1.1. The combining form that meansThe combining form that means
2.2. A keratotome is used toA keratotome is used to
A.A. Incise the middle earIncise the middle ear
B.B. Cut into the corneaCut into the cornea
C.C. Examine the eyeExamine the eye
D.D. Correct visionCorrect vision
3.3. Blepharitis is inflammation of theBlepharitis is inflammation of the
4.4. If someone is myopic, then they areIf someone is myopic, then they are
5.5. The blood vessels of the eye areThe blood vessels of the eye are
found in which layer?found in which layer?
6.6. A salpingoscope is used to examineA salpingoscope is used to examine
A.A. Eustachian tubeEustachian tube
C.C. Semicircular canalsSemicircular canals
7.7. The malleus, incus, and stapes areThe malleus, incus, and stapes are
found in thefound in the
A.A. Middle earMiddle ear
B.B. External earExternal ear
C.C. Ear drumEar drum
D.D. Inner earInner ear
8.8. Of the following structures, which isOf the following structures, which is
for audition?for audition?
A.A. Tympanic membraneTympanic membrane
B.B. Semicircular canalsSemicircular canals
D.D. Rods and conesRods and cones
B.B. A bad movieA bad movie
C.C. Ringing in the earsRinging in the ears
D.D. Complete hearing lossComplete hearing loss
10.10. A progressive form of deafness dueA progressive form of deafness due
to ossification in the bony labyrinthto ossification in the bony labyrinth
of the inner ear.of the inner ear.
B.B. Meniere’s DiseaseMeniere’s Disease
Direct Joint VisualizationDirect Joint Visualization
Instrument is ArthroscopeInstrument is Arthroscope
Done by an orthopedic surgeonDone by an orthopedic surgeon
Knee, shoulder, and ankle are mostKnee, shoulder, and ankle are most
common. Toe joints are also scoped withcommon. Toe joints are also scoped with
increasing frequency.increasing frequency.
Can be a diagnostic tool or a treatment toolCan be a diagnostic tool or a treatment tool
by removing tissue that is “dead”by removing tissue that is “dead”
Withdrawal of fluid from a jointWithdrawal of fluid from a joint
Can be done by any doctor in anCan be done by any doctor in an
office setting.office setting.
A large bore needle is inserted intoA large bore needle is inserted into
the joint to remove the synovialthe joint to remove the synovial
Fluid can be examined under aFluid can be examined under a
microscope for crystals (gout) ormicroscope for crystals (gout) or
cultured for bacteria (infection).cultured for bacteria (infection).
Remove of skin or other tissue forRemove of skin or other tissue for
Microscopic examination can revealMicroscopic examination can reveal
“changed” cells. Ie: cancer“changed” cells. Ie: cancer
Breast, bone, muscle, and skinBreast, bone, muscle, and skin
Usually done to make a diagnosis.Usually done to make a diagnosis.
When skin cancer is suspected, aWhen skin cancer is suspected, a
biopsy is also used to remove tissue.biopsy is also used to remove tissue.
Used to visually examine theUsed to visually examine the
bronchial tubes.bronchial tubes.
A “bronchoscope” is a flexibleA “bronchoscope” is a flexible
camera that shows what the bronchicamera that shows what the bronchi
look like.look like.
The scope also serves as a suctionThe scope also serves as a suction
machine enabling the surgeon tomachine enabling the surgeon to
remove tissue to biopsy, examineremove tissue to biopsy, examine
sputum, or foreign bodies.sputum, or foreign bodies.
A visual examination of the colon.A visual examination of the colon.
A colonoscope is used to biopsy orA colonoscope is used to biopsy or
excise tissue.excise tissue.
Done by a gastroenterologist.Done by a gastroenterologist.
A visual record of the electricalA visual record of the electrical
activity of the heart.activity of the heart.
The instrument used is anThe instrument used is an
Done by placing a series ofDone by placing a series of
electrodes on the thorax to measureelectrodes on the thorax to measure
electrical activity.electrical activity.
Can be done by a physician,Can be done by a physician,
technician, or nurse.technician, or nurse.
Holter MonitoringHolter Monitoring
A device worn on the belt of a patientA device worn on the belt of a patient
with abnormal cardiac rhythm.with abnormal cardiac rhythm.
This is done when a regular EKGThis is done when a regular EKG
shows no abnormality but whenshows no abnormality but when
symptoms still persist.symptoms still persist.
The device records all activity over aThe device records all activity over a
24 hour period.24 hour period.
A cardiologist interprets the results.A cardiologist interprets the results.
Visual examination of the abdominalVisual examination of the abdominal
cavity by the use of a laparoscope.cavity by the use of a laparoscope.
A small incision in the abdomenA small incision in the abdomen
allows a small camera to be inserted.allows a small camera to be inserted.
Used for gynecological procedures.Used for gynecological procedures.
Also can be called a Peritoneoscopy.Also can be called a Peritoneoscopy.
Visual examination of the eye.Visual examination of the eye.
Use of an ophthalmoscopeUse of an ophthalmoscope
Is diagnostic for detection of eyeIs diagnostic for detection of eye
Done by an optometrist orDone by an optometrist or
Visual examination of the ear andVisual examination of the ear and
eardrum (tympanic membrane)eardrum (tympanic membrane)
Instrument is an otoscope.Instrument is an otoscope.
Physical touchPhysical touch
Examination of size, texture,Examination of size, texture,
hardness, fluid, contentshardness, fluid, contents
Can be done by anyoneCan be done by anyone
Pulmonary Function TestsPulmonary Function Tests
Determines the capacity of the lungsDetermines the capacity of the lungs
by a series of tests of inspiration andby a series of tests of inspiration and
Measures oxygen and carbon dioxideMeasures oxygen and carbon dioxide
Instrument is a spirometer.Instrument is a spirometer.
Tests to check “refractive index” ofTests to check “refractive index” of
Light is shone into eye and theLight is shone into eye and the
examiner sees how the light bendsexaminer sees how the light bends
Also to check the integrity of theAlso to check the integrity of the
back of the eye.back of the eye.
Measures tension and pressure in theMeasures tension and pressure in the
A tonometer is the instrument usedA tonometer is the instrument used
to check for glaucoma.to check for glaucoma.
Radiographic study of the circulatoryRadiographic study of the circulatory
A radiopaque substance is used to detectA radiopaque substance is used to detect
vascular abnormalities including tumors,vascular abnormalities including tumors,
aneurysms, and clots (occulsions).aneurysms, and clots (occulsions).
Different studies for body areas:Different studies for body areas:
cerebral (head), coronary (heart),cerebral (head), coronary (heart),
peripheral (extremities), and pulmonaryperipheral (extremities), and pulmonary
Radiographic procedure to check for theRadiographic procedure to check for the
integrity of a joint.integrity of a joint.
Air (pneumoarthrograhy) or contrast dyeAir (pneumoarthrograhy) or contrast dye
is injected.is injected.
Xrays taken under stress to check forXrays taken under stress to check for
excess seepage into places where dyeexcess seepage into places where dye
shouldn’t be.shouldn’t be.
Done under local ansethesia by aDone under local ansethesia by a
radiologist or orthopedic surgeon.radiologist or orthopedic surgeon.
Podiatrists do arthrography to the foot andPodiatrists do arthrography to the foot and
Bone Scan (scintography)Bone Scan (scintography)
Radioactive isotopeRadioactive isotope
Bone absorbs the isotope at placesBone absorbs the isotope at places
where there is increased “blastic”where there is increased “blastic”
activity. Osteoblasts are cells thatactivity. Osteoblasts are cells that
lay down new bone.lay down new bone.
Normal scans show no uptake.Normal scans show no uptake.
Positive scans do not explain thePositive scans do not explain the
reason for the result. Very sensitivereason for the result. Very sensitive
but specific.but specific.
Cardiac CatheterizationCardiac Catheterization
Procedure to check the integrity ofProcedure to check the integrity of
the coronary blood vessels.the coronary blood vessels.
A catheter is placed in a large vesselA catheter is placed in a large vessel
in the groin. The catheter is passedin the groin. The catheter is passed
to the heart vessels.to the heart vessels.
Xrays are taken to diagnoseXrays are taken to diagnose
occulsions of vessels.occulsions of vessels.
Computer Axial Tomography (CAT)Computer Axial Tomography (CAT)
Radiographic sectioning of the body.Radiographic sectioning of the body.
X-rays are taken at a specified thickness.X-rays are taken at a specified thickness.
When completed the individual slices areWhen completed the individual slices are
put together by a computer (computerput together by a computer (computer
The scanner and detector and parts of theThe scanner and detector and parts of the
tube that encircle the body and record..tube that encircle the body and record..
Can be used to examine the abdomen,Can be used to examine the abdomen,
brain, chest, and extremities.brain, chest, and extremities.
Done by specially trained technicians andDone by specially trained technicians and
interpreted by radiologists.interpreted by radiologists.
Doppler UltrasoundDoppler Ultrasound
A test used to measure blood flow into aA test used to measure blood flow into a
body part.body part.
Uses sound waves that are forced throughUses sound waves that are forced through
the skin and bounce back to a recordingthe skin and bounce back to a recording
probe. The result makes a sound that isprobe. The result makes a sound that is
used to diagnose circulation problems.used to diagnose circulation problems.
Usually done on the large vessels of theUsually done on the large vessels of the
extremities. A specialized version is usedextremities. A specialized version is used
for the small vessels of the toes and penis.for the small vessels of the toes and penis.
Uses sound waves (ultrasound) toUses sound waves (ultrasound) to
visualize the internal cardiacvisualize the internal cardiac
structures (valves).structures (valves).
Used to examine the integrity ofUsed to examine the integrity of
heart valves.heart valves.
Has taken the place ofHas taken the place of
catheterization for certaincatheterization for certain
Magnetic Resonance ImagingMagnetic Resonance Imaging
No radiationNo radiation
Uses magnetic fields to produce anUses magnetic fields to produce an
Useful for soft tissue structuresUseful for soft tissue structures
(muscle, tendon, ligament) whereas(muscle, tendon, ligament) whereas
CAT scans are useful for bones.CAT scans are useful for bones.
Technique that produces an imageTechnique that produces an image
using electrical means instead ofusing electrical means instead of
chemical means.chemical means.
Permits lower exposure timesPermits lower exposure times
Useful for breast tumor diagnosis.Useful for breast tumor diagnosis.
Arterial Blood GasArterial Blood Gas
Percutaneous puncture to assess thePercutaneous puncture to assess the
exchange of oxygen and carbonexchange of oxygen and carbon
Blood is taken from an artery.Blood is taken from an artery.
More painful than an intravenousMore painful than an intravenous
Bleeding TimeBleeding Time
Used to assess how long it takes toUsed to assess how long it takes to
form a clot of a small cut or wound.form a clot of a small cut or wound.
Used to determine platelet function.Used to determine platelet function.
Increased bleeding times is found inIncreased bleeding times is found in
patients with low platelet counts andpatients with low platelet counts and
deficiencies of fibrinogen.deficiencies of fibrinogen.
Cardiac EnzymesCardiac Enzymes
Increases in these enzymes indicateIncreases in these enzymes indicate
myocardial infarction (heart attack).myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Complete Blood Count (CBC)Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Used to measure the components ofUsed to measure the components of
RBC, WBC, Platelets, Hemoglobin,RBC, WBC, Platelets, Hemoglobin,
and Hematocritand Hematocrit
Differential separates the differentDifferential separates the different
types of WBC’stypes of WBC’s
Medical SpecialtiesMedical Specialties
SpecialistSpecialist SpecialtySpecialty DescriptionDescription
AllergistAllergist AllergyAllergy Diagnosis andDiagnosis and
treatment of allergytreatment of allergy
or hypersensitivityor hypersensitivity
CardiologistCardiologist CardiologyCardiology Heart and bloodHeart and blood
DermatologistDermatologist DermatologyDermatology SkinSkin
HematologistHematologist HematologyHematology Blood and blood-Blood and blood-
forming tissuesforming tissues
NeonatologistNeonatologist NeonatologyNeonatology Newborn infantsNewborn infants
NeurologyNeurology Nervous systemNervous system
OncologistOncologist OncologyOncology CancerCancer
OphthalmologistOphthalmologist ophthalmologyophthalmology EyesEyes
OrthopedistOrthopedist Orthopedic SurgeryOrthopedic Surgery Bones, joints,Bones, joints,
OtolaryngologistOtolaryngologist otolaryngologyotolaryngology Ears, nose, throatEars, nose, throat
PathologistPathologist PathologyPathology tissue, death, findtissue, death, find
cause of deathcause of death
pediatricianpediatrician pediatricspediatrics Children and teensChildren and teens
Plastic surgeonPlastic surgeon Plastic surgeryPlastic surgery Restores, repairs, orRestores, repairs, or
reconstructs bodyreconstructs body
PhysiatristPhysiatrist PhysiatricsPhysiatrics Treatment of diseaseTreatment of disease
using natural methodsusing natural methods
and physical therapyand physical therapy