Human Factors: Accident Prevention


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Human Factors: Accident Prevention

  1. 1. Tech 434 Human Factors: Accident Prevention Preventing Injury and Illness in the Work Place Control of Workplace Hazards • Identification • Development of Controls • Decision to Control Occupational Deaths, Injuries and Illnesses • Sources of Data – NSC – BLS Injuries • OSHAct Requires Employers Keep Records of: – Injuries that cause 1 day or more absence from work or “restricted activity” at work – Injuries that require medical attention but caused less than a day of missed work Incomplete Recording of Occupational Illness • Many are indistinguishable from nonoccupational illnesses • Occupational causes of diseases are often not recognized by employees or employers • Diseases with long latency periods often occur after employment or exposure has terminated Health and Identification of Occupational Hazards • Toxicology • Occupational Medicine
  2. 2. • Epidemology Technologies to Control Hazards • First, Contain the Hazard • Second, Interfering with transmission to worker • Third, Provide PPE Controlling Health Hazards • Control at the source by: – design – modification – substitution Method Most Used in Control of Health Hazard Transmission • Ventilation • Other Ways – Isolating the Source – Prevent toxic material from becoming airborne Hierarchy of controls • Engineering solutions to control hazards at their source or in the pathway of transmission is more reliable and less burdensome to the worker than personal protective equipment. Factors That May Motivate the Decision to control • Employers’ enlightened self-interest • Information on hazards and controls • Financial and tax incentives • Tort Liability • Worker Compensation & Insurance • Employees’ rights and collective bargaining
  3. 3. • Regulations Occupational Injuries and Illnesses • Fatal Injuries • Nonfatal Injuries • Fatality Rates by Industries • Trends and what affects trends • Fatalities • Illnesses • Trends and what affects trends Health Hazard Identification Occupational Diseases 10 Leading Work-Related Diseases & Injuries - USA • Occupational Lung • MSDS • Occupational Cancer (other than lung) • Amputations, eye loss, fractures, lacerations, & traumatic deaths • Cardiovascular Disorders • Reproduction Disorders • Neurotoxic Disorders • Noise induced hearing loss • Dermatological conditions • Psychological disorders Known and Unknown Disorders • Identified hazards known to be in the workplace • Hazards present in the workplace but not identified as cause of disease • New substances or processes not yet introduced into workplace, but will be
  4. 4. hazardous to human health Identified Hazards • Physical Agents • Metals • Dusts and Fibers • Chemicals Medical Surveillance Systems • Exposure Some Type • Records of Health Outcomes • Background Information about characteristics of individual’s that may influence susceptibility Safety Hazard Identification • On the Job Fatalities by Industry • Causes of On the Job Fatalities Basic Theories of Injury Causation Traditional Approach Non-Traditional Approach Heinrich’s Domino Theory • Injuries are caused by Accidents • Accidents are caused by unsafe acts of persons or by exposure to unsafe mechanical conditions • Unsafe acts & conditions are caused by faults of persons • Faults of persons created by environment or acquired via inheritance Non Traditional Injury Causation Models
  5. 5. • Behavioral Models • Management Models • Epidemiological Models • Systems Models • Ergonomic/Human Factors Models • Frank Bird • Mike Zabetakis
  6. 6. • Behavioral Models • Management Models • Epidemiological Models • Systems Models • Ergonomic/Human Factors Models • Frank Bird • Mike Zabetakis