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  1. 1. Case Presentation-Dermatology Kevin T. Belasco, MSIV Touro Univ. College of Osteopathic Medicine May 24, 2004
  2. 2. Case Presentation • 32 y/o Caucasian female presents to community clinic with a chief complaint of fever, rash, malaise, and arthralgia with sudden onset beginning 4 days ago • HPI: Patient returned 6 days ago from a three month-long church mission to Cambodia, where she taught English. She states her diet was composed largely of chicken and rice, with coconut milk and purified bottled water.
  3. 3. Case Presentation (Cont.) • HPI (Cont.)Patient states she developed a cough with yellow sputum 3 weeks ago and was treated with a tetracycline antibiotic. She denies any headache, dizzines, chills, night sweats, N/V, diarrhea, or hematuria. She also denies any sick contacts • PMHx/PSHx: Tonsillectomy 1982, Cholecystectomy 1991. PMHx otherwise non-contributory • Allergies: NKDA • Meds: MVI, Tylenol prn muscle aches • SocHx: Denies smoking, EtOH, or illicit drug use. Lives with boyfriend in Los Angeles; schoolteacher
  4. 4. Case Presentation (Cont.) • ROS: as per HPI; fever, rash, arthralgia, and malaise • VS: T 100.9, P 95 R 22 BP 133/84 • PE: Systems normal except described below: • Gen: WD/WN, pleasant female, NAD, AAO x 3 • HEENT: NC/AT, EOMI, no conjunctival injection, no pharyngeal erythema or exudate, no oral lesions • Skin: sharply demarcated, painful plaques with erythema and pustules on the upper trunk, neck, and face • Musculoskeletal: Mild erythema and swelling with tenderness to palpation over left elbow joint
  5. 5. Case Presentation (Cont.) • Laboratory values: • CBC: 16/14.0/40/343 N74 L20 M3 E1 B0 • BMP: 136/4.1/105/28/16/1.1/112 • ESR: 40 • PPD: negative
  6. 6. Differential Diagnosis Erythema multiforme Drug Eruption, Fixed Cellulitis Pyoderma gangrenosum Granuloma annulare/ faciale Erythema nodosum Behçet's disease
  7. 7. Differential Diagnosis Sweet’s Syndrome Sjögren’s Syndrome Rheumatoid Arthritis (Cutaneous nodules) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Cutaneous Tuberculosis (Lupus vulgaris) Erythema induratum Subcorneal pustular dermatosis Erythema elevatum
  8. 8. Summary of Findings • Clinical: Painful plaques with pustules with abrupt onset fever and arthralgia; history of recent international travel; recent upper respiratory tract infection • Labs: • Leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphopenia • Elevated ESR • Negative Gram stain
  9. 9. Sweet’s syndrome • Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis • Initially described in 1964 by Robert Sweet • Three types: 1. Classic (Strep., Yersinia, BCG/Pneumococcal vaccine, IBD, pregnancy, idiopathic) 2. Malignancy-associated (AML) 3. Drug- induced (G-CSF, all-trans retinoic acid, minocycline, Bactrim, OCPs, carbamazepine, hydralazine) • female-to-male ratio of 2-3:1 • several hundred cases have been reported in the literature
  10. 10. Sweet’s syndrome • Typically, skin lesions are preceded by URI or GI infection, and only occur after a 1-3 week asymptomatic period • Most common in women over 30 • Up to 20% cases associated with malignancy
  11. 11. Sweet’s syndrome Tender, well-demarcated erythematous plaques George Wash. Univ. Dermatology Dept
  12. 12. Sweet’s syndrome Pseudovesiculation with pustules and soft elevation in the center- mamillated George Wash. Univ. Dermatology Dept
  13. 13. Sweet’s syndrome • Painful erythematous plaques with pustulation
  14. 14. Sweet’s syndrome: Histopathology
  15. 15. Sweet’s syndrome: Histopathology • Skin biopsy reveals dermal neutrophilic infiltrate in reticular dermis with leukocytoclasia (fragmentation of neutrophilic nuclei); epidermis is usually spared • Associated clinical phenomena: Koebnerization Pathergy (skin lesions at site of trauma)
  16. 16. Sweet’s syndrome: Treatment • Prednisone is rapidly effective, in doses ranging from 40-80 mg/day (initial dose of 0.5-1.5 mg per kg per day) • Topical and intralesional corticosteroids have frequently been used as adjunctive treatment along with systemic modalities • Indomethacin, cyclosporine, dapsone, colchicine, KI, doxycycline, and clofazamine have been reported in the literature as effective alternative treatment modalities
  17. 17. References • Habif: Clinical Dermatology, 4th ed., Mosby 2004 • Odom, et al: Andrew’s Diseases of the Skin, 9th ed., Elsevier 2000 • Fitzpatrick, JE: Dermatology Secrets in Color. Hanley & Belfus 2001 • (Kimball AB review article) • • (Dermatology Online Journal)