?
Normal Microbiota
• Of throat and nasal cavity can include
pathogens.
• Lower respiratory system is usually sterile
becaus...
• Aspergillus
• Rhizopus
• Mucor
Opportunistic fungi involved in
respiratory disease:
Mucor rouxii
Figure 12.2b, 12.4
Digestive System Ch 25
• Second most common illnesses
• Usually ingestion of microbes and toxins.
• Fecal-oral transmissio...
Structure Function
• GI or alimentary canal: mouth, pharynx,
esophagus, stomach, small intestine and
large intesting, colo...
Normal microbiota
• Lots and unknown number occupy the
mouth.
• Streptococcus mutans in mouth produces
acid.
• Dextran fro...
• >300 species in mouth
• Large numbers in large intestine, including:
– Bacteroides
– E. coli
– Enterobacter
– Klebsiella...
What does the gut do?
• Symptoms usually include diarrhea,
gastroenteritis, dysentery
• Treated with fluid and electrolyte
replacement
• Infecti...
Urinary and Reproductive systems
• Regulates chemical components of blood
excretes nitrogenous waste.
• Infections can be ...
Microbial Diseases of
the Urinary and
Reproductive Systems
• Microbes usually enter the urinary
system through the urethra...
Function?
• Urinary bladder and upper urinary tract
sterile
• Lactobacilli predominant in the vagina
• >1,000 bacteria/ml or 100 col...
• Prevented by condoms
• Treated with antibiotics
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
(STDs )
Websites.
• STD’s
http://hab.hrsa.gov/publications/hrsawomen/co
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
overview of systems
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  • More than 150 years ago in London, an astute physician, John Snow, described the mode of transmission of cholera (nearly 30 years before Robert Koch discovered the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae; see photo and slide show), and a visionary engineer, Joseph Bazalgette, established an effective means of preventing it: the provision of municipal sanitation. Cholera is thus one of the first infections whose mode of transmission was understood and for which effective prevention measures, collectively referred to as &amp;quot;the sanitary revolution,&amp;quot; were developed and implemented. Because of these early observations and interventions, cholera has become vanishingly rare in the United States and other developed countries. From NEJM 0309
  • Transcript of "overview of systems"

    1. 1. Diseases Chapters 21-26
    2. 2. Microorganisms and human Disease • Things to cover – Diseases of Skin and Eyes – Diseases of the Nervous system – Diseases of the Cardiovascular & Lymphatic System – Diseases of the Respiratory System – Diseases of the Digestive System
    3. 3. How I will tackle these • Structure and function. • Normal Microbiota • Some of the diseases (More diseases to come) – Bacterial – Viral – Other • You will provide more of the details
    4. 4. Skin and Eyes Ch 21 • Physical and chemical barrier against microbes • Moist areas have greater number of bacteria
    5. 5. • Epidermis contains flattened cells of keratin and is essentially waterproof. • Dermis is the living part, contains follicles, ducts and glands that act as week point for bacterial invasion. • Sebum and perspiration can inhibit growth of microbes. • Same also provide nutrients to microbiota • The body and body cavities are lined with epithelia cells. • Mucous membranes secrete mucus.
    6. 6. What does the integument system do?
    7. 7. Microbiota • Divide rapidly, resistant to desiccation and high salt. • Mostly gram positive cocci. • Never completely absent. • Propionibacterium metabolize oil • Pityrosporum ovale are yeast that grow in oily secretions, cause dandruff.
    8. 8. Staphylococcal Skin Infections • Folliculitis – Infections of hair follicles • Sty – Folliculitis of an eyelash • Furuncle – Abscess; pus surrounded by inflamed tissue • Carbuncle – Inflammation of tissue under the skin
    9. 9. Staphylococcal Skin Infections • Impetigo of the newborn • Toxemia • Scalded skin syndrome • Toxic shock syndrome Figure 21.4
    10. 10. • Streptococcu s pyogenes • Group A beta- hemolytic streptococci • M proteins Streptococcal Skin Infections Figure 21.5
    11. 11. • Erysipelas • Impetigo Streptococcal Skin Infections Figure 21.6, 7
    12. 12. • Streptokinases • Hyaluronidase • Exotoxin A, superantigen • Cellulitis • Necrotizing fasciitis Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections Figure 21.8
    13. 13. • Pseudomonas aeruginosa – Gram-negative, aerobic rod – Pyocyanin produces a blue-green pus • Pseudomonas dermatitis • Otitis externa • Post-burn infections Infections by Pseudomonads
    14. 14. • Papillomaviruses – Treatment: • Removal – Imiquimod (stimulate interferon production) – Interferon Warts
    15. 15. • Smallpox (Variola) – Smallpox virus (Orthopox virus) – Variola major has 20% mortality – Variola minor has <1% mortality • Monkeypox – Prevention by smallpox vaccination Poxviruses Figure 21.9
    16. 16. • Measles virus • Transmitted by respiratory route • Macular rash and Koplik's spots • Prevented by vaccination • Encephalitis in 1 in 1000 cases • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in 1 in 1,000,000 cases Measles (Rubeola) Figure 21.14
    17. 17. • Dermatomycoses: tineas or ringworm • Metabolize keratin • Trichophyton infects hair, skin, nails • Epidermophyton infects skin and nails • Microsporum infects hair and skin • Treatment – Oral griseofulvin – Topical miconazole Cutaneous Mycoses
    18. 18. Cutaneous Mycoses Figure 21.16
    19. 19. • Candida albicans (yeast) • Candidiasis may result from suppression of competing bacteria by antibiotics • Occurs in skin; mucous membranes of genitourinary tract and mouth • Thrush is an infection of mucous membranes of mouth • Topical treatment with miconazole or nystatin Candidiasis
    20. 20. Candidiasis Figure 21.17
    21. 21. • Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse) • P. h. corporis (body louse) – Feed on blood – Lay eggs (nits) on hair – Treatment with topical insecticides Pediculosis Figure 21.19
    22. 22. • Conjunctivitis (pinkeye) – Haemophilus influenzae – Various microbes – Associated with unsanitary contact lenses • Neonatal gonorrheal ophthalmia – Neisseria gonorrhoeae – Transmitted to newborn's eyes during passage through the birth canal – Prevented by treatment newborn's eyes with antibiotics Microbial Diseases of the Eye
    23. 23. Nervous System Ch22 • CNS is brain and spinal cord. Is encased and protected by bone and membranes. • PNS are nerves outside of the Central nervous system. Is not protected as extensively and is a rout into the CNS. • Membranes of the CNS – Dura mater, arachnoid and piamater
    24. 24. More nervous • Cerebrospinal fluid instead of blood circulates between the arachnoid and piamater in the subarachnoid space. • Cerebrospinal fluid is totally separate from the blood and circulatory system. • Blood brain barrier • Entry to CNS by bacteria is through peripheral nerves, though blood and lymphatic system.
    25. 25. • Meningitis is an infection of the meninges • Encephalitis is an infection of the brain.
    26. 26. What does the Nervous system do?
    27. 27. Normal Microbiota?
    28. 28. • Fever, headache, stiff neck • Followed by nausea and vomiting • May progress to convulsions and coma • Diagnosis by Gram stain of CSF • Treated with cephalosporins Bacterial Meningitis
    29. 29. Bacterial Meningitis Table 22.1
    30. 30. • Clostridium tetani • Gram-positive, endospore-forming, obligate anaerobe • Grows in deep wounds • Tetanospasmin released from dead cells blocks relaxation pathway in muscles • Prevention by vaccination with tetanus toxoid (DTP) and booster (dT) • Treatment with tetanus immune globulin Tetanus
    31. 31. • Clostridium botulinum • Gram-positive, endospore-forming, obligate anaerobe • Intoxication due to ingesting botulinal toxin • Botulinal toxin blocks release of neurotransmitter causing flaccid paralysis • Prevention: – Proper canning – Nitrites prevent endospore germination in sausages Botulism
    32. 32. • Treatment: supportive care and antitoxin • Infant botulism results from C. botulinum growing in intestines • Wound botulism results from growth of C. botulinum in wounds. Botulism
    33. 33. • Caused by prions – Sheep scrapie – Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease – Kuru – Bovine spongiform encephalopathy • Transmitted by ingestion or transplant or inherited • Chronic, fatal Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
    34. 34. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Figure 22.17a
    35. 35. Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems Ch 23 • Consists of heart, blood and blood vessels • Lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes and lymphoid organs.
    36. 36. Body Fluids and Flow • Heart circulates substances to and from tissue cells. • Blood is a mixture of plasma and cells. • Most substances are dissolved in plasma • RBC’s carry oxygen. • WBC’s are involved in defense. • Interstitial fluid is essentially plasma and exits from capillaries
    37. 37. Normal Microbiota? • Life Loads?
    38. 38. • Sepsis – Bacteria growing in the blood • Severe sepsis – Decrease in blood pressure • Septic shock – Low blood pressure cannot be controlled Sepsis and Septic Shock Figure 23.3
    39. 39. • Gram-negative Sepsis – Endotoxins caused blood pressure decrease – Antibiotics can worsen condition by killing bacteria • Gram-Positive Sepsis – Nosocomial infections • Staphylococcus aureus • Streptococcus pyogenes • Group B streptococcus • Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis Sepsis
    40. 40. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Classic Yellow fever Flavivirus Aedes aegypti Monkeys Dengue & DHF Flavivirus • A. aegypti • A. albopictus No known reservoir Emerging Marbug Filovirus • Monkeys (?) Ebola Filovirus • Monkeys (?) Lassa fever Arenavirus • Rodents Argentine hemorrhagic fever Arenavirus • Rodents Bolivian Arenavirus • Rodents
    41. 41. • Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, P malariae, P. falciparum • Anopheles mosquito Malaria 12.31b
    42. 42. Respiratory System Ch 24 • Most common type of infection • Usually first on way to infection.
    43. 43. Microbial Diseases of the Upper Respiratory System • Laryngitis: S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, viruses • Tonsillitis: S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, viruses • Sinusitis: Bacteria • Epiglottitis: H. influenzae
    44. 44. • Upper respiratory: nose, pharynx, middle ear and auditory tubes. • Filtration by coarse hairs • Ciliated mucous membranes of nose and throat trap airborne particles (greater than 10um) • Associated with lymphoid tissues (tonsils, and adenoids)
    45. 45. Lower respiratory system • Larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes and alveoli. • Ciliary escalator prevents microbes from reaching the lungs. • Alveolar macrophage protect lungs. • Respiratory mucus contains IgA antibodies
    46. 46. • Bacteria, viruses, & fungi cause: – Bronchitis – Bronchiolitis – Pneumonia Microbial Diseases of the Lower Respiratory System
    47. 47. What do the lungs do?
    48. 48. Normal Microbiota • Of throat and nasal cavity can include pathogens. • Lower respiratory system is usually sterile because of ciliary escalator.
    49. 49. • Aspergillus • Rhizopus • Mucor Opportunistic fungi involved in respiratory disease: Mucor rouxii Figure 12.2b, 12.4
    50. 50. Digestive System Ch 25 • Second most common illnesses • Usually ingestion of microbes and toxins. • Fecal-oral transmission is broken by proper disposal of sewage, disinfection of drinking water and proper food prep and storage.
    51. 51. Structure Function • GI or alimentary canal: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intesting, colon, anus. • Accessory organs: teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancrease. • Charged with ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination.
    52. 52. Normal microbiota • Lots and unknown number occupy the mouth. • Streptococcus mutans in mouth produces acid. • Dextran from bacteria is plaque • Bacteria number are reduced in stomach. • Normal flora in lower gut.
    53. 53. • >300 species in mouth • Large numbers in large intestine, including: – Bacteroides – E. coli – Enterobacter – Klebsiella – Lactobacillus – Proteus Normal Microbiota
    54. 54. What does the gut do?
    55. 55. • Symptoms usually include diarrhea, gastroenteritis, dysentery • Treated with fluid and electrolyte replacement • Infection caused by growth of pathogen – Incubation from 12 hr to 2 wk • Intoxication caused by ingestion of toxin – Symptoms appear 1-48 hr after ingestion Bacterial Diseases of the Lower Digestive System
    56. 56. Urinary and Reproductive systems • Regulates chemical components of blood excretes nitrogenous waste. • Infections can be from outside source or form normal microfloura. • Microbes can use a system to transfer gametes to also transfer themselves.
    57. 57. Microbial Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems • Microbes usually enter the urinary system through the urethra • Microbes usually enter the reproductive system through the: – Vagina (females) or urethra (males)
    58. 58. Function?
    59. 59. • Urinary bladder and upper urinary tract sterile • Lactobacilli predominant in the vagina • >1,000 bacteria/ml or 100 coliforms/ml of urine indicates infection Normal Microbiota
    60. 60. • Prevented by condoms • Treated with antibiotics Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs )
    61. 61. Websites. • STD’s http://hab.hrsa.gov/publications/hrsawomen/co
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