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Bridges - Historical Development, Types, construction

Bridges - Historical Development, Types, construction

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  • 1. Bridges Historical DevelopmentTeacher: Vesna Markovićhttp://www.prevodioci.co.rs/
  • 2. Bridges have fascinatedmankind from the earliestrecorded times.They are consideredas the symbolof civil engineering.The earliest bridge was builton the Nile about 2650 BC.
  • 3. The first truesuspensionbridgeconsisted ofthree cableswith two oneach side to actas handrails toenable thepassenger towalk on thethird which wastied below.
  • 4. Another form of primitive bridge in timber was a girder type on floating supports, which was the forerunner of the pontoon bridge.
  • 5. Leonardo da Vinci, during theRenaissance, had a fundamentalinfluence on engineering andespecially on bridge design.Da Vinci studied the strength ofmaterials such as iron wires.
  • 6. The 19th century was the rise of the greatiron and steel bridges. One of the famousearly bridges in steel was the St. LouisBridge over the Mississippi River.
  • 7. Towards the end of the 19th century reinforced concrete was significantly applied to bridge construction.Although historically structural steel had a big lead, the applications of concrete have steadily increased.
  • 8. Types of bridges Beam bridges are horizontalbeams supported at each end by piers.
  • 9. Arch bridges are arch-shaped.The earliest known arch bridgeswere built by the Greeks. Dubai inthe United Arab Emirates iscurrently building the largest archbridge in the world, which isscheduled for completion in 2012.
  • 10. Suspension bridges are suspended fromcables. The earliest suspension bridgeswere made of ropes.In modern bridges, the cables are used.The longest suspension bridge in the worldis the 3,909 m Akashi KaikyoBridge in Japan.
  • 11. Cantilever bridges are built usingcantilevers — horizontal beams that aresupported on only one end. The largestcantilever bridge is the 167 m QuebecBridge in Canada.
  • 12. wordlist• suspension bridge - a bridge with a roadway suspended from cables supported by structures at each end – viseći most• handrail - a narrow rail for holding as a support on stairs etc. - rukohvat• enable - make possible - omogućiti• tie - attach or fasten with string or cord - vezati
  • 13. • timber - wood prepared for building – drvena građa• girder - a large iron or steel beam or compound structure for bearing loads, esp. in bridge-building - greda• float - to rest or move on the surface of a liquid without sinking - plutati• forerunner – sth that was first, before the original - preteča
  • 14. • pontoon bridge – floating bridge which is on the surface of the water - ponton• influence - influence; have an effect on - uticaj• strength - the state of being strong - snaga• iron – metal - gvožđe• wire - metal drawn out into the form of a thin rope - žica
  • 15. • steel - iron with carbon and other elements - čelik• reinforced concrete - concrete with metal bars or wire to increase its strength – armirani beton• application - the use - primena• steadily – constantly- stalno, sigurno• beam - a long piece of timber or metal which supports the structure above - greda
  • 16. • pier - a support – stub, podupirač• arch bridge - a curved structure of a bridge – lučni most• schedule – plan of work - plan• completion – finish - završetak• cantilever bridge - a bridge made of cantilevers projecting from the piers and connected by girder – konzolni brod http://www.prevodioci.co.rs/