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Exploiting ebXML Registry Semantics in the eHealth Domain

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  • 1. Exploiting ebXML Registry Semantics in the eHealth Domain * Asuman Dogac * Parts of this work are being sponsored by the eHealth and eBusiness Units of the European Commission
  • 2. Brief Introduction…
    • ebXML registry is capable of storing semantics about the registry objects
    • This semantics is restricted to classification hierarchies with properties
    • It is possible to represent some Web Ontology Language (OWL) constructs in the registry
    • Through an application in eHealth domain we will discuss how this semantics can be exploited
  • 3. Outline…
    • Semantics in ebXML registries
      • ebXML Registry Semantic Constructs
      • A brief introduction to OWL
      • Mapping OWL constructs to ebXML registry
      • Making ebXML registries OWL aware
    • Exploiting ebXML registry semantics in the healthcare domain
  • 4. Describing Semantics in ebXML Registries
    • ebXML registry allows metadata to be stored in the registry
    • This is achieved through a classification mechanism, called ClassificationScheme
    • Association instances are used in relating objects in the registry
    • Furthermore Slot instances provide a dynamic way to add arbitrary attributes to registry object instances
  • 5. An example… ebXML Registry A Classification Hierarchy ebXML Repository Extrinsic Object A “NeuroSurgery" Document LOINC Coding System classifiedBy classifiedBy ClassificationNodes Clinical Domain Field Surgery Field Dermatology Field Organ Systems Central Nervous System
  • 6. ebXML Registry Implementation: Relational Database with Stored Procedures
    • ebXML registry implementations store registry data in a relational database
    • The Query Manager component constructs the objects by obtaining the required data from the relational database through SQL queries
    • When a client submits a request to the registry, registry objects are constructed by retrieving the related information from the database through SQL queries and are served to the user through the methods of these objects
    • Alternatively, SQL can be directly used to retrieve data (You need to know the relational schema)
  • 7. ebXML Registry Semantic Support Summary (I)
    • Through the constructs provided in an ebXML registry, it is possible to define:
      • Classes and class hierarchies
      • Properties through “slot” mechanism
      • Properties of classes through predefined association types
      • Predefined associations can be extended
      • Group registry objects
  • 8. ebXML Registry Semantic Support Summary (II)
    • All this information is stored in the registry, and
    • Can be used to relate registry items with one another
    • Can OWL ontologies be stored in ebXML registries through ebXML registry constructs?
    • We will give it a try!
  • 9. ebXML Registry Semantic Constructs: References
    • ebXML, http://www.ebxml.org/
    • ebXML Registry Information Model v2.5, http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/regrep/ documents/2.5/specs/ebRIM.pdf
    • ebXML Registry Services Specification v2.5, http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/regrep/ documents/2.5/specs/ebRIM.pdf
    • freebXML Registry Open Source Project, http://ebxmlrr.sourceforge.net
  • 10. Outline…
    • Semantics in ebXML registries
      • ebXML Registry Semantic Constructs
      • A brief introduction to OWL
      • Mapping OWL constructs to ebXML registry
      • Making ebXML registries OWL aware
    • Exploiting ebXML registry semantics in the healthcare domain
  • 11. Web Ontology Language: OWL
  • 12. Ontology Languages and OWL DAML: Darpa Agent Markup Language OIL : Ontology Inference Layer (European Commission Project) DAML+OIL OWL : Web Ontology Language (Being Standardized by W3C) RDF (Resource Description Framework)
  • 13. OWL = RDF Schema + more
    • All of the elements/attributes provided by RDF and RDF Schema can be used when creating an OWL document
    • OWL classes permit much greater expressiveness than RDF Schema classes
    • Consequently, OWL has created their own Class, owl:Class
  • 14. OWL Classes
    • Ministry of Interior has defined ontologies for their information in OWL
    • For example:
    <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Crimes&quot;> </owl:Class> < owl:Class rdf:ID=“Robbery&quot;> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource =&quot; #Crimes &quot;/> </ owl:Class > < owl:Class rdf:ID=“Speeding&quot;> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource =&quot; #Crimes &quot;/> </ owl:Class > … Crimes Robbery Speeding
  • 15. OWL Properties
    • <owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:ID=“description&quot;>
    • <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=&quot;#Crime&quot;/>
    • <rdfs:range rdf:resource=“http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#Literal&quot;/>
    • </owl:DatatypeProperty >
    • <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“suspect&quot;>
    • <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=&quot;#Robbery&quot;/>
    • <rdfs:range rdf:resource=“#Thief>
    • </owl:ObjectProperty >
    • <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“driver&quot;>
    • <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=&quot;#Speeding&quot;/>
    • <rdfs:range rdf:resource=“#Speeder&quot;/>
    • </owl:ObjectProperty >
    driver description suspect Robbery Thief Speeding Speeder Crimes Literal
  • 16. An Example (From Ref 3)
    • Finger prints from a robbery scene identified John Smith as the suspect
    • Here is the police report on the robbery:
    < Robbery rdf:ID=&quot;report-2004-07-27-xyz&quot;> <description>...</description> <suspect> < Thief rdf:about=&quot;http://www.ministryOfInterior.gov/criminals#John_Smith&quot;/> </suspect> </ Robbery >
  • 17. An Example (Continued)
    • Later in the day a police gives a person a ticket for speeding
    • The driver's license showed the name John Doe
    • Here is the police report on the speeder:
    < Speeding rdf:ID=&quot;report-2004-07-27-abc&quot;> <description>...</description> <driver> <Speeder rdf:about=&quot;http://www.ministryOfInterior/criminals#John_Doe&quot;/> </driver> </ Speeding >
  • 18. Any Relationship between the Thief and the Speeder? Ministry of Interior keeps the OWL descriptions of their files: <Criminals rdf:about=&quot; http://www.ministryOfInterior/criminals#John_Doe &quot;> < owl:sameAs rdf:resource=&quot; http://www.ministryOfInterior.gov/criminals#John_Smith &quot;/> </Criminals>
  • 19. An Example OWL Reasoning (Continued)
    • OWL provides a property (owl:sameAs) for indicating that two resources (e.g., two people) are the same
    Inference : The Thief and the Speeder are one and the same! Thief Speeder John Smith John Doe owl:sameAs
  • 20. OWL Summary
    • OWL is an Ontology Specification Language
    • It is build on RDF with DAML+OIL experience
    • OWL has more expressive power than RDF such as:
      • Boolean Combinations of Class Expressions (unionOf, intersectionOf, complementOf, …)
      • Several Types of Properties (Transitive, Functional, Symmetric, …)
      • Equivalence or disjointness of classes
  • 21. OWL: References (I)
    • OWL Web Ontology Language Reference: http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-ref/
    • Costello, R. L., Jacobs, D. B., OWL Web Ontology Language, www.racai.ro/EUROLAN-2003/html/presentations/JamesHendler/owl/OWL.ppt
    • Costello, R. L., Jacobs, D. B., A Quick Introduction to OWL Web Ontology Language, www.daml.org/meetings/2003/05/SWMU/briefings/ 08_Tutorial_D.ppt
  • 22. OWL: References (II)
    • Antoniou, G., Harmalen, F., “Web Ontology Language: OWL”, in Handbook on Ontologies, Springer, 2004
    • Horrocks, I., “DAML+OIL: A Description Logic for the Semantic Web”, IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin, Vol. 25, No. 1, March 2000
    • McGuinness, D., Harmelen, F.,OWL Web Ontology Language Overview, http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-features/
    • Smith, M., Welty, C., McGuinnes, D., OWL Web Ontology Language Guide, http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-guide/
  • 23. Outline…
    • Semantics in ebXML registries
      • ebXML Registry Semantic Constructs
      • A brief introduction to OWL
      • Mapping OWL constructs to ebXML registry
      • Making ebXML registries OWL aware
    • Exploiting ebXML registry semantics in the healthcare domain
  • 24. The Basic Ideas in Mapping OWL Constructs to ebXML Classification Hierarchies
    • Mapping OWL classes -> ebXML Classification Nodes
    • Mapping OWL Datatype properties -> ebXML Slots
    • Mapping OWL Object properties -> ebXML Association Types
    • Mapping the relationships between properties (such as “rdfs:subPropertyOf”) -> Associations between associations
      • Using existing Association Types when available
        • E.g. “owl:equivalentClass” -> ebXML Predefined Association Type “EquivalentTo”
      • Creating new Association Types when necessary
  • 25. OWL Classes and RDF Properties -> ebXML RIM
    • OWL:
    • <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Dermatology&quot;>
    • <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=&quot;# ClinicalDomain&quot;/>
    • </owl:Class>
    • <owl:Class rdf:ID=“DermatologyField&quot;>
    • <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=&quot;#ClinicalDomain&quot;/>
    • </owl:Class>
    • <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“equivalentTo&quot;>
    • <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=&quot;#Dermatology&quot;/>
    • <rdfs:range rdf:resource=&quot;# DermatologyField&quot;/>
    • </owl:ObjectProperty>
    Dermatology Dermatology Field ObjectProperty: equivalentTo OWL classes -> ebXML ClassificationNodes OWL properties -> ebXML new Association Types Example:
  • 26. OWL Classes and RDF Properties -> ebXML RIM
    • OWL classes -> ClassificationNodes
    • OWL Properties -> ebXML new A ssociations Types
    • Example:
    ebXML RIM: <rim: ClassificationNode id = ‘Dermatology‘ parent= 'ClinicalDomain '> <rim:Name> <rim:LocalizedString value = “Dermatology &quot;/> </rim:Name> </rim:ClassificationNode> <rim: ClassificationNode id = ' Dermatology Field ‘ parent= ‘ClinicalDomain '> <rim:Name> <rim:LocalizedString value = “ Dermatology Field &quot;/> </rim:Name> </rim:ClassificationNode> <rim: Association id = 'promotion‘ associationType = ‘ ObjectProperty ' sourceObject = 'Dermatology ' targetObject = ‘ Dermatology Field ' > <rim:Name> <rim:LocalizedString value = “ equivalentTo &quot;/> </rim:Name> </rim:Association> Association of type “ObjectProperty”: equivalentTo Clinical Domain Dermatology Field Dermatology
  • 27. Summary - Mapping OWL constructs to ebXML registry (I)
    • OWL constructs can be mapped ebXML Registry semantic constructs
    • Ontologies can play two major roles in ebXML registry :
      • One is to provide a source of shared and precisely defined terms which can be used to dynamically discover objects in the registry
      • The other is to reason about the ontologies
  • 28. Summary - Mapping OWL constructs to ebXML registry (II)
    • When an ontology language like OWL is mapped to a class hierarchy like the one in ebXML, the first role can directly be achieved
    • However, for the second role, the reasoners can not directly run on the ebXML class hierarchy
  • 29. Summary - Mapping OWL constructs to ebXML registry (III)
    • Some OWL constructs are for reasoners to use them
    • The fact is that we do not have industrial strength reasoners yet!
    • Semantic can also be taken advantage of through querying
    • This work is realized within the scope of IST 2104 SATINE project supported by the European Commission and details are available at:
      • Dogac, A., Kabak, Y., Laleci, G., “Enriching ebXML Registries with OWL Ontologies for Efficient Service Discovery”, in Proc. of RIDE'04, Boston, March 2004, http:// www.srdc.metu.edu.tr /webpage/publications/
      • IST 2104 SATINE project http:// www.srdc.metu.edu.tr/webpage/projects/satine /
  • 30. Outline…
    • Semantics in ebXML registries
      • ebXML Registry Semantic Constructs
      • A brief introduction to OWL
      • Mapping OWL constructs to ebXML registry
      • Making ebXML registries OWL aware
    • Exploiting ebXML registry semantics in the healthcare domain
  • 31. Making ebXML registries OWL aware
    • As already demonstrated OWL constructs can be mapped to ebXML registry information model constructs
    • In this process, the ebXML Registry architecture is not modified
    • In this way, the semantic explicitly stored in the registry can be retrieved through querying
  • 32. Making ebXML registries OWL aware
    • For example, “subClassOf” association is defined in ebXML registry to express “multiple inheritance”
    • Yet to make any use of this semantics, the user must code the query, say, to find out all the super classes of a given class
    • An improvement: The code to process the OWL semantics can be stored in ebXML registry architecture through predefined procedures
  • 33. The following generic stored procedure can be used whenever necessary! … … CREATE PROCEDURE findSuperClasses($className) AS BEGIN SELECT C2.id FROM Association A, Name_ N, ClassificationNode C1, ClassificationNode C2 WHERE A.associationType LIKE 'subClassOf' AND C1.id = N.parent AND N.value LIKE $className AND A.sourceObject = C1.id AND A.targetObject = C2.id END; ClassificationNode(…, id, objectType, code, parent, path) Association(…, id, objectType, associationType, sourceObject, targetObject, isConfirmedBySourceOwner, isConfirmedByTargetOwner) Name_(charset, lang, value, parent) Surgery Field Central Nervous System NeuroSurgery
  • 34. The following generic stored procedure can be used to find the object properties of a given class
    • CREATE PROCEDURE findObjectProperties($className) AS
    • BEGIN
    • SELECT A.id
    • FROM Association A, Name_ N, ClassificationNode C
    • WHERE A.associationType LIKE 'objectProperty' AND
    • C.id = N.parent AND
    • N.value LIKE $className AND
    • A.sourceObject = C.id
    • END;
    By using such stored procedures some of the OWL semantics can be extracted from the ebXML registry! ClassificationNode(…, id, objectType, code, parent, path) Association(…, id, objectType, associationType, sourceObject, targetObject, isConfirmedBySourceOwner, isConfirmedByTargetOwner) Name_(charset, lang, value, parent)
  • 35. Making ebXML registries OWL aware
    • How about reasoning?
    • Reasoning entails the derivation of new data that is not directly stored in the registry
    • To deduce this data, rules need to be stored in the registry
    • However, this approach requires considerable changes in the registry architecture and brings about the efficiency considerations of rule based systems
  • 36. Making ebXML registries OWL aware: Summary
    • After mapping OWL constructs to ebXML Registry, the Registry can be enhanced with stored procedures to support the processing required by the OWL constructs
    • This work is realized within the scope of IST 2104 SATINE project supported by the European Commission and details are available at:
      • A. Dogac, Y. Kabak, G. B. Laleci, C. Mattocks, F. Najmi, J. Pollock, &quot;Enhancing ebXML Registries to Make them OWL Aware&quot;, Distributed and Parallel Databases Journal, Springer, Vol. 18, No. 1, July 2005, pp. 9-36. (Science Citation Index Expanded, Impact Factor: 00.897). http://www.srdc.metu.edu.tr/webpage/publications/
      • IST 2104 SATINE project http:// www.srdc.metu.edu.tr/webpage/projects/satine /
  • 37. Outline…
    • Semantics in ebXML registries
      • ebXML Registry Semantic Constructs
      • A brief introduction to OWL
      • Mapping OWL constructs to ebXML registry
      • Making ebXML registries OWL aware
    • Exploiting ebXML registry semantics in the healthcare domain
  • 38. A Brief Introduction to Integrating Healthcare Enterprise (IHE)– Cross Enterprise Document Sharing (XDS)
  • 39. IHE - XDS
    • In the IHE XDS Profile, healthcare enterprises that agree to work together for clinical document sharing form an “XDS Affinity Domain“
    • Such institutes agree on a common set of policies such as how the patients are identified, the access is controlled, and the common set of coding terms to represent the metadata of the documents
    • In IHE XDS, the ebXML repository is used for storing the clinical documents in a persistent manner
    • The metadata stored at the ebXML registry is used to facilitate the discovery of the documents
  • 40. An IHE XDS Affinity Domain Document Repository ebXML Registry Document Source Document Consumer
    • Provide &
    • Register
    2. Register 3. Query 4. Retrieve An XDS Affinity Domain
  • 41. Exchanging Documents between different XDS Domains
    • However since patients expect their records to follow them as they move from one XDS affinity domain to another, there is a need for the clinical affinity domains to be federated, that is, they should be able to exchange information
    • Main difficulties in doing this:
      • Different Coding terms can be used in different XDS domains…
      • Different Patient identifiers may be used…
  • 42. IHE XDS Metadata
    • XDS specifies a set of predefined metadata elements to be associated with XDS documents, submission sets and folders to facilitate their discovery
    • Some of the metadata elements are straightforward document properties such as “authorDepartment&quot; or “creationTime”
    • Healthcare domain specific semantics is provided only through “classCode”s
    • A “classCode” is represented as an External Classification in ebXML registry
  • 43. Example Metadata Representations in ebXML Association Type The type of relationship that the document has with the parentDocument (e.g. Replace, addendum, or transformation) parentDocument Relationship External Classification The code specifying the clinical specialty where the act that resulted in the document was performed practiceSettingCode Slot Department of the document author authorDepartment ebRIM Representation Definition XSD Document Attribute
  • 44. Federated XDS Query and Retrieve “ NeuroSurgery&quot; Documents From XDS Domain B “ NeuroSurgery&quot; documents are coded in UMLS with : “CentralNervousSystem” (C1269563) and “ Surgery” (C0543467) “ NeuroSurgery&quot; Documents are coded in LOINC code “ 34797-1” Document Repository ebXML Registry Document Source Document Consumer
    • Provide &
    • Register
    2. Register 3. Query 4. Retrieve XDS Affinity Domain A Document Repository ebXML Registry Document Source Document Consumer
    • Provide &
    • Register
    2. Register 3. Query 4. Retrieve XDS Affinity Domain B
  • 45. Example Clinical Domain Ontologies These OWL ontologies are stored to and queried from ebXML registries as described Clinical Domain Field Surgery Field Dermatology Field Organ Systems Central Nervous System Clinical Domain Surgery Dermatology Neurosurgery Intersection Of EquivalentClass
  • 46. Semantic Mediation… Query and Retrieve “ NeuroSurgery&quot; Documents From XDS Domain B “ NeuroSurgery&quot; documents are coded in UMLS with : “CentralNervousSystem” (C1269563) and “ Surgery” (C0543467) “ NeuroSurgery&quot; Documents are coded in LOINC code “ 34797-1” OWL Mapping Tool Document Repository ebXML Registry Document Source Document Consumer
    • Provide &
    • Register
    2. Register 3. Query 4. Retrieve XDS Affinity Domain A Document Repository ebXML Registry Document Source Document Consumer
    • Provide &
    • Register
    2. Register 3. Query 4. Retrieve XDS Affinity Domain B
  • 47. OWL Mapping Tool (OWLmt)
    • Latest version of OWLmt tool is available as open source at Sourceforge repository under Mozilla Public Licence. ( http://sourceforge.net/projects/owlmt )
    • You can download source code of OWLmt tool by using a CVS client with the following parameters: Server: cvs.sourceforge.net Repository Folder: /cvsroot/owlmt Protocol: pserver Username: anonymous Module Name: OWLmt Veli Bicer at [email_address] can be contacted for further info on OWLmt
  • 48. Summary: Using ebXML Registry Semantics in the Healthcare Domain
    • ebXML registry semantics support mechanisms can be very useful
    • Here, a case related with IHE XDS is presented
    • This work is achieved within the scope of the IST 2103 Artemis project and the details are available at:
      • Dogac, A., Laleci, G., Aden, T., Eichelberg M., &quot;Enhancing IHE XDS for Federated Clinical Affinity Domain Support&quot; , submitted for publication
      • Artemis project http:// www.srdc.metu.edu.tr/webpage/projects/artemis /
  • 49. Conclusions…
    • ebXML Registry offers semantic constructs
    • It will be beneficial to use these semantic constructs to improve real world applications
    • An example from eHealth domain is presented
  • 50. Thank you ... Questions?
  • 51. Extra Slides on ebXML Registry Information Model
  • 52. ebXML Registry Information Model (RIM) RegistryObject ClassificationNode Classification RegistryPackage ExtrinsicObject Service Association RegistryEntry ClassificationScheme
  • 53. ebXML Registry Information Model (RIM)
    • The RegistryObject class is an abstract base class used by most classes in the model
    • Slot instances provide a dynamic way to add arbitrary attributes to RegistryObject instances
    • Association instances are RegistryObject instances that are used to define many- to-many associations between objects in the information model
    • ClassificationScheme instances are RegistryEntry instances that describe a structured way to classify or categorize RegistryObject instances
    • ClassificationNode instances are RegistryObject instances that are used to define tree structures under a ClassificationScheme
    • Classification instances are RegistryObject instances that are used to classify other RegistryObject instances
    • RegistryPackage instances are RegistryEntry instances that group logically related RegistryObject instances together
  • 54. Some of the Predefined Association Types in ebXML Registries ebXML allows this list to be extended! Defines that Source Registry Object is an instance of the Target Registry Object InstanceOf Defines that Source Registry Object implements the functionality defined by the Target Registry Object Implements Defines that Source Registry Object inherits from the Target Registry Object Extends Defines that Source Registry Object is equivalent to the Target Registry Object EquivalentTo Defines that Source Registry Object contains the Target Registry Object Contains Defines the members of the Registry Package HasMember Relates Registry Objects RelatedTo
  • 55. Extra Slides on OWL
  • 56. RDF Schema Features used in OWL
    • rdfs:Class
    • rdf:Property
    • rdfs:subClassOf
    • rdfs:subPropertyOf
    • rdfs:domain
    • rdfs:range
  • 57. Defining Property Characteristics
    • RDF Schema provides three ways to characterize a property:
      • range: use this to indicate the range of values for a property.
      • domain: use this to associate a property with a class.
      • subPropertyOf: use this to specialize a property
    • OWL documents also use rdfs:range, rdfs:domain, and rdfs:subPropertyOf
    • OWL has more property types that are useful in inferencing!
  • 58. OWL provides three decreasingly expressive sublanguages
    • OWL Full is meant for users who want maximum expressiveness with no computational guarantees
      • It is unlikely that any reasoning software will be able to support complete reasoning for OWL Full
    • OWL DL supports those users who want the maximum expressiveness while retaining computational completeness (all conclusions are guaranteed to be computable) and decidability (all computations will finish in finite time)
    • OWL Lite supports those users primarily needing a classification hierarchy and simple constraints
  • 59. OWL Lite Features
    • (In)Equality:
      • equivalentClass
      • equivalentProperty
      • sameAs
      • differentFrom
      • AllDifferent
      • distinctMembers
    • Property Characteristics:
      • ObjectProperty
      • DatatypeProperty
      • inverseOf
      • TransitiveProperty
      • SymmetricProperty
      • FunctionalProperty
      • InverseFunctionalProperty
  • 60. OWL Lite Features
    • Property Type Restrictions:
      • Restriction
      • onProperty
      • allValuesFrom
      • someValuesFrom
    • Class Intersection:
      • intersectionOf
  • 61. OWL Full Language constructs that are in addition to those of OWL Lite
    • Class Axioms:
      • oneOf, dataRange
      • disjointWith
      • equivalentClass (applied to class expressions)
      • rdfs:subClassOf (applied to class expressions)
    • Boolean Combinations of Class Expressions:
      • unionOf
      • intersectionOf
      • complementOf
    • Arbitrary Cardinality:
      • minCardinality
      • maxCardinality
      • cardinality
    • Filler Information:
      • hasValue
  • 62. An Example to Restriction
    • Example:
    • <owl:Class rdf:ID=“TaxPreparationService&quot;>
    • <rdfs:subClassOf>
    • < owl:Restriction >
    • <owl:onProperty rdf:resource=&quot;#paymentMethod&quot;/>
    • <owl:allValuesFrom rdf:resource= &quot;#CreditCard&quot;/>
    • </ owl:Restriction >
    • </rdfs:subClassOf>
    • </owl:Class>