Lasers, molecular physics, optics,
applications and all that …
Brian J. Orr (CLA, Macquarie University)
Lasers, molecular physics, optics,
applications and all that …
Brian J. Orr
– Professor of Molecular and Optical Physics,
...
Lasers, molecular physics, optics,
applications and all that …
Brian J. Orr
– Professor of Molecular and Optical Physics,
...
Centre for Lasers & Applications
 The CLA was established as an ARC Special Research Centre in 1988
 We specialise in de...
Available laser systems …
 Pulsed lasers
 Excimer (193, 248, … nm)
 UV Cu(g) lasers (255, 271, 289 nm)
 Visible Cu(g) ...
CLA spin-offs …
 Laser Micromachining Solutions
 Based on CLA expertise in high-
power lasers and micromachining
 A ‘sh...
Micromachining for biotech …
 Laser-trepanned hole: no recast;
good thermal management
 Accurate laser-machined cleaving...
LIF-detected molecular processes …
 Time-resolved IR-UV (and
Raman-UV) double resonance
spectroscopy (LIF-detected)
 Sma...
IR-UV DR spectroscopy of C2H2 (g) …
High-performance tunable laser
sources & advanced spectroscopic
sensing methods …
 Nonlinear-optics ⇒
narrowband tunable
...
Cavity ringdown spectroscopy …
 Cw tunable diode lasers
⇒ sensitive gas det’n
 Rapid cavity sweep ⇒
multi-λ, multi-speci...
Swept-frequency cavity ringdown …
 Rapid frequency
sweep ⇒ wide-
range molecular
‘fingerprints’
 Rapid-scan 
Swept-freq...
Lasers, molecular physics, optics,
applications and all that …
Brian J. Orr
– Professor of Molecular and Optical Physics,
...
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  • A short history
    The CLA began as A Commonwealth Special Research Centre in 1988 building on many years of research into lasers at Macquarie University
    During this time we gained a large amount of experience in developing lasers with a whole range of different wavelengths
    For example:
    - The picture on the left shows an all Solid State 2 W Yellow Laser system
    - In the middle is a Strontium Vapour Laser with very pretty blue beam – this had applications for treating jaundice in babies.
    - And on the right is a high power green copper vapour laser which we use for our laser Micromachining.
    The CLA has had an interest in Laser Micromachining since the early 90’s.
    During that time we have collaborated with industry on a number of projects and due to a growing industry demand for these services Laser Micromachining was formed in 2000.
    LMS has been built on our fundamental research in laser material interactions.
  • Moving on from the Bishop’s Sensor Project,
    We have found a growing interest in Precision Orifices for
    Flow Control and Regulation,
    Calibrated Leaks as well as Pinholes.
    With High Precision Stages and Accurate Control over Laser Beam delivery.
    Laser micromachining is well suited to these type of applications with very close tolerances.
    For example, for flow controllers tolerances are typically less than a few microns on diameters.
    The Graph at the top shows Flow Rate vs Pressure for two holes.
    One hole is 76 micron diameter, the other is 80 microns.
    You can see there is a Large Difference (10%) in Flow Rate caused by a Small Change (4%) in Hole Diameter. .
    The Lower Graph is a plot of Flow Rate vs Hole Size for two Different Gases, Nitrogen and Air and shows a Small Difference in Flow Rate for the Same Hole Size.
    This is type of information is important to know when Flow Testing Small Orifices.
  • Moving on from the Bishop’s Sensor Project,
    We have found a growing interest in Precision Orifices for
    Flow Control and Regulation,
    Calibrated Leaks as well as Pinholes.
    With High Precision Stages and Accurate Control over Laser Beam delivery.
    Laser micromachining is well suited to these type of applications with very close tolerances.
    For example, for flow controllers tolerances are typically less than a few microns on diameters.
    The Graph at the top shows Flow Rate vs Pressure for two holes.
    One hole is 76 micron diameter, the other is 80 microns.
    You can see there is a Large Difference (10%) in Flow Rate caused by a Small Change (4%) in Hole Diameter. .
    The Lower Graph is a plot of Flow Rate vs Hole Size for two Different Gases, Nitrogen and Air and shows a Small Difference in Flow Rate for the Same Hole Size.
    This is type of information is important to know when Flow Testing Small Orifices.
  • Other areas of interest to LMS are Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Microbiological.
    Examples of some of our work is shown in the pictures.
    - Small Holes Ranging from 5um to 150um in Packaging for Validation of Leak Detection Systems.
    - Holes in Catheters and
    Cutting out custom shapes in thin Polycarbonate Membranes for Microbiologists.
    (Pause)
  • Moving on from the Bishop’s Sensor Project,
    We have found a growing interest in Precision Orifices for
    Flow Control and Regulation,
    Calibrated Leaks as well as Pinholes.
    With High Precision Stages and Accurate Control over Laser Beam delivery.
    Laser micromachining is well suited to these type of applications with very close tolerances.
    For example, for flow controllers tolerances are typically less than a few microns on diameters.
    The Graph at the top shows Flow Rate vs Pressure for two holes.
    One hole is 76 micron diameter, the other is 80 microns.
    You can see there is a Large Difference (10%) in Flow Rate caused by a Small Change (4%) in Hole Diameter. .
    The Lower Graph is a plot of Flow Rate vs Hole Size for two Different Gases, Nitrogen and Air and shows a Small Difference in Flow Rate for the Same Hole Size.
    This is type of information is important to know when Flow Testing Small Orifices.
  • Moving on from the Bishop’s Sensor Project,
    We have found a growing interest in Precision Orifices for
    Flow Control and Regulation,
    Calibrated Leaks as well as Pinholes.
    With High Precision Stages and Accurate Control over Laser Beam delivery.
    Laser micromachining is well suited to these type of applications with very close tolerances.
    For example, for flow controllers tolerances are typically less than a few microns on diameters.
    The Graph at the top shows Flow Rate vs Pressure for two holes.
    One hole is 76 micron diameter, the other is 80 microns.
    You can see there is a Large Difference (10%) in Flow Rate caused by a Small Change (4%) in Hole Diameter. .
    The Lower Graph is a plot of Flow Rate vs Hole Size for two Different Gases, Nitrogen and Air and shows a Small Difference in Flow Rate for the Same Hole Size.
    This is type of information is important to know when Flow Testing Small Orifices.
  • Moving on from the Bishop’s Sensor Project,
    We have found a growing interest in Precision Orifices for
    Flow Control and Regulation,
    Calibrated Leaks as well as Pinholes.
    With High Precision Stages and Accurate Control over Laser Beam delivery.
    Laser micromachining is well suited to these type of applications with very close tolerances.
    For example, for flow controllers tolerances are typically less than a few microns on diameters.
    The Graph at the top shows Flow Rate vs Pressure for two holes.
    One hole is 76 micron diameter, the other is 80 microns.
    You can see there is a Large Difference (10%) in Flow Rate caused by a Small Change (4%) in Hole Diameter. .
    The Lower Graph is a plot of Flow Rate vs Hole Size for two Different Gases, Nitrogen and Air and shows a Small Difference in Flow Rate for the Same Hole Size.
    This is type of information is important to know when Flow Testing Small Orifices.
  • Moving on from the Bishop’s Sensor Project,
    We have found a growing interest in Precision Orifices for
    Flow Control and Regulation,
    Calibrated Leaks as well as Pinholes.
    With High Precision Stages and Accurate Control over Laser Beam delivery.
    Laser micromachining is well suited to these type of applications with very close tolerances.
    For example, for flow controllers tolerances are typically less than a few microns on diameters.
    The Graph at the top shows Flow Rate vs Pressure for two holes.
    One hole is 76 micron diameter, the other is 80 microns.
    You can see there is a Large Difference (10%) in Flow Rate caused by a Small Change (4%) in Hole Diameter. .
    The Lower Graph is a plot of Flow Rate vs Hole Size for two Different Gases, Nitrogen and Air and shows a Small Difference in Flow Rate for the Same Hole Size.
    This is type of information is important to know when Flow Testing Small Orifices.
  • Lasers, molecular physics, optics, applications and all that ...

    1. 1. Lasers, molecular physics, optics, applications and all that … Brian J. Orr (CLA, Macquarie University)
    2. 2. Lasers, molecular physics, optics, applications and all that … Brian J. Orr – Professor of Molecular and Optical Physics, – Director, Centre for Lasers and Applications, – Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia 2109  The Centre for Lasers & Applications (CLA) – Spin-offs: Laser Micromachining Sol’ns, CUDOS, … – Available CLA facilities: lasers & other equipment
    3. 3. Lasers, molecular physics, optics, applications and all that … Brian J. Orr – Professor of Molecular and Optical Physics, – Director, Centre for Lasers and Applications, – Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia 2109  The Centre for Lasers & Applications (CLA) – Spin-offs: Laser Micromachining Sol’ns, CUDOS, … – Available CLA facilities: lasers & other equipment  Things that we do well: – Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of small molecules – Time-resolved IR-UV & Raman-UV double resonance – Tunable narrowband optical parametric oscillators – Rapidly swept cavity ringdown spectroscopy
    4. 4. Centre for Lasers & Applications  The CLA was established as an ARC Special Research Centre in 1988  We specialise in developing high-power / high-performance lasers and their applications to science, industry, medicine & the community  Our work is founded on basic physics, optics, chemistry, biology, …  CLA ⇒ an 'umbrella' covering MQU's laser/optoelectronics R&D All-solid-state yellow laser for dermatology treatments Strontium vapour laser Development of high- brightness visible lasers
    5. 5. Available laser systems …  Pulsed lasers  Excimer (193, 248, … nm)  UV Cu(g) lasers (255, 271, 289 nm)  Visible Cu(g) lasers (510, 578 nm)  Nd:YAG (1064, 532, 355, 266 nm)  CO2 lasers (10.6 mm)  Tunable dye lasers  Nonlinear-optical wavelength conversion (SHG, OPO, SRS, …)  Ultrafast lasers  <150 fs Hurricane (266, 400, 800 nm)  <100 fs tunable MaiTai (780-820 nm)  Continuous-wave (cw) lasers  CO2 lasers (10.6 mm)  Tunable diode lasers
    6. 6. CLA spin-offs …  Laser Micromachining Solutions  Based on CLA expertise in high- power lasers and micromachining  A ‘shopfront’ for local industry  Success stories include: – Olympic torch orifices (’00, ’04) – Rotary shaft micro-encoders  CUDOS – ARC Centre of Excellence for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems  photonic crystals  lab-on-a-chip  Initiatives in biophotonics, etc.
    7. 7. Micromachining for biotech …  Laser-trepanned hole: no recast; good thermal management  Accurate laser-machined cleaving of glass micropipette tips  Custom membranes for microbiology  UV-laser-machining of tiny holes in packaging to calibrate leak detectors
    8. 8. LIF-detected molecular processes …  Time-resolved IR-UV (and Raman-UV) double resonance spectroscopy (LIF-detected)  Small molecules (e.g., C2H2, D2CO, …) ⇒ unusual processes with high- energy vibration & rotation  UV-LIF probe ⇒ maps excited electronic states onto ground state  If small molecules won’t behave as expected, why should big, (bio)molecules behave?
    9. 9. IR-UV DR spectroscopy of C2H2 (g) …
    10. 10. High-performance tunable laser sources & advanced spectroscopic sensing methods …  Nonlinear-optics ⇒ narrowband tunable optical parametric oscillators (OPOs)  Optical cavity + cw tunable diode lasers ⇒ cavity ringdown for high-sensitivity gas detection
    11. 11. Cavity ringdown spectroscopy …  Cw tunable diode lasers ⇒ sensitive gas det’n  Rapid cavity sweep ⇒ multi-λ, multi-species  Rapid frequency sweep ⇒ wide-range molecular ‘fingerprint’ spectra  Solution-phase analogues (e.g., via evanescent waves) ⇒ complementary to LIF?
    12. 12. Swept-frequency cavity ringdown …  Rapid frequency sweep ⇒ wide- range molecular ‘fingerprints’  Rapid-scan  Swept-frequency incident radiation Radiation at discrete cavity resonance frequency HR HR
    13. 13. Lasers, molecular physics, optics, applications and all that … Brian J. Orr – Professor of Molecular and Optical Physics, – Director, Centre for Lasers and Applications, – Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia 2109  The Centre for Lasers & Applications (CLA) – Spin-offs: Laser Micromachining Sol’ns, CUDOS, … – Available CLA facilities: lasers & other equipment  Things that we do well: – Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of small molecules – Time-resolved IR-UV & Raman-UV double resonance – Tunable narrowband optical parametric oscillators – Rapidly swept cavity ringdown spectroscopy

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