Risk & Protective Factors

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Prevention Research
    • Why study prevention research?
    • Theories assist in identifying how we can prevent a problem behavior from occurring, taking the guesswork out of planning
    • Why review the six CSAP strategies?
    • To know what the strategies are when encountered in grant applications, etc.
    • To use as a tool to create a comprehensive prevention program
  • 3. What Should a Good Theory Do?
    • Identify the factors that predict substance abuse
    • Explain the mechanisms through which they operate
    • Identify the internal and external variables that influence these mechanisms, including cultural factors
    • Predict points to interrupt the course leading to substance abuse
    • Specify the interventions to prevent onset of substance abuse
  • 4.
    • Similar to medical model
    • Problem behaviors share common risk factors
    • Risk factors increase the chance of behavior problems
    • Protective factors can help buffer the effects of risk factors
    The Risk Factor/Protective Factor Theory
  • 5.
    • Multiple studies
    • Longitudinal
    • Predictive
    Criteria for Inclusion as a Risk Factor
  • 6. Community Risk Factors
    • Availability of drugs
    • Community laws and norms favorable toward drug use
    • Transitions and mobility
    • Low neighborhood attachment and community disorganization
    • Extreme economic deprivation
  • 7. Family Risk Factors
    • Family history of substance abuse
    • Family management problems
    • Family conflict
    • Parental attitudes and involvement in drug use
  • 8. School Risk Factors
    • Early and persistent antisocial behavior
    • Academic failure beginning in elementary school
    • Lack of commitment to school
  • 9. Individual/Peer Risk Factors
    • Alienation /rebelliousness
    • Friends who use drugs
    • Favorable attitudes toward drugs
    • Early initiation of drug use
    • Constitutional factors
  • 10. Protective Factors
    • Individual characteristics
    • Bonding
    • Healthy beliefs and clear standards
  • 11. Social Development Strategy
    • Bonding
    • Attachment
    • Commitment
    Individual Characteristics Healthy Beliefs & Clear Standards Opportunities Skills Recognition Healthy Behaviors
  • 12. Developmental Assets
    • Emphasizes strengths in people
    • Focuses on youth as resources, not problems
    • Focuses on increasing the number of assets present in youths’ lives
    • Is a “promising” framework
  • 13. Resiliency Approach
    • Focuses on how children “bounce back” in the face of adversity
    • Based largely on the work of Emmy Werner
    • Includes several factors which foster resilience in kids
    • Is a “promising” approach
  • 14. Case Studies on Theories 1. Select a facilitator, a timekeeper, and a recorder. 2. Read the case study assigned to your group. 3. Determine which risk factors and protective factors are at work in your case. 4. Report back to whole group.
  • 15. Case Studies on Theories 1. Was there consensus on which risk factors were the most powerful? 2. Was there consensus on which protective factors were the most powerful? 3. How does the type of community determine which factors are at work? 4. How might the culture of the individuals determine which factors are at work?
  • 16. Six Prevention Strategies
    • Information Dissemination
    • Prevention Education
    • Alternative Activities
    • Community-Based Processes
    • Environmental Approaches
    • Problem Identification and Referral
    [Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)]
  • 17. Information Dissemination
    • Complementary to other prevention approaches
    • Appeal to youth’s motives for using substances or perceptions of substance use
    • Television and radio “spots” in choice air times
    • Avoid the use of authority figures
  • 18. Prevention Education
    • Interactive approaches engaging the target audience are more effective
    • Peer-led or include peer-led components
    • Academic year or longer and involve booster sessions
    • Two sets of workshops that work to improve parent skills along with adolescent skills
  • 19. Alternatives
    • Part of a comprehensive prevention plan
    • High-risk youth who may not have adequate adult supervision can benefit
    • Example: Community service
    • One-shot community events do not, in themselves, change the behavior of participants
  • 20. Community-based Processes
    • Characteristics of successful partnerships include: -- a clear vision -- committed partnership members -- diverse participants
    • Paid coalition staff operate as resource providers and facilitators
    • Elaborate committee structures are not productive
  • 21. Environmental
    • Examples include:
    • Excise taxes
    • Minimum purchase age laws
    • “ Use and lose” laws. Penalties should not be too harsh.
    • Increasing the minimum purchase age for alcohol to age 21
    • Outlet density
  • 22. Problem Identification and Referral
    • Provide accurate estimates
    • Be careful of labeling
    • May expose youth to more problematic substance abusers
    • Example: family therapy
  • 23. Enhancing Prevention Programs
    • Directions:
    • Think of a familiar prevention program.
    • Select an appropriate CSAP strategy and examine the research findings. Infuse research-based concepts into the program.
    • Review the work sheets, Principles of Prevention for Children and Adolescents , and Prevention Strategies for Specific Settings . Infuse research-based concepts into the program.
    • Prepare to share with the group.
  • 24. Prevention Research
    • Why study prevention research?
    • Theories assist in identifying how we can prevent a problem behavior from occurring, taking the guesswork out of planning.
    • Why review the six CSAP strategies?
    • To know what strategies are when encountered in grant applications, etc.
    • To use as a tool to create a comprehensive prevention program.
  • 25. QUESTIONS and DISCUSSION