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Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
Effects of Drugs on the Brain
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Effects of Drugs on the Brain

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Effects of Drugs on the Brain

Effects of Drugs on the Brain

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  • NA = regulates motivation to seek rewards Amygdala = emotional processing center; evaluates relative pleasure vs aversiveness PFC = planning; setting priorities; organizing thoughts; suppressing impulses; weighing consequences of one’s actions
  • 11 11 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 3 3 3 3 6
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    1. Effects of Drugs of Abuse on the Developing Brain Ken Winters, Ph.D. Collaborating Investigator, Treatment Research Institute Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota winte001@ umn . edu The Downtown Club of Philadelphia, November 23, 2004
    2. Overview <ul><li>Scientific study of brain development can help us understand adolescent behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>risk-taking and poor judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vulnerability to drug abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relevance to parenting, prevention and treatment </li></ul>
    3. <ul><li>Keep in mind….. </li></ul><ul><li>The research on neuro- development is in the early stages </li></ul><ul><li>Many key human studies on youth can not be conducted because of ethical considerations </li></ul>
    4. Suggested Readings <ul><li>www.thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/index_d.html # </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dubuc, B. (2004). The brain from top to bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>www.drugabuse.gov/Published_Articles/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leshner A. (2000). Oops. How casual drug use leads to addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse, September, 2000. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do they act that way? : A survival guide to the adolescent brain for you and your teen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walsh, D. (2004). NY: Simon & Schuster. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What makes teens tick? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wallis, C. (May 10, 2004). NY: Time magazine. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The adolescent brain and college drinker: Biological basis of propensity to use and misuse alcohol . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spear, L. (2002). Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 14, pp. 71-81. </li></ul></ul>
    5. Some Background
    6. What is adolescence?
    7. Grade Alcohol % Marijuana % Any Illicit % 8 20 8 10 10 35 18 21 12 49 22 25 Substance Use by Youth - Prior Month 2002 (Monitoring the Futures, 2003) Substance Abuse/Dependence rates vary: 3-15 %
    8. Can Addiction be Prevented by Delaying Drug Use Onset? <ul><li>Every year use of a substance is delayed, the risk of developing a substance use disorder is reduced. </li></ul>
    9. Percentages of Past Year Alcohol Dependence or Abuse Among Adults Aged 21 or Older, by Age of First Use (SAMHSA, 2004) Age Started Drinking Percent
    10. <ul><li>Adolescence is a period of profound brain maturation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was believed that brain development was complete during childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The maturation process is not complete until about age 24!!! </li></ul></ul>
    11. <ul><li>During late childhood, neurons get bushier and increase in the number of connections. </li></ul><ul><li>At about age 11 in girls and age 12½ in boys, this thickening undergoes pruning. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, the myelin sheaths that encase nerve cells thicken. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Myelin sheaths are like insulation on a wire; they make nerve cell transmissions faster and more efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Net effect when complete is faster, yet fewer, connections in the brain. </li></ul>Construction Ahead
    12. Construction Ahead motivation emotion judgment cerebellum amygdala nucleus accumbens Pruning occurs in stages, from back of the brain to the front prefontal cortex physical coordination; sensory processing;
    13. motivation emotion judgment Age 24 physical coordination; sensory processing;
    14. <ul><li>Back of brain matures before to the front of the brain… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory and physical activities favored over complex, cognitive-demanding activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>propensity toward risky, impulsive behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>group setting may promote risk taking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor planning and judgment </li></ul></ul>Arrested Development
    15. <ul><li>Back of brain matures before to the front of the brain… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>activities with high excitement and low effort are preferred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor modulation of emotions (hot emotions more common than cold emotions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heightened interest in novel stimuli </li></ul></ul>Arrested Development
    16. <ul><li>Neurodevelopment likely contributes to…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>> risk taking (particularly in groups) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> propensity toward low effort - high excitement activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> interest in novel stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< capacity for good judgment & weighing consequences </li></ul></ul>
    17. Are adolescents more susceptible to alcohol than adults? <ul><li>Adult studies suggest that the areas of the adolescent brain that are remodeled are sensitive to the effects of alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Four pieces of evidence </li></ul>
    18. Are adolescents more susceptible to alcohol than adults? <ul><li>Adolescent rats are less sensitive to the sedative and motor impairment effects of intoxication </li></ul>
    19. Supporting Human Studies 1. Reduced sensitivity to intoxication
    20. <ul><li>Current (Past Year) Adults 1 17-20 2 18-19 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol Dependence 7.2 14.6 10.5 </li></ul><ul><li>1 NRC Report, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>2 NY State Household, 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>3 MN Student Survey, 1995 </li></ul>Comparison of Alcohol Dependence Rates
    21. Survey Data Suggest that Adolescents Are Less Sensitive to Alcohol’s Effects Monitoring the Future, 2001
    22. Are adolescents more susceptible to alcohol than adults? <ul><li>Adolescent rats are more sensitive to the social disinhibition induced by alcohol use </li></ul>Wanna look for some cheese with me? Sure!
    23. Are adolescents more susceptible to alcohol than adults? <ul><li>Adolescent drunk rats perform worse on memory tasks than adult drunk rats </li></ul>Ugh?? <ul><ul><li>disrupts the hippocampus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brain damage in the PFC </li></ul></ul>converts information to memory planned thinking
    24. Supporting Human Studies 3. Greater adverse effects to cognitive functioning
    25. Alcohol’s Effects <ul><li>Adolescents with a history of extensive alcohol use, compared to a control group…. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced hippocampus volume (10-35 % ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less brain activity during memory tasks </li></ul></ul></ul>(Brown, 2002; Wuethrich, 2001)
    26. Are adolescents more susceptible to alcohol than adults? <ul><li>Hyperexcitability issue </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol relieves hyperexcitability state </li></ul><ul><li>Relief is temporary; continued seeking of alcohol is reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperexcitability is a key characteristic of conduct disorder, ODD and ADHD, which are often co-morbid with alcohol use disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperexcitability…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may have its origins in neurological deficits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>found in non-alcoholic relatives - suggests inheritance of this trait </li></ul></ul>ADHD ODD Con Dis Sub Use Dis
    27. Are adolescents more susceptible to alcohol than adults? <ul><li>Reduced sensitivity to intoxication </li></ul><ul><li>Increased sensitivity to social disinhibitions </li></ul><ul><li>Medicates “hyperexcitability” </li></ul>Increases reinforcing properties
    28. Are adolescents more susceptible to alcohol than adults? <ul><li>Greater adverse effects to cognitive functioning </li></ul>Greater deficits
    29. <ul><li>Neurodevelopment likely contributes to…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>> risk taking (particularly in groups) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> propensity toward low effort - high excitement activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> interest in novel stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< capacity for good judgment & weighing consequences </li></ul></ul>
    30. Implications of this new science: Enhancing parenting, prevention and treatment <ul><li>Will parents, health service providers and young people benefit by this knowledge about basic principles of brain development? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The developing brain’s software does not include program language that says “on second thought” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. Implications of this new science: Enhancing parenting, prevention and treatment <ul><li>Will young people benefit by learning about basic principles of brain development? </li></ul><ul><li>Will young people be influenced by the science that suggests drug use has a deleterious effect on the developing brain? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Going beyond “this is your brain on drugs” </li></ul></ul>
    32. THANK YOU! [email_address]

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