Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Lecture 10
Vulnerable Populations: Children and
Workers
Goals Today
• Future Goals
• Posters or papers
• Finish Vulnerable Populations: Children
and Workers (Ch 15)
• Precautiona...
POSTERS OR PAPERS
– See notes posted on website
– Please check ideas with me
– Public education campaign
– Emphasize raisi...
POSTER OR PAPER
Marking Guide
Name of Individual/Group Membership
A. Introduction:
Clear statement of purpose and Identifi...
Populations---Environment
Health
Concepts
Risk
Social Justice
Sustainability
Precautionary
Principle
Holism
Biodiversity...
Vulnerable Populations
• Children and Workers
• Children:
– Developmental processes
– Unique patterns of exposures:
• Live...
Vulnerable Populations
• Traditional Risk Assessment
• Ignores special risks of children, workers,
elderly, immuno-comprom...
Global Burden of Childhood Illnesses
“epidemiologic transition”
• The is a term that refers to:
• shifting mortality patterns from
infectious to chronic diseas...
Vulnerable Populations: Mortality and Income
Vulnerable Populations
• Children’s diseases today:
• New pediatric morbidity
• Classic infectious diseases reduced
• Asth...
Vulnerable Populations
• Children’s diseases today:
• 10-20% genetic; rest ?
• LEAD: neurological behaviour, IQ loss,
disa...
Children’s Exposures
• Air, water, food crops, communities, waste
sites, homes
• Fewer than half chemicals tested for pote...
Children’s Exposures
• Metabolic pathways are immature
• Undergo rapid growth and development
and therefore organs/brain/t...
Case Studies of Children’s Health
• 1904 Queensland, Australia epidemic of
lead poisoning in young children;
– Ingestion o...
Case Studies of Children’s Health
• 1960s: Minimata Japan epidemic of
cerebral palsy, mental retardation,
convulsions due ...
Case Studies of Children’s Health
• “Subclinical toxicity”:
Dose-dependent continuum in which
clinically obvious effects h...
Occupational Exposures/Workers
• Many environmentally induced diseases
observed in workers:
– E.g. cancer of the scrotum/t...
Workers
• Workers constitute well-defined groups
• Nature and extent of exposures is
known
• These features lend themselve...
Workers
• Occupational diseases (OD) are under-
diagnosed
• Physicians have little training in OD
• One problem is that ma...
Occupational Diseases
• Lung Disease
– Asbestiosis,
pneumoconiosisi, lung
cancer, asthma
• Musculo-skeletal
back, trunk, n...
Prevention of Occupational Disease
• Primary Prevention
– Eliminate or reduce hazardous exposures
• Secondary Prevention
–...
Effective Prevention Strategies to reduce
exposures
o Substitute a less hazardous material
o Engineering controls, e.g., v...
Effective Prevention Strategies to reduce
exposures
o More widespread testing of chemical
substances---pre-market evaluati...
References
• McCally, M. (2002) Life Support: Environment and Human Health
Chapters 15 (Landrigan and Garg) and 5 (Spiedel)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Lecture_11_Vulnerable_Populations.ppt

257

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
257
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Lecture_11_Vulnerable_Populations.ppt"

  1. 1. Lecture 10 Vulnerable Populations: Children and Workers
  2. 2. Goals Today • Future Goals • Posters or papers • Finish Vulnerable Populations: Children and Workers (Ch 15) • Precautionary Principle
  3. 3. POSTERS OR PAPERS – See notes posted on website – Please check ideas with me – Public education campaign – Emphasize raising issues and posing solutions – Marking Guidelines
  4. 4. POSTER OR PAPER Marking Guide Name of Individual/Group Membership A. Introduction: Clear statement of purpose and Identification of Problem/Issue (5) Approach, definitions, literature (5) B. Body: Organization and presentation (5) Writing style (clarity, grammar) (5) Development of solutions and conclusions (5) Use of references and supportive documentation (5) C. Presentation: Time (5) Style and key points identified (5) Paper A & B /30 Poster A, B and C /40
  5. 5. Populations---Environment Health Concepts Risk Social Justice Sustainability Precautionary Principle Holism Biodiversity Ecological footprint Stability Concepts Risk Social Justice Equity Inequality Needs Opportunities Populations---Environment Health Health Individuals Communities Vulnerable Sub-groups Social, physical, economic, ecosystems Frameworks and Methods
  6. 6. Vulnerable Populations • Children and Workers • Children: – Developmental processes – Unique patterns of exposures: • Live close to ground; live hand to mouth • Workers: – Exposures to high concentrations of toxins more often and earlier than for general public
  7. 7. Vulnerable Populations • Traditional Risk Assessment • Ignores special risks of children, workers, elderly, immuno-compromised • assumes everybody is a 70kg adult male • ALL lives are important but certain populations deserve special consideration: – Children – Racial classism siting of noxious facilities – OTHER VULNERABLE GROUPS?
  8. 8. Global Burden of Childhood Illnesses
  9. 9. “epidemiologic transition” • The is a term that refers to: • shifting mortality patterns from infectious to chronic diseases in developing societies
  10. 10. Vulnerable Populations: Mortality and Income
  11. 11. Vulnerable Populations • Children’s diseases today: • New pediatric morbidity • Classic infectious diseases reduced • Asthma (doubled in recent years), childhood cancers, neurodevelopmental*, congenital birth defects, second-hand smoke. _____ * in the form of physical, cognitive, sensory and speech impairments, including in particular learning disabilities and intellectual retardation.
  12. 12. Vulnerable Populations • Children’s diseases today: • 10-20% genetic; rest ? • LEAD: neurological behaviour, IQ loss, disabilities • In utero exposures to PCBs and methylmercury affect intelligence • Last 50 years, 80,000 new synthetic compounds developed – Testing is inadequate
  13. 13. Children’s Exposures • Air, water, food crops, communities, waste sites, homes • Fewer than half chemicals tested for potential toxicity • Especially to fetuses, infants and children • Pound for pound children drink more water, eat more food and breathe more air than adults • Hand to mouth behaviour and living close to the ground can also increase risk
  14. 14. Children’s Exposures • Metabolic pathways are immature • Undergo rapid growth and development and therefore organs/brain/tissues more vulnerable to toxins disrupting developing systems • Exposures in childhood can produce illness at later stages of life
  15. 15. Case Studies of Children’s Health • 1904 Queensland, Australia epidemic of lead poisoning in young children; – Ingestion of lead paint playing on verandas lead to banning of lead paint – 1950s leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki exposure to ionizing radiation due to atomic bombings – Subsequent studies established the sensitivity of infants and fetuses to radiation
  16. 16. Case Studies of Children’s Health • 1960s: Minimata Japan epidemic of cerebral palsy, mental retardation, convulsions due to ingestion of fish/shellfish contaminated with methylmercury • Source of mercury was a plastics factory discharging mercury into the bay; bioaccumulated up the food chain
  17. 17. Case Studies of Children’s Health • “Subclinical toxicity”: Dose-dependent continuum in which clinically obvious effects have their subclinical counterparts Needleman in the US: film Kids and Chemicals (Feb. 16) will feature his work
  18. 18. Occupational Exposures/Workers • Many environmentally induced diseases observed in workers: – E.g. cancer of the scrotum/testes in chimney sweeps – Coal miners lung cancers
  19. 19. Workers • Workers constitute well-defined groups • Nature and extent of exposures is known • These features lend themselves to epidemiologic studies • Occupational toxins may be transported home on clothing of workers
  20. 20. Workers • Occupational diseases (OD) are under- diagnosed • Physicians have little training in OD • One problem is that many diseases present the same set of conditions • Long latency period is a barrier to accurate diagnosis
  21. 21. Occupational Diseases • Lung Disease – Asbestiosis, pneumoconiosisi, lung cancer, asthma • Musculo-skeletal back, trunk, neck • Cancers other than Lung – Leukemia, bladder, stomach • Occupational Traumas: – Loss of limbs, amputations, fractures • Disorders of reproduction – Infertility, teratogenesis • Noise-induced hearing loss • Dermatological conditions – Rashes, scalds, burns • Psychological disorders: – Alcoholisms, drug dependency
  22. 22. Prevention of Occupational Disease • Primary Prevention – Eliminate or reduce hazardous exposures • Secondary Prevention – Effectively identify work-related illness through symptoms/screening procedures • Tertiary Prevention – Reduce complications and disability caused by existing disease
  23. 23. Effective Prevention Strategies to reduce exposures o Substitute a less hazardous material o Engineering controls, e.g., ventilation, process isolation or enclosure o Alteration of work practices: e.g., wet sweeping asbestos o Administrative controls: worker rotation, time away from hazard o Personal hygiene programs e.g., showers at end of workday o Protective equipment: respirators, gloves, ear plugs, muffs o Biological markers: to assess exposure – blood- lead levels
  24. 24. Effective Prevention Strategies to reduce exposures o More widespread testing of chemical substances---pre-market evaluation o Occupational surveillance systems ___________________ Children -Longitudinal studies -”right to know” legislation -surveillance systems for children’s diseases
  25. 25. References • McCally, M. (2002) Life Support: Environment and Human Health Chapters 15 (Landrigan and Garg) and 5 (Spiedel)
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×