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Clinical, Radiographic, and Laboratory Procedures

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    Clinical, Radiographic, and Laboratory Procedures Clinical, Radiographic, and Laboratory Procedures Presentation Transcript

    • Clinical, Radiologic, and Diagnostic Procedures MEDL 2350
      • The combining form that means hardening
      • Choroid/o
      • scler/o
      • Retin/o
      • Hard/o
      • A keratotome is used to
      • Incise the middle ear
      • Cut into the cornea
      • Examine the eye
      • Correct vision
      • Blepharitis is inflammation of the
      • eyeball
      • Eyelid
      • Cornea
      • retina
      • If someone is myopic, then they are
      • Farsigheted
      • Nearsighted
      • Hyperopic
      • blind
      • The blood vessels of the eye are found in which layer?
      • Retina
      • Choroid
      • Sclera
      • cornea
      • A salpingoscope is used to examine the
      • Eustachian tube
      • Sphinx
      • Semicircular canals
      • cochlea
      • The malleus, incus, and stapes are found in the
      • Middle ear
      • External ear
      • Ear drum
      • Inner ear
      • Of the following structures, which is for audition?
      • Tympanic membrane
      • Semicircular canals
      • Choroid
      • Rods and cones
      • Vertigo
      • Dizziness
      • A bad movie
      • Ringing in the ears
      • Complete hearing loss
      • A progressive form of deafness due to ossification in the bony labyrinth of the inner ear.
      • Presbycusis
      • Meniere’s Disease
      • Otosclerosis
      • anacusis
    • Arthroscopy
      • Direct Joint Visualization
      • Instrument is Arthroscope
      • Done by an orthopedic surgeon
      • Knee, shoulder, and ankle are most common. Toe joints are also scoped with increasing frequency.
      • Can be a diagnostic tool or a treatment tool by removing tissue that is “dead”
    • Aspiration
      • Withdrawal of fluid from a joint
      • Can be done by any doctor in an office setting.
      • A large bore needle is inserted into the joint to remove the synovial fluid.
      • Fluid can be examined under a microscope for crystals (gout) or cultured for bacteria (infection).
    • Biopsy
      • Remove of skin or other tissue for examination.
      • Microscopic examination can reveal “changed” cells. Ie: cancer
      • Breast, bone, muscle, and skin
      • Usually done to make a diagnosis.
      • When skin cancer is suspected, a biopsy is also used to remove tissue.
    • Bronchoscopy
      • Used to visually examine the bronchial tubes.
      • A “bronchoscope” is a flexible camera that shows what the bronchi look like.
      • The scope also serves as a suction machine enabling the surgeon to remove tissue to biopsy, examine sputum, or foreign bodies.
    • Colonoscopy
      • A visual examination of the colon.
      • A colonoscope is used to biopsy or excise tissue.
      • Done by a gastroenterologist.
    • Electrocardiogram
      • A visual record of the electrical activity of the heart.
      • The instrument used is an electrocardiograph.
      • Done by placing a series of electrodes on the thorax to measure electrical activity.
      • Can be done by a physician, technician, or nurse.
    • Holter Monitoring
      • A device worn on the belt of a patient with abnormal cardiac rhythm.
      • This is done when a regular EKG shows no abnormality but when symptoms still persist.
      • The device records all activity over a 24 hour period.
      • A cardiologist interprets the results.
    • Laparoscopy
      • Visual examination of the abdominal cavity by the use of a laparoscope.
      • A small incision in the abdomen allows a small camera to be inserted.
      • Used for gynecological procedures.
      • Also can be called a Peritoneoscopy.
    • Ophthalmoscopy
      • Visual examination of the eye.
      • Use of an ophthalmoscope
      • Is diagnostic for detection of eye disorders
      • Done by an optometrist or ophthalmologist.
    • Otoscopy
      • Visual examination of the ear and eardrum (tympanic membrane)
      • Instrument is an otoscope.
    • Palpation
      • Physical touch
      • Examination of size, texture, hardness, fluid, contents
      • Can be done by anyone
    • Pulmonary Function Tests
      • Determines the capacity of the lungs by a series of tests of inspiration and expiration.
      • Measures oxygen and carbon dioxide use.
      • Instrument is a spirometer.
    • Retinoscopy
      • Tests to check “refractive index” of eye.
      • Light is shone into eye and the examiner sees how the light bends (refraction).
      • Also to check the integrity of the back of the eye.
    • Tonometry
      • Measures tension and pressure in the eye.
      • A tonometer is the instrument used to check for glaucoma.
    • Angiography
      • Radiographic study of the circulatory system.
      • A radiopaque substance is used to detect vascular abnormalities including tumors, aneurysms, and clots (occulsions).
      • Different studies for body areas:
      • cerebral (head), coronary (heart), peripheral (extremities), and pulmonary (lungs)
    • Arthrography
      • Radiographic procedure to check for the integrity of a joint.
      • Air (pneumoarthrograhy) or contrast dye is injected.
      • Xrays taken under stress to check for excess seepage into places where dye shouldn’t be.
      • Done under local ansethesia by a radiologist or orthopedic surgeon.
      • Podiatrists do arthrography to the foot and ankle.
    • Bone Scan (scintography)
      • Radioactive isotope
      • Bone absorbs the isotope at places where there is increased “blastic” activity. Osteoblasts are cells that lay down new bone.
      • Normal scans show no uptake.
      • Positive scans do not explain the reason for the result. Very sensitive but specific.
    • Cardiac Catheterization
      • Procedure to check the integrity of the coronary blood vessels.
      • A catheter is placed in a large vessel in the groin. The catheter is passed to the heart vessels.
      • Xrays are taken to diagnose occulsions of vessels.
    • Computer Axial Tomography (CAT)
      • Radiographic sectioning of the body.
      • X-rays are taken at a specified thickness. When completed the individual slices are put together by a computer (computer generation).
      • The scanner and detector and parts of the tube that encircle the body and record..
      • Can be used to examine the abdomen, brain, chest, and extremities.
      • Done by specially trained technicians and interpreted by radiologists.
    • Doppler Ultrasound
      • A test used to measure blood flow into a body part.
      • Uses sound waves that are forced through the skin and bounce back to a recording probe. The result makes a sound that is used to diagnose circulation problems.
      • Usually done on the large vessels of the extremities. A specialized version is used for the small vessels of the toes and penis.
    • Echocardiography
      • Uses sound waves (ultrasound) to visualize the internal cardiac structures (valves).
      • Used to examine the integrity of heart valves.
      • Has taken the place of catheterization for certain procedures.
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
      • No radiation
      • Uses magnetic fields to produce an image.
      • Useful for soft tissue structures (muscle, tendon, ligament) whereas CAT scans are useful for bones.
    • Xeroradiography
      • Technique that produces an image using electrical means instead of chemical means.
      • Permits lower exposure times
      • Useful for breast tumor diagnosis.
    • Arterial Blood Gas
      • Percutaneous puncture to assess the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
      • Blood is taken from an artery.
      • More painful than an intravenous sample.
    • Bleeding Time
      • Used to assess how long it takes to form a clot of a small cut or wound.
      • Used to determine platelet function.
      • Increased bleeding times is found in patients with low platelet counts and deficiencies of fibrinogen.
    • Cardiac Enzymes
      • Increases in these enzymes indicate myocardial infarction (heart attack).
    • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
      • Used to measure the components of blood.
      • RBC, WBC, Platelets, Hemoglobin, and Hematocrit
      • Differential separates the different types of WBC’s
    • Medical Specialties Blood and blood-forming tissues Hematology Hematologist Skin Dermatology Dermatologist Heart and blood vessels Cardiology Cardiologist Diagnosis and treatment of allergy or hypersensitivity Allergy Allergist Description Specialty Specialist
    • Treatment of disease using natural methods and physical therapy Physiatrics Physiatrist Restores, repairs, or reconstructs body structures. Plastic surgery Plastic surgeon Children and teens pediatrics pediatrician tissue, death, find cause of death Pathology Pathologist Ears, nose, throat otolaryngology Otolaryngologist Bones, joints, muscles Orthopedic Surgery Orthopedist Eyes ophthalmology Ophthalmologist Cancer Oncology Oncologist Nervous system Neurology Neurologist Neurosurgeon Newborn infants Neonatology Neonatologist