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Established to overcome the ‘black-box’ limitations of the Behaviourist approach
Took psychology back to the study of the mind
Laboratory based research using human participants
Two limitations of the approach are;
the exclusive of laboratory research
Computer metaphor ignores social factors
Other shifts from this approach have been interest in
Medical Psychology Medical psychology (related to C linical H ealth P sychology, P sychosomatic medicine, and B ehavioural M edicine ) is a branch of C linical psychology in which clinicians have trained in the biological aspects of mental illness in relation to physical illness. It adopts the biopsychosocial approach to medicine, which revolves around the idea that both the body and mind are indivisible, and that disease and illness are not identical. Continuing with this line of thought, all diseases whether of the mind or of the physical body must be treated as if they have been both affected.
The intent of Medical Psychology is to apply knowledge from all branches
and biological medicine
in the prevention, assessment, and treatment of all forms of physical illness and the adaptation to illness;
specific behavioural, psychotherapeutic, and pharmaceutical methods are used to help the person respond to illness and prevent f ur ther illness through matching coping and management skill to person’s abilities, character, and personality stile.
Behavioral Medicine is an interdisciplinary field of medicine concerned with the development and integration of psychosocial , behavioral and biomedical knowledge relevant to health and illness . The term is often used interchangeably with health psychology , however, behavioral medicine development teams include psychiatrists, nurses, and other medical support staff. Clinical psychology includes the scientific study and application of psychology for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.   Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy , although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.  In many countries it is a regulated mental health profession .
Psychosomatic medicine is the medical field studying and providing an interdisciplinary approach to psychosomatic illness , now more commonly referred to as psychophysiologic illness , disorders whose symptoms are caused by mental processes of the sufferer rather than immediate physiological causes. These syndromes are classified as by the World Health Organisation in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.
Psychosomatic medicine integrates interdisciplinary evaluation and management involving specialties as psychiatry , psychology , neurology ; surgery ; gynecology ; pain management ; pediatrics ; dermatology ; and psychoneuroimmunology . Clinical situations as depression as a major factor affecting medical outcomes in coronary artery disease , diabetes , neuropsychiatric presentations of endocrine , rheumatologic , and infectious diseases ; functional disorders like irritable bowel syndrome , fibromyalgia , and chronic fatigue syndrome ; psychiatric complications of medical treatments like chemotherapy , implanted defibrillators , and immunosuppression ; psychological factors affecting medical compliance and surgical results; and special considerations in using psychiatric drugs in the medically ill, are all areas where Psychosomatic medicine has competence. 
Health psychology concerns itself with understanding how biology , behavior, and social context influence health and illness .  Health psychologists generally work alongside other medical professionals in clinical settings, although many also teach and conduct research . Although its early beginnings can be traced to the kindred field of clinical psychology , four different approaches to health psychology have been defined: clinical, public health , community and critical health psychology